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ANSIlIEEE

C57.109-1985
An American National Standard
IEEE Guide for
Transformer Through-Fault-Current Duration
Sponsor
Transformers Committee of the
Secretariat
Institute of Elec
National Electri
Approved June 23,1983
IEEE Standards Board
Ap
American M
Copyright 1985 by
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc
345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA
No part of this publication m a y be reproduced in any form,
in an electwnic rehieVal system or ot&rwise,
without the prior wri tten permission of the P Mi a h e r .
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Foreword
Foreword is not a part of ANSUIEEE C57.1091986, IEEE Guide for Transformer Through-Fault-Current Duration.)
ANSI C57.92-1962, American National Standard Guide for Loadiig Oil-Immersed Distribution and
Power Transformers (Appendix to ANSI C57.12 standards) was issued in 1962. The guide contained a
section entitled Protective Devices which provided information indicating the short-time thermal load
capability of oil-immersed transformers. That information, of articular interest to those responsible for
application of overcurrent protective devices for protection of transformers, issummarized as follows:
B
Times Rated
Time Current
2 s 25.0
10 s 11.3
30 s 6.3
60 s 4.75
5mi n 3 .O
30 min 2.0
During the revision activities o C57.92 it became evident that Times Rated Current cap&-ility of
transformers as stated therein did not recognize the mechanical withstand considerations of transfor-
mers. Consequently,
removed and considered separately.
In 1978, following particular urging b
was formed under the auspices of the
guide that would document the thou
detail to facilitate CO
the product of that workin
Since its issue in 1978
been incorporated in the
ments for Liquid-Immerse
but does not in any way supersede, ANSI/IEE)ff( C57.12.@1980.
Committee, a working group
the assignment to prepare a
of transformers in sufEcient
VIEEE C57.12.oOb-1978 has
Standard General Require-
rs. This guide supplements,
At the time it approved t hi s standard, the C57 Committee had the following membership:
R E. Uptegraff, Jr, Chairman R L. Ensign, Vice Chairman
E
Chyanization R e p m s d Name of Representcrtive
Bonneville Power A m o n . . . . .................................................. Vacant
Electric Light and Power Group ...................................................... N. Derwianka
R. L. Ensign
I. H. Koponen
B. F. Smith
E. F. Vlllesuso, Jr
J. P. Markey (AU)
0. Compton
J. C. Dutton
L. w. Long
L S. McCormick
W. J. Neiswender
B. Stanleigh (AU)
Institute of Electrical and ElectroNca Engineers.. ...................................... J. V. Bonucchi
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Cbganhtion Repmsented Name of Rqmentutive
National Electrical Manufacturers Association ........... :. ............................. J. D. Douglaaa
W.C. Kendall
K. R. Linsley
W. J. McNutt
H. Robin
M. Sam@
R. E. Uptesraff, J r
R. J. Stahara (A&)
Naval Facilities Engi neem Command ................................................ H. P. Stickley
Rural ElechWcation Adminkmm 'on ................................................... J. C. Arnold, J r
Tennessee Valley Authority ........................................................... L. R. Smith
Underwriters Laboratories ............................................................ T. O'Grady
Water and Power Resources Service .................................................. F. W. Cook, Sr
Western AreaPower AdmhMrah 'on ................................................... D. R. Torgemn
R. W. Seelbnch (Alt)
At the time this guide was approved, the Working Group on Short Circuit Duration of the Perform-
ance Characteristics Subcommittee of the Transformers Committee had the following membership:
