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Chapter 1
Company Profile
1

RV Technologies Softwares Pvt Ltd is a Web Development company providing a wide
range of IT solutions, services in latest technologies, Web development, Web Designing,
Mobile Applications (iphone, Android, Window Apps), oftware Testing and earch
!ngine "ptimi#ation (!") since $%%&' () family has strong relationship with
thousands of global clients spread across the world' () Technologies which has proved
its iron in no time in the field of Web Development and Designing' It has set its own
benchmar* in global mar*et of Web Development and Designing' "ur *ey Mantra for
success is always laid on pillars of +,uality- and +.reativity- which has built up a strong
bonding of trust with our .lients'
We have a team of creative web designers, software engineers, e/perienced programmers
and most efficient management to provide cost0effective and on0timed solutions to meet
business needs of our esteemed clients' We encourage innovation and e/perimentation
with fresh ideas, while considering the client-s re1uirements at the same time'
At RV Technologies, client satisfaction means everything to us' That-s why we wor*
hard to provide the best and most revolutionary solutions possible' "ur .lient-s
achievement is our success, that is why we have a team of e/perts who create the reality
of our .lient-s Imagination whether it is designing a web site compatible with all devices
(Responsive Wesite) or to building a web applications, or thin* out the best information
possible for our .lient-s business' !very attempt is made to ensure timely delivery and
every pro2ect is crucial to us'
!"r #chievements 3
"ur wor*ing on World-s 4argest Wor*place 5ortals "des* and !lance are more than
6,%%,%%% hours and 67,%%% hours respectively' We have a record of more than &%8
repeated customers'
RV Technologies Softwares Pvt Ltd
!mail 3 training9rvtechnologies'co'in
.all3 %:$:;:<=::6,%:$:;%:=::6
http3>>rvtechnologies'co'in>
2
$nd"strial Training in Chandigarh
We ()ians have assembled again same enthusiasm in the field of $%&'STR$#L
TR#$%$%( to $T #spirants in and around our 5eriphery of .handigarh' o if you are
loo*ing for an e/cellent industrial training and an added combo with e/posure on live
pro2ects internationally then this is the best organi#ation for sure' "ur tudents will have
an opportunity to wor* on 4ive ervers li*e ?ostmonster, @odaddy, Aluehost, peed
?ost (hared ?osting, )5, Dedicated ervers in 4inu/ and Window erver)' !ach
students will be provided with one domain, BT5 and Database details to *eep their wor*
live' Cnli*e other institutes where wor*ing environment is on local machines, here we
provide training from our e/perienced Developers in live environment which all
developers re1uire in real Dob'
'SP !f !"r $nd"strial Training)
$n*ho"se placement for candidates3
We offer In0house 5lacement of .andidate who perform well during our training session
and successfully clear our test on training completion'
'ni+"e &omain for ,very St"dent)
Bor 4ive training () Technologies has a separate hosting for training where student-s
daily training pro2ects will be live' tudents will have full access of live erver (BT5
and Database Access) to wor* from home or lab' !very tudents performance will be
chec*ed by higher management daily' tudents domain will loo* li*e
http3>>www'studentname'industrialtrainingatrv'com-
Training Sylla"s)
"ur Training syllabus is designed by our e/perienced management who have 67 years of
e/perience in the same field' As our motive is to trained resources for our upcoming
business, yllabus is designed as per industry re1uirement' We teach the basics, core and
the fundamentals which many new IT Aspirants are lac*ing now a days' We have not
restricted ourselves in the boundaries of fi/ed syllabus, we prepare our students with
latest technologies going on and also research for the upcoming'
Live Pro.ect ,/pos"re
tudents will get training with real time environment as they will wor* with ( )
Technologies oftware 5vt' 4td' .ompany (www.rvtechnologies.co.in/). !very students
will get access of their pro2ects on 5?5, 'E!T, Android on following addresses
3
http://industrialtrainingatrv.com/.
Placement)
tudent will not have to wait till the end of their Industrial Training for getting placed, we
have e/perienced Management whose bulls eye will place the deserving Meritorious
.andidate in between the Industrial Training ession'
While getting e/posure on technologies, RV Technologies will give you upto 6%F on0
campus placement opportunities with top IT .ompanies
4
Chapter 0
$ntrod"ction To
Pro.ect
5
0- $%TR!&'CT$!% !1 T2, PR!3,CT
0-1 $%TR!&'CT$!%
The main purpose for developing this site is to provide various users useful information
about the health care' The ob2ective of this system is to allow various users to chec* their
diseases problem and its solution' The user can easily made an appointment with the
doctor by filling up the appointment form' The search tas* is made easy as one can search
the doctors list,diseases and its solutions etc'
To ma*e this website wor* successfully we have used some latest technology such as
5?5 as the Development 5latform, 5?5 frame wor* as the development and MG,4 as
the Database Management environment'
A brief description about 5?5 and MG,4 are provided into the documentation in
technology used for front0end and bac*0end instruction'
All the covered commitments and provided utilities are described in the proposed system'
The CM4 Diagram has been drawn which is useful to display the flow of the 5rocess
throughout the system so even an ine/perienced people can easily get idea of the
proposed system'
The HTestingI techni1ue that we have followed is up to grade and it-s helpful in easily
finding the error or bugs' Testing is a process necessary to be conducted
by analyst to have the system build error0less' Testing is important for consistency
purposes that is user cannot access beyond its limitation'
In our bibliography we have mentioned a list of all the Aoo*s Eames including the
Author Eame, the website that we have used for our help in searching the data, with an
ob2ective of letting the user *now that with these tools use we have been able to create a
website for various purposes'
0-0 !43,CT$V,S)
The main purpose for developing this site is to provide various users
useful information about the health care'
The ob2ective of this system is to allow various users to chec* their
diseases problem and its solution'
The user can easily made an appointment with the doctor by filling up
the appointment form'
The search tas* is made easy as one can search the doctors list,diseases
and its solutions etc'
6
0-5 ,/isting System)*
!very system might have e/isting system and might don-t have' ome system may be
developed to perform on0line tas* to ma*e the wor* of human being in an easier way as
before e/isting system people might have wor*ed on a manual basis' To complete a tas*
through Manual basis is time consuming as well as it increases burden on the employee
so for a better side to complete a tas* many of organi#ations are implementing on0line
system' In early way the before there'
Whenever admin want to manage all the modules in admin site then there no
facility for that'
The day0to0day entries are made "nline into the boo* that has gotten all the
relevant entries'
In another problem in !/isting ystem is that admin side' There are many
admin are wor*' o the admin wants to give the specific permission to the
control panel'
Limitation of ,/isting System)
!ach and every system has certain drawbac*s that lead them in to the improper wor*ing'
There is some problem faceted in the e/isting website' o, the ite owner
wants to the (e0develop the !/isting ite

A second is that admin side problem' There is the three and four admin'
!ach time one is not present then another will change the Admin'
The biggest problem in e/isting site that the pages of that website are static
and not dynamic, so the functionality of the site is not dynamic and the site
doesn-t wor* dynamically'

And in the e/isting system there are only some selected cities, so the owner
wants to e/plode his site with adding new cities across the country so in the
new site we add more cities as compared to e/isting site'
In this new website we e/plore this site in all India, and we provide the
facility to visit the patients detail '
7
ome other basic problem that arise so, we (e0develop that site very
carefully'
0-6 Proposed System)*
The aim of proposed system is to develop a system of improved facilities' The proposed
system can overcome all the limitations of the e/isting system' The system provides
proper security and reduces the manual wor*' The e/isting system has several
disadvantages and many more difficulties to wor* well' The proposed system tries to
eliminate or reduce these difficulties up to some e/tent' The proposed system will help
the user to reduce the wor*load with automation' The proposed system helps the user to
wor* user friendly and he can easily do his 2obs much efficiently'
Eow we will e/plain every module in detail
Registration 7od"le) In this module the user can register himself and after
the registration he can be the login user of the site, The main advantage of
this module is that the customer who is not register with us, so he cannot
boo* the tic*ets, If he wanted to boo* the tic*ets so first of all he have to
register'
&octors 7od"le) In this module the information about the doctors is given'
In this module, the information about the doctors li*e name,pic and
speciality is given'
Testimonials 7od"le) Cser of this application can post their opinion,
complaints, suggestions regarding this portal and services to the the
administrator' Accordingly the administrator can ta*e various steps to act on
the complaints and suggestions
Visitors) The visitors of this website can directly contact the passenger
through contact module for any difficulty and help through e0mail, contact
number'
There are following types of visitors)
Administrator
Csers
8
#dministrator)
Administrator is the super0user of the system
?e > he control the overall system as they possess all rights of
system'
?e > he has all the details of the authenticated user > client
?e > he can change the password and other details related to a
system'
?e > he manages all the information of their all customers through
databases
?e > he can view, reply the feedbac* and in1uiries that has been
posted by their clients as they are the super users and possess all
rights re1uired for managing the system'
'ser)
The users of website mean the person who is login customer with
us'
The users can see the pac*ages and as well as he> she can see the all
information because they are the registered users of the website'
9
Chapter 5
Re+"irement #nalysis
10
R,8'$R,7,%TS #%#L9S$S
5-1 $n Re+"irement (athering process following steps has een "nderta:en)
Several 7eetings cond"cted
We conducted several meetings with our manager and discussed on various
aspects of the system and collected information needed to develop the system'
Ay analy#ing the wor* flow, we got a proper understanding of the
+re1uirements-' Meetings were conducted as and when necessary to gather
re1uirements' We followed the team oriented approach for re1uirement
gathering' !veryone was allowed to put forward his>her view points' We even
discussed on our pro2ect with our seniors in company'
$nformation ,/change
.ommunicating within ourselves e/posed us to the basic functionality to be
e/ecuted by our system' All of us got aware of our target to be met within the
predefined deadline' We set the milestones and baseline so that we could
proceed with the system development on schedule'
'nderstanding The Concept
HTo understand the nature of the software to be built, the software engineer
must understand the information domain for the software, as well as the
re1uire function, behavior, performance and interface'I Direct communication
to meetings introduces us to the current scenario and provided us with the
basic guidelines on which our system would be developed' Bree flow of ideas
made us understand the benefits of our system' "ur motto was to develop a
1uality product so we laid emphasis on 1uality control right from when we
understood the concept'
&oc"ment Prototype
All our discussion was documented for the future access' During the meeting
itself, we made it a point to note important thing discussed on paper' 4ater this
rough note helps us to ma*e an entire document of our system' After
understanding a reason why we are developing the website and how our
website would tac*le problems, we prepared document prototype' The
11
document gave us an idea about the wor* flow of our system from our
perspective and some additional benefits that we would provide in our
website'
5-0 1easiility St"dy)
Beasibility study is made to see if the pro2ect on completion will serve the purpose of the
organi#ation for the amount of wor*, effort and the time that spend on it' Beasibility study
lets the developer foresee the future of the pro2ect and the usefulness' A feasibility study
of a system proposal is according to its wor*ability, which is the impact on the
organi#ation, ability to meet their user needs and effective use of resources' Thus when a
new application is proposed it normally goes through a feasibility study before it is
approved for development'

