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Data Integrity and Security in Cloud Using AES Algorithm

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
Everything has cloud linked to it by one means or the other. Let it be a technical magazine or
a blog, all talk about fresh new emergent technology so called cloud computing. Definition of
Cloud computing varies from professionals to professionals and from individual to individual.
Everyone has their own way of defining cloud computing. Basic working motto of cloud
computing is to provide cheap and efficient service to the mass. his reduces infrastructure cost,
data management cost, etc. cloud providers offers vast services such as software as a service,
infrastructure as a service, platform as a service and also few hints of monitoring as a service.
hese are services faces a common problem of data integrity problem. !n recent times, most of
the enterprise applications are deployed in cloud. Cloud are of three types, public cloud which is
mostly maintained by third parties, private cloud which is used for specific application and
hybrid cloud which is a combination of both the above mentioned clouds. "ecent times, lot of
hacking stuff are coming into report. his is due to poor security measures of corporation. !n
addition to the fault of corporation, there is a third party often at fault, the users.
Cloud computing is a type of computing that relies on sharing computing resources rather than
having local servers or personal devices to handle applications. !n cloud computing, the word
cloud is used as a metaphor for #the Internet,# so the phrase cloud computing means #a type of
!nternet$based computing,# where different services $$ such as servers, storage and applications
$$ are delivered to an organization%s computers and devices through the !nternet.
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Data Integrity and Security in Cloud Using AES Algorithm
Chapter 2

OBJECTIVE
2.1 Cloud Computing Model!
he &cloud' in cloud computing can be defined as the set of hardware, networks,
storage, services, and interfaces that combine to deliver aspects of computing as a service. Cloud
services include the delivery of software, infrastructure, and storage over the !nternet based on
user demand.
(oftware as a (ervice )(aa(*
(aas is a software delivery model in which software and associated data are centrally
hosted on the cloud by independent software vendors.
!t is a software distribution model in which applications are hosted by a vendor or
service provider and made available to customers over a network, typically the !nternet.
+latform as a (ervice )+aas*
!t is a way to rent hardware, operating systems, storage and network capacity over
the !nternet.
he service delivery model allows the customer to rent virtualized servers and
associated services for running e,isting applications or developing and testing new ones.
!nfrastructure as a (ervice )!aas*
!t is a provision model in which an organization outsources the e-uipment used to
support operations, including storage, hardware, servers and networking components.
he service provider owns the e-uipment and is responsible for housing, running and
maintaining it. he client typically pays on a per$use basis.
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Data Integrity and Security in Cloud Using AES Algorithm
.ig /.01 Cloud Computing 2odels.
2.2 T"pe o# Cloud

3ith cloud computing technology, large pools of resources can be connected through
private or public networks.
his technology simplifies infrastructure planning and provides dynamically scalable
infrastructure for cloud based applications, data, and file storage. Businesses can choose to
deploy applications on +ublic, +rivate, 4ybrid clouds or the newer Community Cloud.
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Data Integrity and Security in Cloud Using AES Algorithm
2.2.1 $u%li& Cloud
!n public cloud storage, it can access by any subscriber with an internet connection and
access to the cloud space.
2.2.2 $ri'ate Cloud
!n private cloud storage, it is established for a specific organizations and limits to
access to those organizations.
2.2.( )"%rid Cloud
!n hybrid cloud storage, it is combination of the public and private cloud storage. !t
means where critical cloud data located in private cloud while other data is stored and
accessed from public cloud.
2.2.* Communit" Cloud
!n community cloud is a is a multi$tenant cloud service model that is shared among
several or organizations and that is governed, managed and secured commonly by all the
participating organizations or a third party managed service provider.

.ig /./1 ypes of Clouds
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Data Integrity and Security in Cloud Using AES Algorithm
Chapter (

RE+,TED -OR.
(.1. E/iting 0"tem!
he importance of ensuring the remote data integrity has been highlighted by the following
research works under different security models.
hese can be useful to ensure the storage correctness without having users possessing local
data are all focusing on single server scenario.
5ules et al. defined a formal &proof of retrieve ability' )+6"* model for ensuring the remote
data integrity, their scheme combines spot$checking as well as error correcting code to ensure
both possession and getting of files on archive service systems.
(.1.1 $ro%lem 1ith E/iting "tem!
(ecurity1
(ecurity issues are high, as data integrity is lesser in the e,isting cloud system.
!mplementation1
!mplementing a security model would be essential for the growing number of cloud
users.
(.2. $ropoed 0"tem!
3e propose a framework which involves securing of files through file encryption. he
file present on the device will be encrypted using password based 7E( algorithm.
he user can also download any of the uploaded encrypted files and read it on the system
only if he is authorized to do it.
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Data Integrity and Security in Cloud Using AES Algorithm
(.(. +iterature 0ur'e"!
(.(.1 Cloud 0e&urit" Iue 223345!