W. F. Grif'fard, Chairman
E. J. Adolphson C. G. Evans J. W. McGill
J. Alacchi D. A. GiUies C. J. McMfflen
E. H. Arjeski A. W. Gofdman W. J. McNutt
0. R. Compton C. H. Gril3n E. W. Schmunk
J. C. Dutton R. E. F. Troy
J. A. Ebert M. D. A. Yannucci
E. T. J auch
At the time t hi s guide was approved the
0. R.
ance Characteristics Subcommittee
were as follows:
E. J. Adolphson L. S. McCormick
D. J. Allan C. J. McMillen
E. H. Arjeski W. J. McNutt
J. C. Arnold D. A. Roach
J. J. Bergeron L. J. Savio
J. D. Borst J. L. Harbell R. L. Schmid
E. Chitwood C. N. Hendrickson D. S. Takach
F. W. Cook E. L. Hook D. E. Truax
D. A. Duckett C. P. Kappeler S. G. Vargo
J. A. Ebert R. H. Kellogg R. A. Veitch
C. G. Evans J. R. Woodall
W. R. Farber W. E. Wrenn
S. L. Foster D. A. Yannucci
At the time the IEEE Standard Board approved this guide on J une 23, 1983, it had the following
members:
James H. Beall, Chairmun Edward Chelotti, Vice Chairman
Sava I. Sherr, Secretary
J. J. Archambault
J ohn T. Boettger
J. V. Bonucchi
Rene Castenschiold
Edward J. Cohen
Len S. Corey
Donald C. Fleckenstein
J ay Forster
'Member Emeritus
Donald H. Heirman
Irvin N. Howell, J r
J oseph L. Koepfinger'
Irving Kolodny
George Konomos
R. F. Lawrence
J ohn E. May
Donald T. Michael'
J ohn P. Rigamti
FrankL.ROtW3
Robert W. Seelbach
J ay A. Stewart
Clifford 0. Swanson
Robert E. Weiler
W. B. Wilkens
Charles J. Wylie
T
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Contents
SECI'ION PAGE
1 . Scope .................................................................................. 7
2 . Purpose ................................................................................. 7
3 . General ................................................................................. 7
4 . References .............................................................................. 7
5 . Transformer Coordination Curves ......................................................... 8
5.1 Category I Transformers .............................................................. 8
52 Category 11 Transformers ............................................................. 9
53 Category III Transformers ............................................................. 10
5.4 Category IV Transformers ............................................................. 11
5.5 Recommended Duration Limit Summary ................................................ 11
FIGURES
Fig 1 Category I Transformers ............................................................. 8
Fig 2 Category 11 Transformers ............................................................ 9
Fig 3 Category III Transformers ........................................................... 10
Fig 4 Category IV Transformers ........................................................... 11
TABLE
Table 1 Minimum Nameplate Kilovoltamperes ............................................... 12
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An American National Standud
IEEE Guide for
Transformer Through-Fault-Current Duration
1. scope the frequency of fault occurrence is high. The
point of transition between mechanical concern
and thermal concern cannot be precisely defined,
This guide applies to transformers referenced but mechanical effects tend to have a more
prominent role in larger kilovoltampere ratings,
because the mechanical stresses are higher.
in ANSIlIEEE C57.12.00-1980 [2] as Categories I,
11,III, and IV.
4. References
2. Purpose
transformers that relate duration and fault magni-
tude to withstand capability.
This guide sets forth recommendations be-
lieved essential for the application of overcurrent
protective devices applied t o limit the exposure
time of transformers to short-circuit current (see
ANSIlIEEE C37.91-1985 [l]). This guide
tended to imply overload capability.
3. General
The magnitude and duration of fault current
are of utmost importance in establishing a coor-
dinated protection practice for transformers as
both the mechanical and thermal effects of fault
current should be considered. For fault-current
magnitudes near the design capability of the
transformer, mechanical effects are more signifi-
cant than thermal effects. At low, fault-current
When the following American National Stand-
ards referred to in this guide are superseded by a
ion approved by the American National
Standards Institute, Inc, the latest revision shall
apply:
111 ANSIIIEEE C37.91-1985, IEEE Guide for Pro-
tective Relay Applications to Power Transfor-
mers.
121 ANSIlIEEE C57.12.00-1980, IEEE Standard
General Requirements for Liquid-Immersed Dis-
tributtm, Power, and Regulating Transformers.
