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PSU calculator single rail misalculation by Harpo (09.08.

2012)
Overwrite values in yellow cells according your needs or parts parameters
giving min.parts parameters in green cells to hopefully match your plan
DC output voltage 18 V (desired target voltage)
DC current draw 0.5 A (total current draw of connected load and voltage setting network)
mains AC voltage 230 V (assume us=115V; europe=230V; down under=240V; Pusemuckel homebrew=167.4V)
mains line frequency 50 Hz (assume europe=50Hz, us=60Hz)
mains line over-/undervoltage 10 % (typ. +/-10%, might differ depending on location)
transformer secondary AC voltage 18.8387214 V (E fl. = required transformer full load secondary voltage)
picked transformer secondary 20 V (next availiable (round up) transformer secondary voltage)
transformer regulation 6.7 % (typ. +15% unloaded, might differ depending on build/type/vendor)
transformer secondary E nc 22 V (transformer E nc = no load voltage, assume +15% if not listed by transformer manufacturer)
transformer effectivity 91.7 % (typ. 80%, might differ depending on build/type/vendor)
voltage drop in rectifier 1.2 V (assuming 2x 0,6V diode drop in bridge rectifier, might differ, depending on current and temperature)
form factor (K) 1.8 K (diode fullwave bridge=1.8; delon w.center tap=1.2; single diode halfwave=2.3; 2 diode villard doubler=4)
regulator dropout voltage 2.5 V (typ. 3V, might differ depending on type of voltage regulator)
regulator T max. 125 C (typ. 125C, might differ depending on type of voltage regulator)
air temperature 30 C (inside box/case/..)
filter capacitor ripple% 10 % (keep ripple within range of 10% up to 20% (less than 10% will give increased loss within transformer because of lower angle of currentflow??(Stromfluwinkel))
dropout for x AC halfcycles 4 halfcycl. (dropout of AC cycles, caused by switching on of other heavy loads like motors, machinery,...)
rectifier diode voltage 66.39449833 V (min.voltage rating for rectifying diodes)
rectifier diode current 1.000613916 A (min.current rating for rectifying diodes)
filter capacitor min.capacity 1030.679447 uF (max.load current / (( V transf.sec.*sqr(2)-V rect.) * ripple%) * 4 (for allowing 3 AC halfwavecycles dropout) = cap.value in F)
picked capacity 4700 uF (typ. 10x current draw (in mA) = cap.value (in uF), if transformer is designed for this internal loss, resulting in heat, so watch transformers temp.class)
filter capacitor peak voltage 31.99724916 V (capacitor min.DC voltage rating)
input ripple voltage 1.063829787 V (remaining ripple voltage before regulator)
regulation headroom 2.692014335 V (positive value wanted)
regulator power dissipation 5.956349186 W
regulator R th 15.94936714 C
regulator R th case 5 C/W (typ 5 C/W for TO220 reg.junction to case)
insulator R th 3 C/W (typ 1.6 (lubed) - 3.4 (dry)C/W for TO220 surface area with thermal grease and 2 mil Mica insulator, mounting screw torque > 2lbs)
required min.heatsink 7.949367143 C/W (min.heatsink required for positive value, for negative value - forget it and use different circuit)
regulator temperature 125 C (giving regulators T max., so your heatsink really has to do better than previous min.heatsink value)
transformer rating 18.01105048 VA
picked transformer rating 20 VA
mains fuse current rating 0.104264415 A (min.fuse rating in A, if suggested value for transformer is missing, fusing characteristic (t)ime lag or slow blow for toroidals higher inrush current required)
mains fuse voltage rating 250 V (fuse voltage rating to prevent arcing if it blows)
Regulator Manufacturer V out V ref. typ. min.load R1 unloaded
positiv ignoring +I adj.*R2 V mA ohm
TL783 Texas Instruments =Vref(1+R2/R1) 1.27 15.000 84.6666667
LM117 National / STM =Vref(1+R2/R1) 1.25 5.000 250
LM317 National/STM/TI/Vishay =Vref(1+R2/R1) 1.25 10.000 125
LM317 Fairchild =Vref(1+R2/R1) 1.25 12.000 104.166667
LM338T National =Vref(1+R2/R1) 1.24 10.000 124
LM338 National / STM =Vref(1+R2/R1) 1.24 10.000 124
LM350 National =Vref(1+R2/R1) 1.25 5.000 250
LT1083,LT1084,LT1085 LT =Vref(1+R2/R1) 1.25 10.000 125
ignoring additional term +(I adj.*R2) that most probably gets buried in parts tolerances
V (ref.) I (set.) R1 (I set) V (out) R2 (adj.) P (R2 adj.)