5-0-1 7eaning of Technical 1easiility)*
The system must be evaluated from the technical point of view first' The assessment of
this feasibility must be based on an outline design of the system re1uirement in the terms
of input, output, programs and procedures' ?aving identified an outline system, the
investigation must go on to suggest the type of e1uipment, re1uired method developing
the system'
5-0-0 7eaning !f !perational 1easiility)*
"perational feasibility is a measure of how well a proposed system solves the problems,
and ta*es advantage of the opportunities identified during scope definition and
how it satisfies the re1uirements identified in the re1uirements analysis phase of
system development' "perational feasibility parameters are3
Will the proposed system really benefit the organi#ationJ
Does this pro2ect re1uire some investment in tools, s*ill levels, hiring, and
infrastructuresJ
Do we have the right mi/ of team to ta*e up this pro2ectJ
Is there any time #one advantageJ
Identify the anticipated impact on customer satisfaction, retention, and loyaltyJ
Aased on this the operational feasibility of the pro2ect is chec*ed'
!perational 1easiility of Pro.ect)*
This pro2ect is approved by the management because there is no such a web application
12
and the wor* was done manually' Eow this is made for the each doctor, the admin or
doctor both can modify the details of them' Aut only the administrator is allowed to
create and delete the new doctor and diseases'The advance search option can be used by
the admin that will search the record regarding any employee that can be modified or
deleted'
5-0-5 7eaning of ,conomic 1easiility)*
The developing system must be 2ustified by cost and benefit' The total men power will be
calculated daily and total wor* load and wor* done can be e/pected from them'The
following are some of the important financial 1uestions as*ed during preliminary
Investigation3
The cost of the hardware and software'
The benefits in the form of reduced costs or fewer costly errors'
ince the system is developed as part of pro2ect wor*, there is no manual cost to spend
for the proposed system' Also all the resources are already available, it give an indication
of the system is economically possible for development'
The proposed system is economically feasible because the cost involved in purchasing
the hardware and the software are within approachable' The personal cost li*e salaries of
employees hired are also nominal, because wor*ing in this system need not re1uired a
highly 1ualified professional' The operating0environment costs are marginal' The less
time involved also helps to ma*e it economical'
,conomic 1easiility !f Pro.ect)*
This pro2ect is economic feasible for the client because it reduces the paper wor*' In this
the cost benefit analysis is done in which e/pected costs and benefits are evaluated'
!conomic analysis is used for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed system' In the
e/isting system we need many persons for wor* because of the paper wor*' Aut with the
help of this system all wor* is done by single person' Eow we don-t need for all the
person now the system provide the benefit to the client' Aecause in the e/isting system
we need more manual wor* that why we need more man power' More man power means
more e/pense' The software reduced the manual wor* and also provided many more
facilities to the user and admin' The bac*end re1uired for storing other details is also the
same database that is ,4' The computers in the organi#ation are highly sophisticated
and don-t needs e/tra components to load the software' ?ence the organi#ation can
implement the new system without any additional e/penditure' ?ence, it is economically
feasible'
13
5-5 PR!3,CT PL#%
In 5ro2ect plan we will decide about the team structure that how many members should
be there in a team in order to complete the pro2ect and then we will discuss about the
Development schedule that in how many days or months the pro2ect should be complete
and then we will discuss about the programming language which will be used in to
develop the pro2ect' o before developing the pro2ect we will discuss about the pro2ect
plan'