[31 AlUSIlIEEE C57.91-1981, IEEE Guide for
Loading Mineral-Oil-Immersed Overhead and Pad-
Mounted Distribution Transformers Rated 500 kVA
and Less with 65 "C or 55 "C AverageWinding Rise.
[4] ANSIlIEEE C57.92-1982, IEEE Guide for
Loading Mineral-Oil-Immersed Power Transfor-
mers up to and Including 100 MVA with 55C or
65C Wmding Rise.
[5] IEEE Std 766, IEEE Trial-Use Guide for Load-
ing Mineralail-Immersed Power Transformers
Rated in Excess of 100 MVA (65C Winding
Rise).
magnitudes approaching the overload range, me-
chanical effects assume less importance unless
These documents are available from lEEE Senrice Cen-
ter, 446 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08864. Copies of these
documents are also available from the Sales Department,
American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New
York, NY 10018.
The numbers in brackets correspond to the numbers of
the references in Section 4.
7
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ANSIDEEE
C67.1091986
02
0.1
5. Transformer Coordination Curves
CURRENT IN TIMES
NORMAL BASE CURRENT
1- I211
(ANSVIEEE C57.12.00- - 0.2
0.1
For purposes of coordination of overcurrent
protective devices, Figs 1, 2, 3, and 4 are pre-
sented as protection curves for different size
transformers. For Categories I and IV, single
curves apply which reflect both thermal and me-
chanical damage considerations. For Categories
I1 and HI, double curves apply, one of which re-
flects both thermal and mechanical damage con-
siderations, while the other reflects primarily
thermal damage considerations. Oncurves which
have both a solid and a dashed portion, the solid
portion represents a total fault duration beyond
which thermal damage may occur in insulation
IEEE GUIDE FOR TRANSFORMER
macent to current-carrying conductors, while
the dashed portion represents a total fault dura-
tion beyond which cumulative mechanical
damage may occur. The increasing significance of
mechanical effects for higher kilovoltampere
transformers is reflected in these curves. The va-
lidity of these damage limit curves cannot be
demonstratecl by test, since the effects are pro-
gressive over the transformer lifetime. They are
based principally on informed engineering judg-
ment and favorable, historical field experience.
5.1 For Category I Transformers. The recom-
mended duration limit is based on the curve of
Fig 1. The curve reflects both thermal and me-
Fig 1
Category I Transformers
IO OOO IO 000
5000 5000
2000 2000
1000 1000
500 500
200 200
I 100 100
s
c
In
In
n
g 5 0 5 0 2
8
E 20 20 y
VJ
W
c
-
c-
TIMES NORMAL RASE CURRENT
a
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THROUGH-FAULTCURRENT DURATION
1
O.5
02
0.1
ANSIDEEE
C67.1091B6
- FOR FAULT CURRENT FROM 70% TO . I
. 0.5
100% OF MAXIMUM POSSIBLE:
P t = K
Z =SYMMETRICAL FAULT CURRENT IN
TIMES NORMAL BASE CURRENT
-WHERE
- (ANSVIEEE C57.12.00-1980) ' 0.2
K =CONSTANT DETERMINED AT
MAXIMUM I WITH t =2 SECONDS
chanical damage considerations and should be
applied as a protection curve for faults which
will occur frequently or infrequently.
5.2 For Category I1 Transformers. The recom-
mended duration limits depend upon fault fre-
quency and are based upon the curves of Fig 2.
Fault frequency refers to the number of faults
with magnitudes greater than 70% of maximum.
5.2.1 The left-hand curve, reflecting both ther-
mal and mechanical damage considerations,
should be applied as a protection curve for faults
which will occur frequently (typically more than
10 in the life of a transformer). It is dependent
upon impedance of the transformer for fault cur-
rent above 70% of maximum possible and is
keyed to the 1% of the worskase mechanical
duty (maximumfault current for 2s).