V mA Ohm V Ohm W min.rating
1.25 5.681818182 220 18 2,948.0 0.0952
closest E96 value 221 17.88 2940 0.0941
closest E48 value 215 17.94 2870 0.0970
keep in mind parts tolerances for V ref. min/max values or +/-x% resistor values
a real worlds capacitor isn't only a capacitive element and a pcb trace isn't zero ohms
so build it safe by assuming worst case conditions
misalculation by Harpo (09.08.2012)
(total current draw of connected load and voltage setting network)
(assume us=115V; europe=230V; down under=240V; Pusemuckel homebrew=167.4V)
(assume europe=50Hz, us=60Hz)
(typ. +/-10%, might differ depending on location)
(E fl. = required transformer full load secondary voltage)
(next availiable (round up) transformer secondary voltage)
(typ. +15% unloaded, might differ depending on build/type/vendor)
(transformer E nc = no load voltage, assume +15% if not listed by transformer manufacturer)
(typ. 80%, might differ depending on build/type/vendor)
(assuming 2x 0,6V diode drop in bridge rectifier, might differ, depending on current and temperature)
(diode fullwave bridge=1.8; delon w.center tap=1.2; single diode halfwave=2.3; 2 diode villard doubler=4)
(typ. 3V, might differ depending on type of voltage regulator)
(typ. 125C, might differ depending on type of voltage regulator)
(keep ripple within range of 10% up to 20% (less than 10% will give increased loss within transformer because of lower angle of currentflow??(Stromfluwinkel))
(dropout of AC cycles, caused by switching on of other heavy loads like motors, machinery,...)
(min.voltage rating for rectifying diodes)
(min.current rating for rectifying diodes)
(max.load current / (( V transf.sec.*sqr(2)-V rect.) * ripple%) * 4 (for allowing 3 AC halfwavecycles dropout) = cap.value in F)
(typ. 10x current draw (in mA) = cap.value (in uF), if transformer is designed for this internal loss, resulting in heat, so watch transformers temp.class)
(capacitor min.DC voltage rating)
(remaining ripple voltage before regulator)
(typ 5 C/W for TO220 reg.junction to case)
(typ 1.6 (lubed) - 3.4 (dry)C/W for TO220 surface area with thermal grease and 2 mil Mica insulator, mounting screw torque > 2lbs)
(min.heatsink required for positive value, for negative value - forget it and use different circuit)
(giving regulators T max., so your heatsink really has to do better than previous min.heatsink value)
(min.fuse rating in A, if suggested value for transformer is missing, fusing characteristic (t)ime lag or slow blow for toroidals higher inrush current required)
(fuse voltage rating to prevent arcing if it blows)
R1 min.rating dropout T max. R th case R th air I adj. In/Adj./Out
W V C C/W C/W uA Pin TO220
0.0191 4V ,, 18V 125 4 62 83 3 / 1 / 2
0.0063 2.5 150 3 35 50 3 / 1 / 2
0.0125 2.5 125 5 50 50 3 / 1 / 2
0.0150 2.8 125 5 50 46 3 / 1 / 2
0.0124 3 125 4 50 3 / 1 / 2
0.0124 3 125 1 35 TO3
0.0063 3 125 1.5 35 50 3 / 1 / 2
0.0125 1.5 125 1.6 50 55 3 / 1 / 2
ignoring additional term +(I adj.*R2) that most probably gets buried in parts tolerances
V in V out
adj. place R1 close to Vreg.out
place R2 near to load ground
V-reg.
R
1
R2
(keep ripple within range of 10% up to 20% (less than 10% will give increased loss within transformer because of lower angle of currentflow??(Stromfluwinkel))
(typ. 10x current draw (in mA) = cap.value (in uF), if transformer is designed for this internal loss, resulting in heat, so watch transformers temp.class)
(typ 1.6 (lubed) - 3.4 (dry)C/W for TO220 surface area with thermal grease and 2 mil Mica insulator, mounting screw torque > 2lbs)
(min.fuse rating in A, if suggested value for transformer is missing, fusing characteristic (t)ime lag or slow blow for toroidals higher inrush current required)
PSU calculator center tapped dual rail misalculation by Harpo (09.08.2012)
Overwrite values in yellow cells according your needs or parts parameters
giving min.parts parameters in green cells to hopefully match your plan
DC output voltage 18 + / - V (desired target voltage)
DC current draw 1 A (total current draw both rails of connected load and voltage setting network)
mains AC voltage 230 V (assume us=115V; europe=230V; down under=240V; Pusemuckel homebrew=167.4V)
mains line frequency 50 Hz (assume europe=50Hz, us=60Hz)
mains line over-/undervoltage 10 % (typ. +/-10%, might differ depending on location)
transformer secondary AC voltage 35.94895957 V center tapped (E fl. = required transformer full load secondary voltage)
picked transformer secondary 40 V center tapped (next availiable (round up) transformer secondary voltage)
transformer regulation 6.7 % (typ. +15% unloaded, might differ depending on build/type/vendor)
transformer secondary E nc 43 V (transformer E nc = no load voltage, assume +15% if not listed by transformer manufacturer)
transformer effectivity 91.7 % (typ. 80%, might differ depending on build/type/vendor)
voltage drop in rectifier 1.2 V (assuming 2x 0,6V diode drop in bridge rectifier, might differ, depending on current and temperature)
form factor (K) 1.8 K (diode fullwave bridge=1.8; delon w.center tap=1.2; single diode halfwave=2.3; 2 diode villard doubler=4)
pos.regulator dropout voltage 2.5 V (typ. 3V, might differ depending on type of voltage regulator)
neg.regulator dropout voltage 1.6 V (typ. 3V, might differ depending on type of voltage regulator)
regulator T max. 125 C (typ. 125C, might differ depending on type of voltage regulator)
air temperature 30 C (inside box/case/..)