5-6 W!R;$%( ,%V$R!%7,%T 1!R T2, PR!P!S,& S9ST,7)
5-6-1 P2P-1R#7,W!R;
5?5 is the world-s most popular scripting language for many different reasons K
fle/ibility, ease0of0use, among others K but often times coding in 5?5, or any language
for that matter, can get rather monotonous and repetitive' That-s where a 5?5 framewor*
can help'
5?5 framewor*s streamline the the development of web applications written in 5?5 by
providing a basic structure for which to build the web applications' In other words, 5?5
framewor*s help to promote rapid application development ((AD), which saves you
time, helps build more stable applications, and reduces the amount of repetitive coding
for developers' Bramewor*s can also help beginners to build more stable apps by
ensuring proper database interaction and coding on the presentation layer' This allows
you to spend more time creating the actual web application, instead of spending time
writing repetitive code'
The general idea behind the wor*ings of a P2P framewor: is referred to as 7odel View
Controller (M).)' M). is an architectural pattern in programming that isolates
business logic from the CI, allowing one to be modified separately from the other (also
*nown as separation of concerns)' With M)., Model refers to data, )iew refers to the
presentation layer, and .ontroller to the application or business logic' Aasically, M).
brea*s up the development process of an application, so you can wor* on individual
elements while others are unaffected' !ssentially, this ma*es coding in 5?5 faster and
less complicated'
5-6-0 What is P2P<
&,1$%$T$!%) 5?5 is a Widely0used general0purpose scripting
language that is especially for development and can be embedded into
?TM4'
14
The 5?5 ?yperte/t 5rocessor (5?5 K yes, the first H5I in the
acronym does indeed stands for 5?5L) Allows web developers to
create dynamic content that interacts with database' 5?5 application
is normally on 4inu/ server and in con2unction with MG,4 database'
It provides those servers with functionality similar to that provide to the
window platform by Active server pages technology'
5?5 tands for 3 ?yperte/t 5reprocessor
5?5 is server0side scripting language'
5?5 scripting is e/ecuted on server'
5?5 support many Databases (MG,4, Informi/, "racle, and ybase,
olid, 5"T@(!,4, @eneric "DA., etc')
5?5 is free to download and use'
5?5 is open source'
5?5 is platform independent language'
P2P 1$L,S)
5?5 files may te/t, ?TM4 Tags and scripts'
5?5 files are returned to the browser as plain ?TM4'
5?5 files have a file e/tension of H'5?5I, H'5?5MI, H'5?TM4I
Why P2P<
5?5 runs on different platforms (Window, CEIN, 4inu/, etc)'
5?5 is compatible with almost all servers used today (Apache, IIs, etc)'
5?5 is Bree to D"WE4"D! from the official 5?5 resources3
www-php-net
5?5 is easy to learn and runs efficiently on the server side'
P2P Scripting
5?5 is now officially *nown as H5?53 ?yperte/t 5reprocessorI' It is a
server side scripting language usually written in an ?TM4 conte/t
unli*e an ordinary ?TM4 page, a 5?5 script is not sent directly to a
client by the serverO instead, it is parsed by the 5?5 binary or module,
which is server side installed'
?TM4 elements in the script are left alone, but 5?5 code is interpreted
and e/ecuted'5?5 code in a script can 1uery databases, create images,
read and write files, tal*s to remote server0the possibilities are endless'
The output from 5?5 code is combine with the ?TM4 in the script and
the result send to the user-s web0browsers, therefore it can never tell the
15
user whether the web0server uses 5?5 or not, because the entire
browser sees is ?TM4' 5?5-s support for Apache and MG,4 further
increases its popularity'
Apache is now the most used web0server in the world, and 5?5 can be
compiled as an Apache module' MG,4 is a powerful free ,4
database, and 5?5 provides a comprehensive setoff functions for
wor*ing with it' The combination of Apache, MG,4 and 5?5 is all
but unbeatable'
That does not mean that 5?5 can-t wor* in other environments or with
other tools in fact, 5?5 supports an e/tensive list of databases and web0
servers' The rise in popularity of 5?5 has coincided with a change of
approach in web0publishing' While in the mid06==%s it was o* to build
seated, even relatively large sites, with hundreds of individual hard0
coded ?TM4 pages, today-s webmasters are ma*ing the most of the
power of databases to manage their content more effectively and to
5ersonali#e their sites according to individual users preferences'
Reasons for "se P2P)
There are some indisputable great reason to wor* with 5?5'As an open
source product, 5?5 is well supported by a talented production team and
committed user community' Burthermore, 5?5 can be run on all ma2or
operating system with most servers'
The speed of development is important because 5?5 allows you to
separate ?TM4 code from scripted element, you will note significant
decrease in development time on many pro2ect' In many instances, you
will be able to separate the coding stage of a pro2ect from the design and
build stage' Eot only can this ma*e life easier for you as programmer, but
it also remove obstacle that stand in the way of effective and fle/ible
design
5-6-5 C!7P$L,R
5?5 became a compiled language in the year $%%%, when 5?5 ; was released for the first
time' Cntil version M, 5?5 source code was parsed and e/ecuted right away by the 5?5
interpreter'
5?5 ; introduced the the Pend engine' This engine splits the processing of 5?5 code into
several phases' The first phase parses 5?5 source code and generates a binary
16
representation of the 5?5 code *nown as =end opcodes' "pcodes are sets of instructions
similar to Dava bytecodes' These opcodes are stored in memory' The second phase of
Pend engine processing consists in e/ecuting the generated opcodes'
The Pend engine was built in such way that right after the first phase, the opcodes may be
stored in the server shared memory space' This is done by special 5?5 e/tensions *nows
as opcode caching e/tensions' There are several 5?5 caching e/tensions also *nown as
5?5 accelerator e/tensions'
The purpose of these e/tensions is to s*ip the initial compilation step' If a 5?5 script was
previously compiled and stored in shared memory, ne/t time the same script is e/ecuted,
the caching e/tension 2ust loads the compiled opcodes from the shared memory very
1uic*ly' This way 5?5 gains a lot of time by s*ipping the initial opcode compilation
step'
Qeep in mind that despite the name, accelerator e/tensions do not ma*e compiled 5?5
opcodes actually e/ecute faster' !ventual acceleration of the e/ecution of 5?5 opcodes
may be achieved with optimi#er e/tensions' These are special e/tensions that analy#e the
compiled opcodes and rearrange them in order that they may e/ecute the same code
faster'
5-6-6 P2P #RC2$T,CT'R,
The mys1lnd replication and load balancing plugin is implemented as a 5?5 e/tension' It
is written in . and operates under the hood of 5?5' During the startup of the 5?5
interpreter, in the module init phase of the 5?5 engine, it gets registered as a mys1lnd
plugin to replace selected mys1lnd . methods'
At 5?5 runtime, it inspects 1ueries sent from mys1lnd (5?5) to the My,4 server' If a
1uery is recogni#ed as read0only, it will be sent to one of the configured slave servers'
tatements are considered read0only if they either start with SELECT, the ,4 hint
/*ms=slave*/ or a slave had been chosen for running the previous 1uery, and the 1uery
started with the ,4 hint /*ms=last_used*/' In all other cases, the 1uery will be sent to
the My,4 replication master server'
Bor better portability, applications should use the mys1lndRmsRmasterRswitch,
mys1lndRmsRslaveRswitch, and mys1lndRmsRlastRusedRswitch predefined mys1lndRms
constants, instead of their literal values, such as /*ms=slave*/'
The plugin handles the opening and closing of database connections to both master and
slave servers' Brom an application point of view, there continues to be only one
connection handle' ?owever, internally, this one public connection handle represents a
pool of networ* connections that are managed by the plugin' The plugin pro/ies 1ueries
17
to the master server, and to the slaves using multiple connections'
Database connections have a state consisting of, for e/ample, transaction status,
transaction settings, character set settings, and temporary tables' The plugin will try to
maintain the same state among all internal connections, whenever this can be done in an
automatic and transparent way' In cases where it is not easily possible to maintain state
among all connections, such as when using begin transaction, the plugin leaves it to the
user to handle'
79S8L)*
+MG,4- the most popular +open source- ,4 database management system is
developed, distributed and supported by +MG,4 +AA-'-MG,4 AA- is a commercial
company, founded by the MG,4 developers that build its business by providing
services around the +MG,4- database management system'
+MG,4- is a database management system' A database is a structured collection of a
data' It may be anything from a simple shopping list to a picture gallery or the vast
amount of information in the corporate networ*' To add, access, and process data store in
a computer database, you need a database management system such as +MG,4 +server'
ince computer are very good at handling large amount of data, database, management
systems play a central role in computing, as stand0alone utilities or as part of other
application'
MG,4 is Database server'
MG,4 is ideal for both small and large application'
MG,4 support standard ,4'
MG,4 complies on a number of platforms'
MG,4 is free to download and use'
Why "se The 79S8L dataase server)
The +MG,4- database server is very fast, reliable and easy to
use' If that is what you are loo*ing for, you should give it a try' +MG,4-
server also has a practical set features developed in close cooperation with
users' Gou can find a performance comparison of +MG,4- server with
other database managers on our benchmar* page' -MG,4- was
originally developed to handle large database much faster than e/isting
solution and has been successfully use in highly demanding production
environments for several years'
18
5-6 T,#7 STR'CT'R,
As this pro2ect is a live pro2ect and the company has given me the opportunity to wor* on
this pro2ect' In this pro2ect there is one Technical 4eader and one enior oftware
!ngineer' trainee allotted for this pro2ect and pro2ect is progressed under the supervision
of all the team members'
Bigure3 Team tructure
5-> &,V,L!P7,%T SC2,&'L,
The wor* in developing the new system commenced immediately with our first meeting
with the management and users thereafter we were in continuous touch with the
management and client'
5hases involved in the development of the system
Identify needs and benefits
?eld meetings with the management and client
tudied and identified the e/isting system
Identify needs and pro2ect constraints
!stablished pro2ect statements
5repared a detailed report of the e/isting system at wor*
5repare the software re1uirements specifications
Actual coding started
5-? R,8'$R,7,%T SP,C$1$C#T$!% &!C'7,%T
5-?-1 Re+"irement Specification)*
19
Technical Lead
Software
Engineer
Trainee
7eaning)* The software re1uirement specification is produced at the culmination of the
analysis tas*' The function and performance allocated to software as part of system
engineering are refined by establishing a complete information description, a detailed
functional description, a representation of system behavior, an indication of performance
re1uirement and design constraints appropriate validation criteria, and other information
pertinent to re1uirement' The introduction to software re1uirements specification states
the goals and ob2ectives of the software, describing it in the conte/t of the computer
based system' The Information Description provides a detailed description of the problem
that the software must solve' Information content, flow and structure are documented 'A
description of each function re1uired to solve the problem is presented in the Bunctional
Description' )alidation .riteria is probably the most important and ironically the most
often neglected section of the software re1uirement specification'
5-?-0 System !verview
ystem analysis is a process of gathering and interpreting facts, diagnosing problems and
the information to recommend improvements on the system' It is a problem solving
activity that re1uires intensive communication between the system users and system
developers' ystem analysis or study is an important phase of any system development
process' The system is studied to the minutest detail and analy#ed' The system analyst
plays the role of the interrogator and dwells deep into the wor*ing of the present system'
The system is viewed as a whole and the input to the system are identified' The outputs
from the organi#ations are traced to the various processes' ystem analysis is .oncerned
with becoming aware of the problem, identifying the relevant and decisional variables,
analy#ing and synthesi#ing the various factors and determining an optimal or at least a
satisfactory solution or program of action'
5-?-5 The main f"nctions of this pro.ect are)
?ome 5age
Admin Area
4ogin
manage pages
Manage 5hotos
Manage user
how appointments
Cser Area
earch area by speciality, c#one
)iew all info
Write reviews
20
(egister Cser
5-?-6 Characteristics
Aetter performance'
Ae able to e/tend to add>configure'
Ae able to e/tend for more functionality' 5rovide more e/tensive features'
5-?-> 2ardware and Software Re+"irement
2#R&W#R, R,8'$R,7,%TS)*
S!1TW#R, R,8'$R,7,%TS)*
?ardware !nvironment
5.
5. (Windows)
5rocessor
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(AM
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21
oftware !nvironment
"ther software MG,4,Apache
Arowser Internet !/plorer <'<,
Mo#illa Birefo/ 6'7
onwards
22
Chapter 6
Software &esign
6- S!1TW#R, &,S$(%
6-1 S9ST,7 &,S$(%
Hystem AnalysisI describes what a system should do to meet the info needs of users
while Hystem DesignI specifies how the system will accomplish this ob2ective' This is
most creative and challenging phase of system life cycle' The term +design- describes a
final system and process by which it is developed' It refers to the technical
specifications'There are two methods for the system design stage in D4.3
&escriing #ctivities of System &esign)
ystem Design is divided into two activities3
4ogical Design Activity
5hysical Design Activity
Aoth activities produce ystem pecifications satisfying the system
23
Re+"irements developed in System #nalysis Stage
4ogical ystem Design involves developing general specification for how the basic I
activities of input, processing, output, storage and can meet the end user re1uirements' At
this stage, we start giving shape to our database which includes detail structure of various
tables used to store information'
5hysical ystem Design involves the detailed design of user interface methods and
products, database structures, processing S control procedures' ?ardware (machine,
media), software (program and procedures) S personnel specifications are also developed
for purpose system' At this point of development we designed our forms, menus and
procedures and decided about hardware (.D0("M) and other software re1uirements and
put them in wor*'
It must also specify how such resources will convert data resources (stored in files and
database they design) into info products (displays, responses, reports and documents)'
7ethods of different prod"cts
It is another way to look at System design and focus on three major
products or deliverables that should result from design stage. In this framework,
System esign consists of three activities!
'ser $nterface &esign) The user interface design activity focuses on designing
the interactions between users and computer system' It concentrates input
methods and conversion of data and information between human0readable and
machine0readable forms i'e' in @ree* Travel @reece'.om("nline
?otel(eservation ystem) this step produces detailed specifications for
information products such as display screens, forms, reports, documents and
dialog design'
&ata &esign) The data design activity focus on design of logical structure of files
and databases to be used by the proposed system' Data design produces detailed
description of3
!ntities (people, place, thing, and event) about which information system
needs to maintain'
Information li*e customers, employees'
(elationships between these entities i'e' Boreign Qeys'
Data elements (databases, files or records) needed to maintain each entity'
Process design) The 5rogram design activity focus on design of software
resources that is programs and procedures needed by proposed system' It
concentrates on detailed specifications for the program modules, that will be
purchased as software pac*ages or development by custom programming needed
24
to meet user interface and data design specification as well as control and
performance re1uirements of proposed is'
Characteristics of a well defined system
In design an efficient and effective system is of great importance to consider the human
factor and e1uipment that these will re1uire to use' ystem analyst must evaluate the
capabilities and limitations of the personal and corresponding factors of the e1uipment
itself' The characteristics associated with effective system operations are3
Decision Ma*ing Ability
!conomy, Ble/ibility
Acessibility
(eliability
implicity
Three Layers !f Pro.ect) ,ach pro.ect has these three layers-
6-0 #RC2$T,CT'R#L &,S$(%)
6-0-1 &#T#4#S, &,S$(% )
&#T# 1L!W &$#(R#7
In our DBD, we give names to data flows, processes, and data stores' Although the names
are descriptive of the data, they do not give details' o the following the DBD, our
@1ig 6-1) Layers of pro.ectA
6-1-1 #rchitect"ral &esign)
6-1-1-1 7od"les !f W2C
7od"les of We 2ealth Centre)
25
W!A ?!A4T?