5.2.2 The righGhand curve reflects primarily
thermal damage considerations. It is not depend-
ent upon impedance of the transformer and may
be applied as a protection curve for faults which
will occur only infrequently (typically not more
than 10 in the life of a transformer). This curve
also may be used for backup protection where
the transformer is exposed to frequent faults nor-
mally cleared by high-speed relaying.
9
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ANSIlIEEE
CS7.1091986 IEEE GUIDE FOR TRANSFORMER
5.3 For Category I11 Transformers. The rec-
ommended duration limits depend upon fault fre-
quency and are based upon the curves of Fig 3.
Fault frequency refers to the number of faults
with magnitudes greater than 50% of maximum.
5.3.1 The lef&hand curve, reflecting both ther-
mal and mechanical damage considerations,
should be applied as a protection curve or faults
which wi l l occur frequently (typically more than
5 in the life of a transformer). It isdependent
upon impedance of the transformer for fault cur-
rent above 60% of maximum possible and is
keyed to the 1% of the worst-case mechanical
duty (maximumfault current for 2s).
5.3.2 The righGhand curve reflects primarily
thermal damage considerations. It is not depend-
ent upon impedance of the transformer and may
be appJied as a protection curve for faults which
will occur only infrequently (typically not more
than 5 in the life of a transformer). This curve
also may be used for backup protection where
the transformer is exposed to frequent faults nor-
mally cleared by high-speed relaying.
Fig 3
Category I11 Traneformers
'Thlscuwe may also be used for backup
r =SYMMETRICAL FAULT CURRENT IN
TIMES NORMAL BASE CURRENT
TIMES NORMAL BASE CURRENT
10
-~
i i
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THROUGH-FAULT-CURRENT DURATION
5 -
2.
1
05
02
ANSIAEEE
C67.1091986
1 \ \\.i\,\
' \ \ \ \ \
~5
\\\\ ! \ \ '\
\ \
\ \\ \\ \\\\\\ \
- 2
12 I 0876 5 4
X TRANSFORMER IMPECUNCE
-FOR FAULT CURRENT FROM 50% TO
-WHERE 0.5
- 1
10046 OF MAXIMUM POSSIBLE:
P t = K
I =SYMMETRICAL FAULT CURRENT IN
TIMES NORMAL BASE CURRENT
' 0.2
- (ANSIIIEEE C57.12.00-1980)
K =CONSTANT DETERMINED AT
-0 I
MAXIMUM I WITH t =2 SECONDS
5.4 For Category IV Transformers. The rec-
ommended duration limit is based upon the
curve of Fig 4. The curve reflects both thermal
and mechanical damage considerations and
should be applied as a protection curve for faults
which will occur frequently or infrequently. It is
dependent upon impedance of the transformer
for fault current above 50% of maximumpossible
and is keyed to the 1% of the worst-case mechan-
ical duty (maximumfault current for 2s).
5.5 Recommended Duration Limit Summary.
Recommended duration limits designated for
transformers given in ANSI/IEEE C57.12.00-1980
[2] as Categories I, 11, 111, and IV are as given in
Table 1.
Fig 4
Category IV Transformers
2 5 IO 20 50
TIMES NORMAL BASE CURRENT
11
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ANSIWEE
C67.1091986
Table 1
Minimum Nameplate Kilovoltamperes
~ ~ ~_ _ _ _ ~_ _ _ _ _ ______ ~~~
Reference
Protection Curves. C*gw S i e Phase Three Phase
I 6to500 16 to 500 Fi g1
n 601 to 1667 601 to M)oo Fig2
III 1668tolOOOO 5001tO3OOOO Fig 3
N above 10 OOO above 30 OOO Fi g4
'NOTE: In Figs 1, 2, 3, and 4 the Times Normal BaseCurrent Scale relates to minimum nameplate
kilovoltamperes. Low values of 3.5 or less Times Normal BaseCurrent may result from overloads
rather than f aul ts and for such cases, loading guides may indicate allowable time durations dflerent
from those given in Figs 1 through 4. See ANSIlIEEE C57.91-1981 [3] and ANSI/IEEE C67.92-1982 141.
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