!n past three decades, the world of computation has changed from centralized )client$
server not web$based* to distributed systems and now we are getting back to the virtual
centralization )Cloud Computing*. Location of data and processes makes the difference in the
realm of computation. 6n one hand, an individual has full control on data and processes in
his8her computer.
6n the other hand, we have the cloud computing wherein, the service and data maintenance
is provided by some vendor which leaves the client8customer unaware of where the processes are
running or where the data is stored. (o, logically speaking, the client has no control over it. he
cloud computing uses the internet as the communication media. 3hen we look at the security of
data in the cloud computing, the vendor has to provide some assurance in service level
agreements )(L7* to convince the customer on security issues.
(.(.2 , Compreheni'e ,pproa&h to Enure 0e&ure Data Communi&ation in
Cloud En'ironment223135!
Cloud computing is an !nternet based development, in concept, it is a paradigm shift
whereby details are abstracted from the users who no longer need knowledge of, e,pertise in, or
control over the technology infrastructure that supports them. 7ccording to a /99: !EEE paper,
&Cloud Computing is a paradigm in which information is permanently stored in servers on the
internet and cached temporarily on clients that include desktops, entertainment centers, table
computers and notebooks etc.' (ome e,amples of emerging Cloud computing infrastructures are
2icrosoft 7zure, 7mazon EC/, ;oogle 7pp Engine, and 7neka. Cloud service providers enable
users to access and use the necessary resources via the internet. o provide these resources,
providers often fall back upon other providers in the cloud, hence this raises security issues in
Cloud Environment as Clouds have no borders and the data can be physically located anywhere
in the world.
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Data Integrity and Security in Cloud Using AES Algorithm
(o this phenomenon raises serious issues regarding user authentication and data
confidentiality. 4ence it is proposed to implement a simple Data +rotection framework which
performs authentication, verification and encrypted data transfer, thus maintaining data
confidentiality. +rogramming is performed using 57<7 platform, Cloud environment is created
using wired and wireless L7= networks. 7nd 7dvanced Encryption (tandard security algorithm
is implemented for ensuring security framework.
(.(.( Implementing Variou En&r"ption ,lgorithm to Enhan&e The data
0e&urit" o# Cloud in Cloud Computing223125!
hough the concept of &clouds' is not new, it is undisputable that they have proven
a ma>or commercial success over recent years. Cloud computing is the delivery of
computing services by shared resources, software and information over the internet.
Cloud computing is the concept implemented to decipher the Daily Computing +roblems.
!n Cloud computing technology there are a set of important policy issues, which include
issues of privacy, security, anonymity, reliability, and liability, among others.
But the most important between them is security and how cloud provider assures it.
!n this research paper, we have tried to access the cloud based application that will try to
eliminate the concerns regarding data privacy, segregation and provides different
encryption algorithms to enhance the security in cloud as per different perspective of
cloud customers by providing them an interface through which user can select their
choice of algorithm.
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Data Integrity and Security in Cloud Using AES Algorithm
Chapter *
$RO$O0ED 060TEM
*.1 Method
3e propose a framework which involves securing of files through file encryption. he
file present on the device will be encrypted using password based 7E( algorithm. he user can
also download any of the uploaded encrypted files and read it on the system only if he is
authorized to do it.
he 7dvanced Encryption (tandard )7E(* is a symmetric$key block cipher published by
the =ational !nstitute of (tandards and echnology )=!(*.
he criteria defined by =!( for selecting 7E( fall into three areas1
0. (ecurity
/. Cost
?. !mplementation.
7E( is a non$.estal cipher that encrypts and decrypts a data block of 0/: bits. !t uses 09,
0/, or 0@ rounds. he key size, which can be 0/:, 0A/, or /BC bits, depends on the number of
rounds.
o provide security, 7E( uses four types of transformations1
0 (ubstitution
/ +ermutations
? 2i,ing
@ 7dding round key
*.1.1 0u%titution!
!tDs a non$linear substitution step where each byte is replaced with another according to a
lookup table.
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Data Integrity and Security in Cloud Using AES Algorithm
*.1.2 $ermutation!
7 transposition step where each row of the state is shifted cyclically a certain number of
steps.
*.1.( Mi/ing!
!tDs a mi,ing operation which operates on the columns of the state, combining the four bytes
in each column.
*.1.* ,dding round 7e"!