.!ET(!
ADMIE
C!(
@1ig)6-0 We 2ealth Centre informationA
#dmin 7od"le) Administrators having given full control over the website, structure and
content management, detailed user management, statistics and many others'
@1ig)6-5 #dmin 7od"leA
'ser 7od"le) Csers (members of website) can register themselves on the website ' They
can ma*e appointment with the doctor and also can chec* the details of a doctor and
contact him>her'
26
Add Eew doctor
Delete Doctors
.hange Disease Info
Delete Disease
Add Eew Disease
ign "ut
!dit Docs Info
Administrator
C!( "(
M!MA!(
!! IEB"
.(!AT!
5("BI4!
MAQ! A55T
@1ig)6-6 'ser 7od"leA
6-1-1-0 &ata 1low &iagram @&1&A
It is a way of e/pressing system re1uirement in a graphical formO this leads to a modular
design' It is also *nown as bubble chart, has the purpose of clarifying system
re1uirements and identifying ma2or transformations that will become program in system
design' o it is the starting point of the design phase that functionally decomposes the
re1uirement specifications down to the lowest level of details' A DBD consist of a series
of bubbles 2oined by lines' The bubbles represent data transformation and the lines
represent data flows in the system'
The DBD was first developed by H4arry .onstatineI as a way of e/pressing system
re1uirements in a graphical form' A DBD, also referred to as a bubble chart has a purpose
of clarifying system re1uirements and
&1& Symols)
T ource or Destination of data
T Data flow
B Two way data flow
T 5rocess that transform data flow
T tore Data
&1& 1!R L!($%
27
@1ig 6->) &1& for LoginA
&1& 1!R #&7$%
aved in
aved in aved in
28
Delete
Docs
Add
disease
s
Add
Docs
Data Aase
Admin
@1ig 6-C) &1& for #dminA
&1& 1!R W2C
@1ig 6-?) &1& for W2CA
6-1-1-5 ,R &iagram
An ,R diagram can e/press the overall logical structure of a database graphically' !0
( diagrams are simple and clearU1ualities that may well account in large part for the
widespread use of the !0( model' uch a diagram consists of the following ma2or
components3
Rectangles, which represent entity sets
,llipses, which represent attributes
&iamonds, which represent relationship sets
Lines, which lin* attributes to entity sets and entity sets to relationship sets
&o"le ellipses, which represent multivalve attributes
29
C!( W!AIT!
ADMIN
4ogin
)iew
Diseases
Disease
info
4ogin
Ta*e
appntmt
)iew
Docs
d
Manage
Docs
Manage
Diseases
&ashed ellipses, which denote derived attributes
&o"le lines, which indicate total participation of an entity in a relationship set
&o"le rectangles, which represent wea* entity sets
!.ects
There are three main ob2ects on an !( Diagram3
,ntities) An entity is a concept or ob2ect in the database' !ntities are concepts
within the data model' !ach entity is represented by a bo/ within the !(D'
!ntities are abstract concepts, each representing one or more instances of the
concept in 1uestion' An entity might be considered a container that holds all
of the instances of a particular thing in a system' !ntities are e1uivalent to
database tables in a relational database, with each row of the table
representing an instance of that entity'
#ttri"tes) The upplier Eame, upplier Address, Telephone Eumber etc' A
given attribute belonging to a given entity occurrence can only have one
value' Therefore, if a supplier could have more than one address or telephone
number then this should be determined before defining the attributes of that
entity type' In this e/ample the defined entity may re1uire two or three
address and>or telephone number attributes' It is the ma/imum practical
instances of a given attribute that should be catered for in the entity type
definition'
Relationships) (elations are the connections between two or more entities'
(elationship lines indicate that each instance of an entity may have a
relationship with instances of the connected entity, and vice versa'
7apping cardinalities
Mapping cardinalities or cardinality ratios, e/press the number of entities to which
another entity can be associated via a relationship set' Mapping cardinalities are most
useful in describing binary relationship sets, although they can contribute to the
description of relationship sets that involve more than two entity sets'
1ollowing are the types of cardinalities)
"ne to one
"ne to many
Many to one
Many to many
30
@1ig 6-D) ,*R 7odel of W2C
6-1-0 &ataase &esign
It includes3
6' Tables
6-1-0-1 Tales
The web application of the problem domain is a M0tier application' The tiers comprising
the application are database tier, business tier and presentation tier' ?ere we will be
discussing various table>relations of the web application' Database forms what is called
AA.Q0!ED of the application
31
ADMIE
ADMIE
C!(
C!(
MAEA@
!
MAEA@
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W!AIT!
W(IT
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Tale for #dmin*login)
@1ig 6-1) Tale for #dmin LoginA
Tale for doctors)
32
@1ig 6-0) Tale for &octorsA
Tale for diseases)
@1ig 6-5) Tale for &iseases and ConditionsA
Tale for departments)
33
@1ig 6-6) Tale for &epartmentsA
Tale for testimonials )
@1ig 6->) Tale for Testimonial $nformationA
Tale for contact_form)
34
@1ig 6-C) Tale for contactA
Tale for appointments
@1ig 6-?) Tale for #ppointmentsA
SCR,,%S2!TS)
35
2ome Page)*
@inde/-phpA
36
@1ig 6-D) 2ome PageA
&escription) This is the home page from where the user or doctor can chec* the
information' Brom this page , user can login and set an appointment with the doctor'
?e>he can also chec* the doctor list'
Services*page )*
@services-phpA
@1ig 6-E) Services PageA
&escription) This page contain the information about the services'
37
Photo To"r*page)
@photo*gallery-phpA
@1ig 6-1F) Photo*(allery pageA
&escription) In this page fetch the photos from the database'
Contacts*page)*
@contacts-phpA
@1ig 6-11) Contact PageA
&escription) In this page the information about the centre is given' Csers can chec* the
38
information and visit us easily'
#dmin*login page
@inde/-phpA
@1ig 6-10)#dmin Login PageA
&escription3 !nter username and password then login'Admin add page,photos according
to the city, area '
#dmin 2ome Page)*
@add_doctors-phpA
39
@1ig 6-15) #dd &octors PageA
&escription) Admin can add the new doctor and his>her information'
40
Chapter >
Coding
>- Coding
Ee/t step after designing is coding' In this we translate our design into code using
languages' In this pro2ect we use asp'net with s1l server to build the code' .oding is
very important part of pro2ect development cycle'
This means program construction with procedural specifications has finished and the
41
coding for the program begins3
"nce the design phase was over,coding commenced'
.oding is natural conse1uence of design'
.oding step translate a detailed design representation of software into a
programming language reali#ation'
Main emphasis while coding was on style so that the end result was an optimi#ed
code'
The following points were *ept into consideration while coding3
Coding Style
The structured programming method was used in all the modules of the pro2ect'
It incorporated the following features3
The code has been written so that the definition and implementation of each
function is contained in one file'
A group of related function was clubbed together in one file to include it when
needed and save us from the labour of writing it again and again'
There are two types of approaches
Top*down #pproach
A top0down design approach starts by identifying the ma2or components of the
system, decomposing them into their lower level components and iterating until
the desired level of details is achieved'
4ottom*"p #pproach
A bottom0up design approach starts with designing the most basic or primitive
components and proceeds to higher0level components that use these lower level
components'
>-1 #pproach 1ollowed) Top &own #pproach
A Top Down Approach (is also *nown as tep0Wise Design) is essentially the brea*ing
down of a system to gain insight into its compositional sub0systems' In a Top Down
Approach, an overview of the system is first formulated, specifying but not detailing any
first0level subsystems' !ach subsystem is then refined in yet greater detail, sometimes in
many additional subsystem levels, until the entire specification is reduced to base
elements' a Top0Down Model is often specified with the assistance of Hblac* bo/esI,
these ma*e it easier to manipulate'?owever,blac* bo/es may fail to elucidate elementary
mechanisms or be detailed enough to realistically validate the model'
Top0Down 5rogramming has several advantages3
42
eparating the low level wor* from the higher level abstractions leads to a modular
design'
Modular design means development can be self0contained'
?aving Hs*eletonI code illustrates clearly how low level modules integrate
Bewers operations errors (to reduce errors, because each module has to be processed
separately, so programmers get a large amount of time for processing)'
Much less time consuming (each programmer is only involved in a part of the big
pro2ect)'
)ery optimi#ed way of processing (each programmer has to apply their own
*nowledge S e/perience to their modules, so the pro2ect will become an optimi#ed one)'
!asy to maintain ( if an error occurs in an output, it is easy to identify the errors
generated from which module of the entire program)'
In our pro2ect named HW,4 2,#LT2 C,%TR,I we have used the top down approach
of programming as it has fewer operations error because each module has to be processed
separately, so programmers get large amount of time for processing' it is much less time0
consuming because each programmer is involved in a part of the big pro2ect' in this each
programmer has to apply their own *nowledge S e/perience to their own module so the
pro2ect will become the optimi#ed one' it is also easy to maintain because if an error
comes occurs in the output, it is easy to identify the errors generated from which module
of the entire program'
Coding )
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a ` color3 [%%eO a
a3visited ` color3 [776a:bO a
a3hover ` color3 [%<eO a
a3focus ` outline3 noneO a
>_ Improve readability when focused and hovered in all browsers3 h7bp'com>h _>
a3hover, a3active ` outline3 noneO a
>_
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
TTTTTTTTTTTTTT
Typography
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
TTTTTTTTTTTT _>
abbrYtitleZ ` border0bottom3 6p/ dottedO a
b, strong ` font0weight3 boldO a
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dfn ` font0style3 italicO a
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padding3 %O a
ins ` bac*ground3 [ff=O color3 [%%%O te/t0decoration3 noneO a
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>_ (edeclare monospace font family3 h7bp'com>2 _>
pre, code, *bd, samp ` font0family3 monospace, monospaceO Rfont0family3 \courier new\,
monospaceO font0si#e3 6emO a
>_ Improve readability of pre0formatted te/t in all browsers _>
pre ` white0space3 preO white0space3 pre0wrapO word0wrap3 brea*0wordO a
64
1 ` 1uotes3 noneO a
13before, 13after ` content3 XXO content3 noneO a
small ` font0si#e3 :78O a
>_ 5osition subscript and superscript content without affecting line0height3 h7bp'com>* _>
sub, sup ` font0si#e3 &78O line0height3 %O position3 relativeO vertical0align3 baselineO a
sup ` top3 0%'7emO a
sub ` bottom3 0%'$7emO a
>_
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
TTTTTTTTTTTTTT
4ists
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
TTTTTTTTTTTT _>
ul, ol ` margin3 6em %O padding3 % % % ;%p/O a
dd ` margin3 % % % ;%p/O a
nav ul, nav ol ` list0style3 noneO list0style0image3 noneO margin3 %O padding3 %O a
>_
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
TTTTTTTTTTTTTT
!mbedded content
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
TTTTTTTTTTTT _>
>_
_ 6' Improve image 1uality when scaled in I!&3 h7bp'com>d
_ $' (emove the gap between images and borders on image containers3 h7bp'com>e
_>
img ` border3 %O 0ms0interpolation0mode3 bicubicO vertical0align3 middleO a
>_
_ .orrect overflow not hidden in I!=
_>
65
svg3not(3root) ` overflow3 hiddenO a
>_
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
TTTTTTTTTTTTTT
Bigures
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
TTTTTTTTTTTT _>
figure ` margin3 %O a
>_
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
TTTTTTTTTTTTTT
Borms
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
TTTTTTTTTTTT _>
form ` margin3 %O a
fieldset ` border3 %O margin3 %O padding3 %O a
>_ Indicate that \label\ will shift focus to the associated form element _>
label ` cursor3 pointerO a
>_
_ 6' .orrect color not inheriting in I!<>&>:>=
_ $' .orrect alignment displayed oddly in I!<>&
_>
legend ` border3 %O _margin0left3 0&p/O padding3 %O a
>_
_ 6' .orrect font0si#e not inheriting in all browsers
_ $' (emove margins in BBM>; 7 .hrome
_ M' Define consistent vertical alignment display in all browsers
_>
button, input, select, te/tarea ` font0si#e3 6%%8O margin3 %O vertical0align3 baselineO
66
_vertical0align3 middleO a
>_
_ 6' Define line0height as normal to match BBM>; (set using Limportant in the CA
stylesheet)
_ $' .orrect inner spacing displayed oddly in I!<>&
_>
button, input ` line0height3 normalO _overflow3 visibleO a
>_
_ (eintroduce inner spacing in \table\ to avoid overlap and whitespace issues in I!<>&
_>
table button, table input ` _overflow3 autoO a
>_
_ 6' Display hand cursor for clic*able form elements
_ $' Allow styling of clic*able form elements in i"
_>
button, inputYtypeTXbuttonXZ, inputYtypeTXresetXZ, inputYtypeTXsubmitXZ ` cursor3 pointerO
0web*it0appearance3 buttonO a
>_
_ .onsistent bo/ si#ing and appearance
_>
inputYtypeTXchec*bo/XZ, inputYtypeTXradioXZ ` bo/0si#ing3 border0bo/O a
inputYtypeTXsearchXZ ` 0web*it0appearance3 te/tfieldO 0mo#0bo/0si#ing3 content0bo/O
0web*it0bo/0si#ing3 content0bo/O bo/0si#ing3 content0bo/O a
inputYtypeTXsearchXZ330web*it0search0decoration ` 0web*it0appearance3 noneO a
>_
_ (emove inner padding and border in BBM>;3 h7bp'com>l
_>
button330mo#0focus0inner, input330mo#0focus0inner ` border3 %O padding3 %O a
>_
_ 6' (emove default vertical scrollbar in I!<>&>:>=
67
_ $' Allow only vertical resi#ing
_>
te/tarea ` overflow3 autoO vertical0align3 topO resi#e3 verticalO a
>_ .olors for form validity _>
input3valid, te/tarea3valid ` a
input3invalid, te/tarea3invalid ` bac*ground0color3 [f%ddddO a
>_
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
TTTTTTTTTTTTTT
Tables
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
TTTTTTTTTTTT _>
table ` border0collapse3 collapseO border0spacing3 %Oa
td ` vertical0align3 topO a
>_ TTbTT non0semantic helper classes
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
5lease define your styles before this section'
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
TTTTTTTTTTTT _>
>_ Bor image replacement _>
'ir ` display3 bloc*O border3 %O te/t0indent3 0===emO overflow3 hiddenO bac*ground0color3
transparentO bac*ground0repeat3 no0repeatO te/t0align3 leftO direction3 ltrO a
'ir br ` display3 noneO a
>_ ?ide for both screenreaders and browsers3 h7bp'com>m _>
'hidden ` display3 noneO visibility3 hiddenO a
>_ ?ide only visually, but have it available for screenreaders3 h7bp'com>n S h7bp'com>o
_>
'visuallyhidden ` border3 %O clip3 rect(% % % %)O height3 6p/O margin3 06p/O overflow3
hiddenO padding3 %O position3 absoluteO width3 6p/O a
>_ !/tends the 'visuallyhidden class to allow the element to be focusable when navigated
68
to via the *eyboard3 h7bp'com>p _>
'visuallyhidden'focusable3active, 'visuallyhidden'focusable3focus ` clip3 autoO height3
autoO margin3 %O overflow3 visibleO position3 staticO width3 autoO a
>_ ?ide visually and from screenreaders, but maintain layout _>
'invisible ` visibility3 hiddenO a
>_ .ontain floats3 h7bp'com>1 _>
'clearfi/3before, 'clearfi/3after ` content3 XXO display3 tableO a
'clearfi/3after ` clear3 bothO a
'clearfi/ ` #oom3 6O a
>_ TTbTT media 1ueries
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
54A.!?"4D!( Media ,ueries for (esponsive Design'
These override the primary (\mobile first\) styles
Modify as content re1uires'
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
TTTTTTTTTTTT _>
9media only screen and (min0width3 ;:%p/) `
>_ tyle ad2ustments for viewports ;:%p/ and over go here _>
a
9media only screen and (min0width3 &<:p/) `
>_ tyle ad2ustments for viewports &<:p/ and over go here _>
a
>_ TTbTT print styles
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
5rint styles'
Inlined to avoid re1uired ?TT5 connection3 h7bp'com>r
TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
TTTTTTTTTTTT _>