filter capacitor ripple% 10 % (keep ripple within range of 10% up to 20% (less than 10% will give increased loss within transformer because of lower angle of currentflow??(Stromfluwinkel))
dropout for x AC halfcycles 4 halfcycl. (dropout of AC cycles, caused by switching on of other heavy loads like motors, machinery,...)
rectifier diode voltage 132.7889967 V (min.voltage rating for rectifying diodes)
rectifier diode current 1.432427769 A (min.current rating for rectifying diodes)
filter capacitor per rail min.capacity 502.8998387 uF (max.load current / (( V transf.sec.*sqr(2)-V rect.) * ripple%) * 4 (for allowing 3 AC halfwavecycles dropout) = cap.value in F)
picked capacity per rail 5600 uF (typ. 10x current draw (in mA) = cap.value (in uF), if transformer is designed for this internal loss, resulting in heat, so watch transformers temp.class)
filter capacitor peak voltage per rail 32.59724916 V (capacitor min.DC voltage rating)
input ripple voltage 0.892857143 V (remaining ripple voltage before each rail regulator)
regulation headroom pos.rail 3.46298698 V (positive value wanted)
regulation headroom neg.rail 4.36298698 V (positive value wanted)
regulator power dissipation per rail 6.256349186 W
regulator R th 15.18457445 C
regulator R th case 5 C/W (typ 5 C/W for TO220 reg.junction to case)
insulator R th 3 C/W (typ 1.6 (lubed) - 3.4 (dry)C/W for TO220 surface area with thermal grease and 2 mil Mica insulator, mounting screw torque > 2lbs)
required min.heatsink 7.18457445 C/W (min.heatsink required for positive value, for negative value - forget it and use different circuit)
regulator temperature 125 C (giving regulators T max., so your heatsink really has to do better than previous min.heatsink value)
transformer rating required 51.56739967 VA
picked transformer rating 50 VA
mains fuse current rating 0.260661036 A (min.fuse rating in A, if suggested value for transformer is missing, fusing characteristic (t)ime lag or slow blow for toroidals higher inrush current required)
mains fuse voltage rating 250 V (fuse voltage rating to prevent arcing if it blows)
Regulator Manufacturer V out V ref. typ. min.load R1 unloaded
positiv ignoring +I adj.*R2 V mA ohm
TL783 Texas Instruments =Vref(1+R2/R1) 1.27 15.000 84.6666667
LM117 National / STM =Vref(1+R2/R1) 1.25 5.000 250
LM317 National/STM/TI/Vishay =Vref(1+R2/R1) 1.25 10.000 125
LM317 Fairchild =Vref(1+R2/R1) 1.25 12.000 104.166667
LM338T National =Vref(1+R2/R1) 1.24 10.000 124
LM338 National / STM =Vref(1+R2/R1) 1.24 10.000 124
LM350 National =Vref(1+R2/R1) 1.25 5.000 250
LT1083,LT1084,LT1085 LT =Vref(1+R2/R1) 1.25 10.000 125
Regulator Manufacturer V out V ref. typ. min.load R1 unloaded
negative ignoring +I adj.*R2 V mA ohm
LM137 National / STM =Vref(1+R2/R1) -1.25 5.000 250
LM337 National/STM/TI/Vishay =Vref(1+R2/R1) -1.25 10.000 125
LM337 National/STM/TI/Vishay =Vref(1+R2/R1) -1.25 10.000 125
LM337 Fairchild =Vref(1+R2/R1) -1.25 10.000 125
ignoring additional term +(I adj.*R2) that most probably gets buried in parts tolerances
V (ref.) I (set.) R1 (I set) V (out) R2 (adj.) P (R2 adj.)
V mA Ohm V Ohm W min.rating
1.25 10.41666667 120 18 1,608.0 0.1745
closest E96 value 121 17.99 1620 0.1729
closest E48 value 121 17.99 1620 0.1729
V (ref.) I (set.) R3 (I set) V (out) R4 (adj.) P (R4 adj.)