!n this step, the sub key is combined with the state. .or each round, a subkey is derived from
the main key using "i>ndaelDs key scheduleE each subkey is the same size as the state. he
subkey is added by combining each byte of the state with the corresponding byte of the subkey
using bitwise F6".
*.2 ,E0 En&r"ption 8 De&r"ption ,lgorithm!

7E( is an algorithm for performing encryption )and the reverse, decryption* which is a
series of well$defined steps that can be followed as a procedure. he original information is
known as plainte,t, and the encrypted form as cipher te,t.
he cipher te,t message contains all the information of the plainte,t message, but is not in a
format readable by a human or computer without the proper mechanism to decrypt itE it should
resemble random gibberish to those not intended to read it.
he encrypting procedure is varied depending on the key which changes the detailed
operation of the algorithm. 3ithout the key, the cipher cannot be used to encrypt or decrypt.
7E( is a non$.estal cipher that encrypts and decrypts a data block of 0/: bits. !t uses 09,
0/, or 0@ rounds. he key size, which can be 0/:, 0A/, or /BC bits, depends on the number of
rounds.
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Data Integrity and Security in Cloud Using AES Algorithm
*.2.1,lgorithm
Cipher)byte inG@H=bI, byte outG@H=bI, word wG=bH)=rJ0*I*
begin byte stateG@,=bI state K in 7dd"oundLey)state, wG9, =b$0I*
for round K 0 step 0 to =rM0
(ubBytes)state*
(hift"ows)state*
2i,Columns)state*
7dd"oundLey)state, wGroundH=b, )roundJ0*H=b$0I*
end
for
(ubBytes)state*
(hift"ows)state*
7dd"oundLey)state, wG=rH=b, )=rJ0*H=b$0I* out K state !nvCipher)byte
inG@H=bI, byte outG@H=bI, word wG=bH)=rJ0*I* begin byte stateG@,=bI state K in
7dd"oundLey)state, wG=rH=b, )=rJ0*H=b$0I*
end
for
round K =r$0 step $0 downto 0
!nv(hift"ows)state*
!nv(ubBytes)state*
7dd"oundLey)state, wGroundH=b, )roundJ0*H=b$0I* !nv2i,Columns)state*
end
for
!nv(hift"ows)state*
!nv(ubBytes)state*
7dd"oundLey)state, wG9, =b$0I* out K state
end
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Data Integrity and Security in Cloud Using AES Algorithm
*.2.2 Blo&7 Diagram!
he block diagram of the implementation of 7E( algorithm is as shown below.
.ig @.01 Encryption +rocess
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Data Integrity and Security in Cloud Using AES Algorithm
*.( Comparion o# DE0 8 ,E0 ,lgorithm!

DE( was the encryption algorithm used prior to 7E(, and it had few drawbacks hence
7E( grew, the below table shows few drawbacks of DE(.
able @.0 Comparison with E,isting (ystem
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Data Integrity and Security in Cloud Using AES Algorithm
CONC+U0ION
!n past three decades, the world of computation has changed from centralized )client$server
not web$based* to distributed systems and now we are getting back to the virtual centralization
)Cloud Computing*.
he cloud computing uses the internet as the communication media. 3hen we look at the
security of data in the cloud computing, the vendor has to provide some assurance in service
level agreements )(L7* to convince the customer on security issues.
4ere we have proposed that using 7E( and provides the file level security to end users of
Cloud.
By this a user can securely transfer their confidential files across the network. his
approach is -uite useful because it enables user to keep away the unauthorized person such that
he cannot be able to read user files.
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Data Integrity and Security in Cloud Using AES Algorithm
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"esearch in Computer (cience and (oftware Engineering ?)09*, 6ctober $ /90?, pp. O:$:? P
/90?, !57"C((E 7ll "ights "eserved +age Q :?
G@I Lamal Dahbur, Bassil 2ohammad and 7hmad Bisher arak>i, &7 (urvey of "isks, hreats
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GBI 2. (udha, Dr.Bandaru "ama Lrishna "ao, 2. 2onica, &7 Comprehensive 7pproach to
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