69
9media print `
_ ` bac*ground3 transparent LimportantO color3 blac* LimportantO te/t0shadow3 none L
importantO filter3none LimportantO 0ms0filter3 none LimportantO a >_ Alac* prints faster3
h7bp'com>s _>
a, a3visited ` te/t0decoration3 underlineO a
aYhrefZ3after ` content3 X (X attr(href) X)XO a
abbrYtitleZ3after ` content3 X (X attr(title) X)XO a
'ir a3after, aYhrefcTX2avascript3XZ3after, aYhrefcTX[XZ3after ` content3 XXO a >_ Don\t show
lin*s for images, or 2avascript>internal lin*s _>
pre, bloc*1uote ` border3 6p/ solid [===O page0brea*0inside3 avoidO a
thead ` display3 table0header0groupO a >_ h7bp'com>t _>
tr, img ` page0brea*0inside3 avoidO a
img ` ma/0width3 6%%8 LimportantO a
9page ` margin3 %'7cmO a
p, h$, hM ` orphans3 MO widows3 MO a
h$, hM ` page0brea*0after3 avoidO a
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_ M) @rid
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70
_ 7) earch0Borm
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_>
>_ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
_ 6) @eneric
_ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT _>
'form p'inline0label, 'form p'inline0medium0label, 'form p'inline0small0label `
padding0right3 6%p/O
a
'form fieldset `
border3 6p/ solid [b&c;d6O
border0radius3 Mp/ Mp/ Mp/ Mp/O
padding3 %p/ 6%p/ 6%p/ 6%p/O
margin0bottom3 6%p/O
margin0top3 6%p/O
a
'form fieldset p'inline0label, 'form fieldset p'inline0medium0label, 'form fieldset p'inline0
small0label `
padding0right3 %O
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'form fieldset legend `
bac*ground3 url(X''>img>forms>legend0bg'pngX) repeat0/ scroll top left [dcdcdcO
padding3 7p/ 6%p/O
line0height3 6<p/O
bo/0shadow3 % % $p/ rgba(%, %, %, %'M)O
border3 6p/ solid [fffO
border0radius3 7p/ 7p/ 7p/ 7p/O
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'form label, 'form 'label `
display3 bloc*O
margin0bottom3 7p/O
71
a
'form inputYtypeTXte/tXZ, 'form inputYtypeTXpasswordXZ, 'form te/tarea `
border3 6p/ solid [D6D6D6O
border0color3 [AAAAAA [...... [...... [AAAAAAO
border0radius3 Mp/ Mp/ Mp/ Mp/O
line0height3 6'7emO
padding3 7p/ %p/O
bo/0shadow3 % 6p/ Mp/ rgba(%, %, %, %'6) insetO
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'form inputYtypeTXte/tXZ3hover, 'form inputYtypeTXpasswordXZ3hover, 'form
te/tarea3hover `
border0color3 [aMaMaMO
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'form inputYtypeTXte/tXZ3focus, 'form inputYtypeTXpasswordXZ3focus, 'form te/tarea3focus
`
border0color3 [<<<<<<O
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>_ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
_ $) )alidation
_ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT _>
div'error `
color3 [&;%%%%O
font0weight3 &%%O
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div'2@rowl div'error `
color3 [fffO
font0weight3 ;%%O
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inputYtypeTte/tZ'error, inputYtypeTpasswordZ'error, te/tarea'error `
border0color3 [bf%%%% LimportantO
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p'inline0small0label label'error `
margin0left3 % LimportantO
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72
>_ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
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'R$7 `
width3 $68O
display3 inlineO
float3 leftO
margin0left3 $8O
margin0right3 $8O
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'R7% `
width3 ;<8O
display3 inlineO
float3 leftO
margin0left3 $8O
margin0right3 $8O
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'R&7 `
width3 &68O
display3 inlineO
float3 leftO
margin0left3 $8O
margin0right3 $8O
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'R6%% `
width3 =<8O
display3 inlineO
float3 leftO
margin0left3 $8O
margin0right3 $8O
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input, te/tarea, select `
width3 6%%8O
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p'no0top0margin `
margin0top3 %O
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73
>_ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
_ ;) Inline 4abel
_ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT _>
'inline0label label, 'inline0label 'label, 'inline0medium0label label, 'inline0medium0label
'label, 'inline0small0label label, 'inline0small0label 'label, 'inline0mini0label label, 'inline0
mini0label 'label `
float3 leftO
display3 bloc*O
padding3 ;p/ % % ;p/O
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p'inline0label ` padding0left3 $%%p/O a
'inline0label label, 'inline0label 'label ` margin0left3 0$%%p/O a
p'inline0medium0label ` padding0left3 67%p/O a
'inline0medium0label label, 'inline0medium0label 'label ` margin0left3 067%p/O a
p'inline0small0label ` padding0left3 6%%p/O a
'inline0small0label label, 'inline0small0label 'label ` margin0left3 06%%p/O a
p'inline0mini0label ` padding0left3 &%p/O a
'inline0mini0label label, 'inline0mini0label 'label ` margin0left3 0&%p/O a
>_ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
_ 7) earch0Borm
_ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT _>
[search0form inputYtypeTXte/tXZ `
bac*ground3 url(X''>img>icons>misc>search'pngX) no0repeat scroll :p/ <p/ [fffO
margin0top3 :p/O
margin0left3 6%p/O
margin0right3 6%p/O
padding0top3 ;p/O
padding0left3 $7p/O
74
padding0right3 6%p/O
padding0bottom3 ;p/O
border3 6p/ solid [bMbMbMO
border0radius3 $%p/ $%p/ $%p/ $%p/O
width3 $%7p/O
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>_ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT
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_ TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT _>
>_
Cniform Theme3 Cniform Default
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_>
>_ @lobal Declaration _>
div'selector,
div'selector span,
div'chec*er span,
div'radio span,
div'uploader,
div'uploader span'action,
div'uniform0button,
div'uniform0button span `
bac*ground0image3 url(''>img>forms>sprite'png)O
75
bac*ground0repeat3 no0repeatO
0web*it0font0smoothing3 antialiasedO
a
'selector,
'radio,
'chec*er,
'uploader,
'uniform0button,
'selector _,
'radio _,
'chec*er _,
'uploader _,
'uniform0button _`
margin3 %O
padding3 %O
a
>_ IE5CT S T!NTA(!A _>
input'te/t,
input'email,
input'password,
te/tarea'uniform `
font0si#e3 6$p/O
font0family3 X?elvetica EeueX, ?elvetica, Arial, sans0serifO
font0weight3 normalO
padding3 Mp/ %O
color3 [&&&O
>_bac*ground3 url(\''>img>forms>bg0input0focus'png\) repeat0/ %p/ %p/O
bac*ground3 url(\''>img>forms>bg0input'png\) repeat0/ %p/ %p/O_>
border0top3 solid 6p/ [aaaO
border0left3 solid 6p/ [aaaO
border0bottom3 solid 6p/ [cccO
border0right3 solid 6p/ [cccO
0web*it0border0radius3 Mp/O
0mo#0border0radius3 Mp/O
border0radius3 Mp/O
outline3 %O
a
76
input'te/t3focus,
input'email3focus,
input'password3focus,
te/tarea'uniform3focus `
0web*it0bo/0shadow3 %p/ %p/ ;p/ rgba(%,%,%,%'M)O
0mo#0bo/0shadow3 %p/ %p/ ;p/ rgba(%,%,%,%'M)O
bo/0shadow3 %p/ %p/ ;p/ rgba(%,%,%,%'M)O
border0color3 [===O
bac*ground3 url(\''>img>forms>bg0input0focus'png\) repeat0/ %p/ %p/ [fffO
a
>_ 5(IT! _>
>_ elect _>
div'selector `
bac*ground0position3 0;:Mp/ 06M%p/O
line0height3 $<p/O
height3 $<p/O
a
div'selector span `
bac*ground0position3 right %p/O
height3 $<p/O
line0height3 $<p/O
a
div'selector select `
>_ change these to ad2ust positioning of select element _>
top3 %p/O
left3 %p/O
a
div'selector3active,
div'selector'active `
bac*ground0position3 0;:Mp/ 067<p/O
a
div'selector3active span,
div'selector'active span `
bac*ground0position3 right 0$<p/O
77
a
div'selector'focus, div'selector'hover, div'selector3hover `
bac*ground0position3 0;:Mp/ 06:$p/O
a
div'selector'focus span, div'selector'hover span, div'selector3hover span `
bac*ground0position3 right 07$p/O
a
div'selector'focus3active,
div'selector'focus'active,
div'selector3hover3active,
div'selector'active3hover `
bac*ground0position3 0;:Mp/ 0$%:p/O
a
div'selector'focus3active span,
div'selector3hover3active span,
div'selector'active3hover span,
div'selector'focus'active span `
bac*ground0position3 right 0&:p/O
a
div'selector'disabled `
bac*ground0position3 0;:Mp/ 0$M;p/O
a
div'selector'disabled span `
bac*ground0position3 right 06%;p/O
a
>_ .hec*bo/ _>
div'chec*er `
width3 6=p/O
height3 6=p/O
a
div'chec*er input `
width3 6=p/O
78
height3 6=p/O
a
div'chec*er span `
bac*ground0position3 %p/ 0$<%p/O
height3 6=p/O
width3 6=p/O
a
div'chec*er3active span,
div'chec*er'active span `
bac*ground0position3 06=p/ 0$<%p/O
a
div'chec*er'focus span,
div'chec*er3hover span `
bac*ground0position3 0M:p/ 0$<%p/O
a
div'chec*er'focus3active span,
div'chec*er3active3hover span,
div'chec*er'active3hover span,
div'chec*er'focus'active span `
bac*ground0position3 07&p/ 0$<%p/O
a
div'chec*er span'chec*ed `
bac*ground0position3 0&<p/ 0$<%p/O
a
div'chec*er3active span'chec*ed,
div'chec*er'active span'chec*ed `
bac*ground0position3 0=7p/ 0$<%p/O
a
div'chec*er'focus span'chec*ed,
div'chec*er3hover span'chec*ed `
bac*ground0position3 066;p/ 0$<%p/O
a
div'chec*er'focus3active span'chec*ed,
79
div'chec*er3hover3active span'chec*ed,
div'chec*er'active3hover span'chec*ed,
div'chec*er'active'focus span'chec*ed `
bac*ground0position3 06MMp/ 0$<%p/O
a
div'chec*er'disabled span,
div'chec*er'disabled3active span,
div'chec*er'disabled'active span `
bac*ground0position3 067$p/ 0$<%p/O
a
div'chec*er'disabled span'chec*ed,
div'chec*er'disabled3active span'chec*ed,
div'chec*er'disabled'active span'chec*ed `
bac*ground0position3 06&6p/ 0$<%p/O
a
>_ (adio _>
div'radio `
width3 6:p/O
height3 6:p/O
a
div'radio input `
width3 6:p/O
height3 6:p/O
a
div'radio span `
height3 6:p/O
width3 6:p/O
bac*ground0position3 %p/ 0$&=p/O
a
div'radio3active span,
div'radio'active span `
bac*ground0position3 06:p/ 0$&=p/O
a
80
div'radio'focus span,
div'radio3hover span `
bac*ground0position3 0M<p/ 0$&=p/O
a
div'radio'focus3active span,
div'radio3active3hover span,
div'radio'active3hover span,
div'radio'active'focus span `
bac*ground0position3 07;p/ 0$&=p/O
a
div'radio span'chec*ed `
bac*ground0position3 0&$p/ 0$&=p/O
a
div'radio3active span'chec*ed,
div'radio'active span'chec*ed `
bac*ground0position3 0=%p/ 0$&=p/O
a
div'radio'focus span'chec*ed, div'radio3hover span'chec*ed `
bac*ground0position3 06%:p/ 0$&=p/O
a
div'radio'focus3active span'chec*ed,
div'radio3hover3active span'chec*ed,
div'radio'focus'active span'chec*ed,
div'radio'active3hover span'chec*ed `
bac*ground0position3 06$<p/ 0$&=p/O
a
div'radio'disabled span,
div'radio'disabled3active span,
div'radio'disabled'active span `
bac*ground0position3 06;;p/ 0$&=p/O
a
div'radio'disabled span'chec*ed,
div'radio'disabled3active span'chec*ed,
div'radio'disabled'active span'chec*ed `
81
bac*ground0position3 06<$p/ 0$&=p/O
a
>_ Cploader _>
div'uploader `
bac*ground0position3 %p/ 0$=&p/O
height3 $:p/O
a
div'uploader span'action `
bac*ground0position3 right 0;%=p/O
height3 $;p/O
line0height3 $;p/O
a
div'uploader span'filename `
height3 $;p/O
>_ change this line to ad2ust positioning of filename area _>
margin3 $p/ %p/ $p/ $p/O
line0height3 $;p/O
a
div'uploader'focus,
div'uploader'hover,
div'uploader3hover `
bac*ground0position3 %p/ 0M7Mp/O
a
div'uploader'focus span'action,
div'uploader'hover span'action,
div'uploader3hover span'action `
bac*ground0position3 right 0;M&p/O
a
div'uploader'active span'action,
div'uploader3active span'action `
bac*ground0position3 right 0;<7p/O
a
div'uploader'focus'active span'action,
82
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83
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84
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85
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a