V abs. mA Ohm V Ohm W min.rating
1.25 10.41666667 120 18 1,608.0 0.1745
closest E96 value 121 17.99 1620 0.1729
closest E48 value 121 17.99 1620 0.1729
keep in mind parts tolerances for V ref. min/max values or +/-x% resistor values
a real worlds capacitor isn't only a capacitive element and a pcb trace isn't zero ohms
so build it safe by assuming worst case conditions
misalculation by Harpo (09.08.2012)
(total current draw both rails of connected load and voltage setting network)
(assume us=115V; europe=230V; down under=240V; Pusemuckel homebrew=167.4V)
(assume europe=50Hz, us=60Hz)
(typ. +/-10%, might differ depending on location)
(E fl. = required transformer full load secondary voltage)
(next availiable (round up) transformer secondary voltage)
(typ. +15% unloaded, might differ depending on build/type/vendor)
(transformer E nc = no load voltage, assume +15% if not listed by transformer manufacturer)
(typ. 80%, might differ depending on build/type/vendor)
(assuming 2x 0,6V diode drop in bridge rectifier, might differ, depending on current and temperature)
(diode fullwave bridge=1.8; delon w.center tap=1.2; single diode halfwave=2.3; 2 diode villard doubler=4)
(typ. 3V, might differ depending on type of voltage regulator)
(typ. 3V, might differ depending on type of voltage regulator)
(typ. 125C, might differ depending on type of voltage regulator)
(keep ripple within range of 10% up to 20% (less than 10% will give increased loss within transformer because of lower angle of currentflow??(Stromfluwinkel))
(dropout of AC cycles, caused by switching on of other heavy loads like motors, machinery,...)
(min.voltage rating for rectifying diodes)
(min.current rating for rectifying diodes)
(max.load current / (( V transf.sec.*sqr(2)-V rect.) * ripple%) * 4 (for allowing 3 AC halfwavecycles dropout) = cap.value in F)
(typ. 10x current draw (in mA) = cap.value (in uF), if transformer is designed for this internal loss, resulting in heat, so watch transformers temp.class)
(capacitor min.DC voltage rating)
(remaining ripple voltage before each rail regulator)
(typ 5 C/W for TO220 reg.junction to case)
(typ 1.6 (lubed) - 3.4 (dry)C/W for TO220 surface area with thermal grease and 2 mil Mica insulator, mounting screw torque > 2lbs)
(min.heatsink required for positive value, for negative value - forget it and use different circuit)
(giving regulators T max., so your heatsink really has to do better than previous min.heatsink value)
(min.fuse rating in A, if suggested value for transformer is missing, fusing characteristic (t)ime lag or slow blow for toroidals higher inrush current required)
(fuse voltage rating to prevent arcing if it blows)
R1 min.rating dropout T max. R th case R th air I adj. In/Adj./Out
W V C C/W C/W uA Pin TO220
0.0191 4V ,, 18V 125 4 62 83 3 / 1 / 2
0.0063 2.5 150 3 35 50 3 / 1 / 2
0.0125 2.5 125 5 50 50 3 / 1 / 2
0.0150 2.8 125 5 50 46 3 / 1 / 2
0.0124 3 125 4 50 3 / 1 / 2
0.0124 3 125 1 35 TO3
0.0063 3 125 1.5 35 50 3 / 1 / 2
0.0125 1.5 125 1.6 50 55 3 / 1 / 2
R1 min.rating dropout T max. R th case R th air I adj. In/Adj./Out
W V C C/W C/W uA Pin TO220
0.0063 0.8 150 4 50 50 2 / 1 / 3
0.0125 1.6 125 4 50 50 2 / 1 / 3
0.0125 1.6 125 3 35 50 TO3
0.0125 2.8 125 4 50 50 2 / 1 / 3
ignoring additional term +(I adj.*R2) that most probably gets buried in parts tolerances
V in+ V out+
adj. place R1 close to Vreg.out
place R2 near to load ground
center tap 0V
place R4 near to load ground
place R3 close to Vreg.out
adj.
V in- V out-
V-reg.
R
1
R2
V-reg.
R
4
R
3
(keep ripple within range of 10% up to 20% (less than 10% will give increased loss within transformer because of lower angle of currentflow??(Stromfluwinkel))
(typ. 10x current draw (in mA) = cap.value (in uF), if transformer is designed for this internal loss, resulting in heat, so watch transformers temp.class)
(typ 1.6 (lubed) - 3.4 (dry)C/W for TO220 surface area with thermal grease and 2 mil Mica insulator, mounting screw torque > 2lbs)
(min.fuse rating in A, if suggested value for transformer is missing, fusing characteristic (t)ime lag or slow blow for toroidals higher inrush current required)