90
Chapter C
Testing
Testing)*
The basic goal of the software development process is to produce software that has no
errors or very few errors' In an effort to detect errors soon after they are introduced, each
phase ends with verification activity such as a review'
As testing is the last phase before the final software is delivered, it has the enormous
responsibility of detecting any type of error that may in the software' A software typically
undergoes changes even after it has been delivered' And to validate that a change has not
affected some old functionality of software regression testing is performed'
C-1 System Tesing)*
?ere the ystem testing involved is the most widely used testing process consisting of
five stages as shown in the figure'In general, the se1uence of testing activities is
91
component testing, integration testing, and then user testing'?owever, as defects are
discovered at any one stage, they re1uire program modifications to correct them and this
may re1uire other stages in the testing process to be repeated'
@1ig"reC-1)five stages of testingA
Test
Subject
Test
"ethod
E#pecte
d $esult
%ctual $esult $emarks
Complet
e testing
of
system
on
different
ro!ser
s
"#e !#ole
pro$e%t is
e&e%'ted
'sing
different
ro!sers
li(e oper)*
Mo+ill)
firefo&* )nd
internet
"#e
pro$e%t
s#o'ld
gi,e t#e
s)me
o'tp't
on )ll
t#e
ro!ser
s-
"#e e&it 'tton on
m)in men' !)s
not f'n%tioning
properly on Mo+ill)
firefo& ro!ser-
.ro!ser %)n sometime effe%t
t#e !or(ing )nd perform)n%e
of e&e%'tion of t#e pro$e%t-
92
/nit testing
Mod'le
testing
A%%ept)n%e
testing
0'1system
testing
0ystem
testing
e&plorer-
Bigure3 Test cases for system testing
P"rpose of Testing)
The main purposes of this procedure are3
To carry out comprehensive testing of the system>product and its
individual components in order to ensure that the developed
system>product conforms to the user re1uirements>design'
To verify the proper integration of all components of the software'
To verify that all re1uirements have been correctly implemented'
To identify and ensure defects are addressed prior to the deployment of the
software'
'nit testing)*
Cnit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of software i'e' the module'
Csing the detailed design and the process specifications, testing is done to uncover errors
within the boundary of the module' All modules must be successful in the unit test before
the start of the integration testing begins'
$ntegration Testing)*
After unit testing, we have to perform integration testing' The goal here is to see if
modules can be integrated properly, the emphasis being on testing interfaces between
modules' This testing activity can be considered as testing the design and hence the
emphasis on testing module interactions'
Test
Subject
Test "ethod E#pected
$esult
%ctual $esult $emarks
0'%%essf'
l
registr)tio
n of 'ser
)nd
%#e%(ing
t#e 'ser
st)t's-
"#e login form
!)s filled
%ompletely !it#
)ll t#e ne%ess)ry
,)l'es )re
s'mitted )nd
t#en t#e st)t's
of ne!ly
registered /ser
is %#e%(ed-
2)l'es got
s'%%essf'lly
stored in t#e
tri%ity d)t))se
)nd retrie,ed
s'%%essf'lly
!#ile %#e%(ing
t#e 'ser det)ils
All t#e ,)l'es
entered )re
retrie,ed !it#
t#e def)'lt
st)t's-
3ot t#e %orre%t
det)ils
%orresponding to
t#e 'ser id of t#e
ne!ly registered
'ser -

Tale)Test cases for integration testing
System Testing)
93
*?ere the entire software system is tested' The reference document for this process is the
re1uirements document, and the goal is to see if software meets its re1uirements'?ere
entire +?((5- has been tested against re1uirements of pro2ect and it is chec*ed whether
all re1uirements of pro2ect have been satisfied or not'
#cceptance Testing)*
Acceptance Testing is performed with realistic data of the client to demonstrate that the
software is wor*ing satisfactorily' Testing here is focused on e/ternal behavior of the
systemO the internal logic of program is not emphasi#ed'
White 4o/ Testing)
*This is a unit testing method, where a unit will be ta*en at a time and tested thoroughly
at a statement level to find the ma/imum possible errors'White0bo/ test focuses on the
program control structure' Test cases are derived to ensure that all statement in the
program control structure' Test cases are derived to ensure that all statement in the
program control structure'
Test cases are derived to ensure that all statement in the program has been e/ecuted at
least once during testing and that all logical conditions have been e/ercised' Aasis path
testing, a white bo/ techni1ue, ma*es use of program graphs (or graph matrices) to derive
the set of linearly independent test that will ensure coverage' .ondition and data flow
testing further e/ercising degrees of comple/ity'
4lac: 4o/ Testing)*
This testing method considers a module as a single unit and chec*s the unit at interface
and communication with other modules rather getting into details at statement level' ?ere
the module will be treated as a bloc* that will ta*e some input and generate output'
"utput for a given set of input combinations are forwarded to other modules'Alac*0bo/
testing techni1ues focus on the information domain of the software, deriving test cases by
partitioning the input and output
Test $nformation 1low)*
A strategy for software testing may also be viewed in the conte/t of the spiral' Cnit
testing begins at the vorte/ of the spiral and, concentrates on each unit, component of the
software as implemented in source code'Testing progresses moving outward along the
spiral to integration testing, where the focus is on designed the construction of the
software architecture' Ta*ing another turn outward on spiral, we encounter validation
testing, where re1uirements established as part of software re1uirements analysis are
validated against the software '
94
Bigure&'6'$3 tages of Testing
$nformation flow of data for testing )


95
System Testing

Validation Testing
Integration Testing
Validation testing

Code
!valuatio
n
Evaluatio
n
Testing
(eliability
Model
Debug
oftware
.onfiguration
Test (esults
!rror (ate
D)t)
!/pected (esults
Error

Bigure 3 Data flow of testing
Test &ata and Test Cases)
The primary ob2ective of test case design is to derive a set of tests that have the highest
li*elihood of uncovering errors in software' The test case specification is the ma2or
activity in the testing process' .areful selection of test cases that satisfy the criterion on
approach specified is essential for proper testing' )arious characteristics of test cases that
are re1uired for portal are3
A good test has a high probability of finding an error'
A good test is not redundant'
A good test should be HAest of AreedI'
A good test should be neither too simple not too comple/'
Test &ata 1or This #pplication)
6' Cser Details li*e Eame, Address, .ountry etc'
$' 5ro2ect Details li*e .ountry Dropdowns, tates Dropdowns, telephone and uni1ue !0
Mail Ids etc'
M' .ontent to be displayed on the site'
T,ST PL#%
Testing commences with a test plan and terminates with acceptance testing' A test plan is
a general document for the entire pro2ect that defines the scope, approach to be ta*en and
schedule of testing as well as identifies the test item for the entire testing process and the
personnel responsible for the different activities of testing'
!verview of Testing
6' Testing)
Testing involves e/ecuting the program (or part of it) using sample data and inferring
from the output whether the software performs correctly or not' This can be done either
during module development (unit testing) or when several modules are combined (system
96
Test .onfiguration
5redicated (eliability .orrection
testing)'
$' &efect Testing3

Defect testing is testing for situation where the program does not meet its functional
specification' 5erformance testing tests a system\s performance or reliability under
realistic loads' This may go some way to ensuring that the program meets its non0
functional re1uirements'
&,4'(($%()
Debugging is a cycle of detection, location, repair and test' Debugging is a hypothesis
testing process' When a bug is detected, the tester must form a hypothesis about the cause
and location of the bug' Burther e/amination of the e/ecution of the program (possible
including many returns of it) will usually ta*e place to confirm the hypothesis' If the
hypothesis is demonstrated to be incorrect, a new hypothesis must be formed' Debugging
tools that show the state of the program are useful for this, but inserting print statements
is often the only approach' !/perienced debuggers use their *nowledge of common
and>or obscure bugs to facilitate the hypothesis testing process' After fi/ing a bug, the
system must be reset to ensure that the fi/ has wor*ed and that no other bugs have been
introduced' This is called regression testing' In principle, all tests should be performed
again but this is often too e/pensive to do'
Test Planning
Testing needs to be planned, to be cost and time effective' 5lanning is setting out
standards for tests' Test plans set out the conte/t in which individual engineers can place
their own wor*' Typical test plan contains3
!verview of testing process
6' (e1uirements trace ability (to ensure that all re1uirements are tested)
$' 4ist of item to be tested
M' chedule
;' (ecording procedures so that test results can be audited
7' ?ardware and software re1uirements
97
<' .onstraints
!verview of Testing Strategies
4arge systems are usually tested using a mi/ture of strategies' Different strategies may be
needed for different parts of the system or stages of the process'
Top*down testing)
This approach tests high levels of system before detailed components' This is appropriate
when developing the system top0down and is li*ely to show up structural design errors
early (and therefore cheaply)' Aut this often has advantage that a limited, wor*ing system
is available early on' )alidation (as distinct from verification) can begin early' Its
disadvantage is that stubs need to be generated (e/tra effort) and might be impracticable
if component is comple/ (e'g' converting an array into a lin*ed listO unrealistic to
generate random listO therefore end up implementing unit anyway)' Test output may be
difficult to observe (needs creation of artificial environment)' This is not appropriate for
"" systems (e/cept within a class)'
4ottom*"p testing)
This is opposite of top0down testing' This tests low0level units then wor*s up the
hierarchy' Its advantages and disadvantages mirror those of top0down testing' In this
testing there is need to write test drivers for each unit' These are as reusable as the unit
itself' .ombining top0down development with bottom0up testing means that all parts of
system must be implemented before testing can begin, which does not accord with
incremental approach discussed above' Aottom0up testing is less li*ely to reveal
architectural faults early on' ?owever, bottom0up testing of critical low0level components
is almost always necessary' Appropriate for "" systems'
Stress testing)
Tests system\s ability to cope with a specified load (e'g' transactions per second)' Tests
should be planned to increase load incrementally' This type of testing goes beyond design
limit until system fails (this test is particularly important for distributed systems li*e
chec*ing degradation of performance a s networ* traffic increases)'
4ac:*to*ac: testing3
.omparison of test results from different versions of the system (e'g' compare with
prototype, previous version or different configuration)' 5rocess K (un first system, saving
test case results' (un second system, again saving its results' .ompare result files' The
*ey point to be noted is that no difference does not mean no bugs' Aoth systems may
98
have made the same mista*e'
&efect testing)
A successful defect test is a test that causes the system to behave incorrectly' Defect
testing is not intended to show that a program meets its specification' If tests do not show
up defects it may mean that the tests are not e/haustive enough' !/haustive testing is not
always practically applicable' ubset has to be defined (this should be part of the test
plan, not left to the individual programmer)'

Prolems With 1low (raph &erived Testing)
Data comple/ity not ta*en into account'
Does not test all paths in combination'
5ractically possible at unit and module testing stages because beyond that comple/ity is
too high'
Interface testing3 Csually done at integration stage when modules or sub0systems are
combined' "b2ective is to detect errors or invalid assumptions about interfaces between
modules' (eason these are not shown in unit testing is that test case may perpetuate same
incorrect assumptions made by module designer' 5articularly important when ""
development has been used'
1o"r Types !f $nterface)
6' 5arameter3 data (or occasionally function references) passed from one unit to another'
$' hared memory3 bloc* of memory shared between units (e'g' global variable) '"ne
places data there and the other retrieves it'
M'5rocedural3 "b2ect0"riented or abstract data type form of interface, encapsulating
several procedures'
;' Message passing3 one sub0system re1uests a service by passing a message' .lient0
server interface also used by some "" architectures'
Three Common ;inds !f $nterface ,rror)
6' Interface misuse3 .aller gives wrong number>types>order of parameters or sends
invalid message'
$' Interface misunderstanding3 .aller misunderstanding specification of called
component and provides or receives data in legal but une/pected form'
M' Timing errors3 5roducer>consumer of data operates at different speeds and data is
accessed before being ready' X(ace conditionsX'
.ommon manifestations are when each unit assumes the other one is chec*ing for invalid
data (failure to chec* return status) and the conse1uences of when such a fault is
99
propagated to other units' Aest testing process is to test each subsystem separately, as we
have done in this pro2ect' Aest done during implementation i'e' done after implementation
of small sub0steps rather than large chun*s' "nce each lowest level unit has been tested,
units are combined with related units and retested in combination' This proceeds
hierarchically bottom0up until the entire system is tested as a whole'
Typical levels of testing3
Cnit 0procedure, function, method
Module0pac*age, abstract data type, class
ub0system 0 collection of related modules, cluster of classes, method0message paths
Acceptance testing 0 whole system with real data (involve customer, user, etc)
Alpha testing is acceptance testing with a single client (common for bespo*e systems)'
Aeta testing involves distributing system to potential customers to use and provide
feedbac*'
In, this pro2ect, Aeta testing has been followed' This e/poses system to situations and
errors that might not be anticipated by us'
Test Cases)*
S-%o- Test Cases ,rror
6
If user enter blan* or wrong password' !ither username or password is wrong
$ Wrong connectivity with database' Cn*nown Mys1l server host-local-
M
Including wrong common function file' Bailed to opening +common
function-asp'net for inclusion'
;
Wrong Mys1l function' Batal error call to undefined function'

100
Chapter ?
$mplementation #nd
,val"ation
? - $mplementation
ystem implementation is the stage when the user has thoroughly tested the system and
approves all the features provided by the system' The various tests are performed and the
system is approved only after all the re1uirements are met and the user is satisfied'
The new system may be totally new, replacing an e/isting manual or automated system,
or it may be a ma2or modification to an e/isting system' In either case, proper
implementation is essential to provide a reliable system to meet organi#ational
re1uirements' uccessful implementation may not guarantee improvement in the
organi#ation using the new system (that is a design 1uestion), but improper will prevent
it'com0pare the results' In still other situations, system developers stop using the old
system one day and start using the new one the ne/t'
Bor the pro2ect we need to install and configure ,4 server $%%7 , database server, and
the deployment directory for the pro2ect'
101

#spects of $mplementation
The two aspects of implementation are3
Training 5ersonnel
.onversion 5rocedures
$mplementation Tools)*
Coding
This means program construction with procedural specifications has finished and the
coding for the program begins3
"nce the design phase was over,coding commenced
.oding is natural conse1uence of design'
.oding step translate a detailed design representation of software into a programming
language reali#ation'
Main emphasis while coding was on style so that the end result was an optimi#ed
code'
The following points were :ept into consideration while coding)
Coding Style
The structured programming method was used in all the modules the pro2ect'It
incorporated the following features3
The code has been written so that the definition and implementation of each function
is contained in one file'
A group of related function was clubbed together in one file to include it when
needed and save us from the labour of writing it again and again'
%aming Convention)*
As the pro2ect si#e grows, so does the comple/ity of recogni#ing the purpose of the
variables' Thus the variables were given meaningful names, which would help in
understanding the conte/t and the purpose of the variable'
The function names are also given meaningful names that can be easily understood by
the user'
102
$ndentation
Dudicious use of indentation can ma*e the tas* of reading and understanding a program
much simpler'Indentation is an essential part of a goog program'If code id intended
without thought itv will seriously affect the readability of the program'
The higher0level statements li*e he definition of the variables,constants and the
function are intended,with each nested bloc* intended,stating their purpose in the
code'
Alan* line is also left between each function definition to ma*e the code loo* neat'
Indentation for each source file stating he purpose of the file is also done'
&#T#4#S, $7PL,7,%T#T$!%
I had earlier made database but wor*ed on ,4 erver for the first time' I learnt many
new things about database creation, concept of stored procedure etc' We learn many
things theoretically as part of our curriculum but here I got a chance to apply my
*nowledge practically and enhance it also at the same time'
?-0 7aintenance)*
Maintenance or enhancement can be classified as3 0
Corrective
#daptive
Perfective-
Corrective maintenance means repairing processing or performance failures or ma*ing
changes because of previously uncorrected problems or false assumptions'
#daptive maintenance means changing the program function'
Perfective maintenance means enhancing the performance or modifying the program(s)
to respond to the user-s additional or changing needs'
Maintenance is actually the implementation of the post implementation review plan'
As important as it is, many programmers and analysts are reluctant to perform or identify
themselves with the maintenance effort' There are psychological, personality and
professional reasons for this' In any case, a first class effort must be made to ensure that
software changes are made properly and in time to *eep the system in tune with user
specifications'
Maintenance is costly' "ne way to reduce maintenance costs is through maintenance
103
management and software modification audits' oftware modification consists of
program rewrites system level updates, and re0audits of low ran*ing programs to verify
and correct the soft spots'
The outcome should be more reliable software, a reduced maintenance bac*log,
and higher satisfaction and morale among the maintenance staff'In ?((5, care has
been ta*en towards maintenanceO 4oop ?oles can be eradicated from the system from
time to time according to changing re1uirements with lesser cost'
?-5 ,val"ation)*
The evaluation phase ran*s vendor proposals and determines the one best suited,
!valuation of the system is performed to identify its strengths and wea*nesses' The actual
evaluation can occur along any of the following dimensions3
"perational !valuation3 Assessment of the manner in which the system functions,
including case of use, response time, overall reliability and level of utili#ation'
"rgani#ational Impact3 Identification and measurement of benefits to the
organi#ation in such areas as financial concerns, operational efficiency and
competitive impact'
Cser Manager Assessment !valuation of the attitudes of senior and user manager
within the organi#ation, as well as end0users'
Development 5erformance3 !valuation of the development process in accordance
with such yardstic*s as overall development time and effort, conformance to budgets
and standards and other pro2ect management criteria'

104
Chapter D
Concl"sion
D - C!%CL'S$!%
This chapter provides me an opportunity to do self0introspection of what value I have
added to my *nowledge and s*ill set and to the pro2ect'It provides me e/posure to
entirely different technology' Wor*ing on 5?5 for the first time was a very enriching
e/perience' I had never wor*ed on this platform earlier' o it added to my list of *now
how and the computer languages *nown to me'
T,C2%$C#L G 7#%#(,7,%T L,SS!%S L,#R%T
The lessons learnt after developing this pro2ect are as follows3
Aefore developing any pro2ect the re1uirement should be made well clear so
that after developing it the programmer does not have to change it'
oftware and hardware constraints should be *ept in mind'
105
Time and cost are those constraints, which are never told but always
accounted for'
5ro2ect should be error free and made in such a way so that modifications can
be done in future'
A professional should have a vision to see beyond the user0defined
re1uirement'
All members of the pro2ect team have to be cooperative with each other'

4$4L$!(R#P29
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