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TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

QUESTION 1: State four purposes of educational research.


Educators need to be consumers (and producers) of research.
a. Improe !ractice
b. "dd to #no$led%e
c. "ddress &aps in #no$led%e
d. E'pand #no$led%e
e. (eplicate #no$led%e
QUESTION ): State four characteristics of research.
(esearch* is a search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with an
open mind, to establish novel facts, usually using scientific methods.
Characteristics of Research:
1) (eliability
2 +alidit,
! Empirical
" S,stematic
# -o%ical pro%ression
$ Scientific method
(refer to po$er point lecture 1"pa.ah !en,elidi.an/en% slide no. 0*1)
QUESTION 0: State the three approaches in educational research.
1. !ositiist (Quantitatie)
). Interpretie (Qualitatie)
0. 2ritical
1* !ositiist approach
1
" !ositiist approach to research is based on .no$led%e %ained from
3positie3 erification of obserable e'perience rather than4 for e'ample4
introspection or intuition. Scientific methods or e'perimental testin% are
the best $a, of achiein% this .no$led%e.
!ositiist approaches rel, heail, on e'perimental and manipulatie
methods. This %enerall, inoles h,pothesis %eneration and testin%:
proin% or refutin%. T,picall,4 5uantitatie methods are used.
)* Interpretie approach
Interpretie studies assume that people create and associate their o$n
sub6ectie and inter*sub6ectie meanin%s as the, interact $ith the $orld
around them. Interpretie researchers thus attempt to understand
phenomena throu%h accessin% the meanin%s participants assi%n to them.
(Orli.o$s.i and 7aroudi 1881)
9ocuses on anal,ticall, disclosin% the meanin%*ma.in% practices4 $hile
sho$in% ho$ those practices confi%ure to %enerate obserable outcomes.
0* 2ritical approach
Understand and e'plain phenomena and their interrelationships in non*
numeric terms4 and incorporates such data collection and anal,sis
methods as obseration4 indiidual and %roup interie$in%4 te'tual and
isual data anal,sis. This form of in5uir, depends primaril, on matters of
5ualit, than 5uantit, (e.%.4 an in*depth understandin% of the form and
nature of a phenomenon rather than its fre5uenc,4 re%ularit, or
distribution).
To 5uestion:in5uire the conceptual and theoretical bases of .no$led%e
and method
)
QUESTION ;: E'plain the differences bet$een the positiist4 interpretie and critical
approaches in research.
Differe%ces bet&ee% Positi'ist a%( I%ter)reti'e A))roach
As)ects Positi'ist I%ter)reti'e
Ob6ectie 9indin% out the relationship4
causes and effects
Understandin% social
phenomena
"pproach Testin% theories4 improin%
the prediction of a
phenomena4deductie
Understandin% a phenomena
throu%h the meanin%s %ien
b, obserers4 inductie
(ealit, Ob6ectie<=etermined b, the rules. =epends on the interpretation
and translationof the obserers.
+ariables =etermined from the
be%innin% of the research
Not determined from the
be%innin% of the research
=ata anal,sis Statistical anal,sis to the
numerical data
Narratie interpretation and
description. ($ords)
Instruments Usin% standard interments Usin% face to face interaction
"lso refer to po$er point lecture 1"pa.ah !en,elidi.an/en% slide no. 11*1>)
Positivism: predicts
Interpretivism: understands
Critical orientation: emancipates
QUESTION ?
*i'e a% e+a,)le for each of the three a))roaches to research
A- Positi'ist a))roach
E'ample:
Title: The leel of stress amon% lecturers in Institute of Teacher Education4
International -an%ua%es 2ampus.
(esearch ob6ectie: To inesti%ate stress amon% lecturers in Institute of
0
Teacher Education4 International -an%ua%es 2ampus.
(esearch 5uestion: @hat is the leel of stress amon% lecturers in Institute of
Teacher Education4 International -an%ua%es 2ampusA
B,pothesis: There is no si%nificant difference in the leel of stress bet$een
male and female lecturers.
(esearch =esi%n: This research uses a sure, research desi%n.
Sample: CD lecturers randoml, selected.
Instrument: " Stress Inentor, (5uestionnaire).
"nal,sis:. 9or the anal,sis4 the mean stress leel is calculated for the sample as
a $hole as $ell as for male and female lecturers separatel,. " t*test is then run
to determine if there is a si%nificant difference in the leel of stress bet$een
male and female lecturers.
.- I%ter)reti'e A))roach
Title: The S,stem of (aluation in SE# 7acho.
(esearch Question: 1. @hat are the procedures used b, teachers to ealuate
their students in SE# 7acho.A
). @hat are the stren%ths of the ealuation s,stem in
SE# 7acho.A
0. @hat are the $ea.nesses of the ealuation s,stem in
SE# 7acho.A
Sample: 1D teachers in SE# 7acho.
Instrument Obseration formF interie$ schedule
(esearch =esi%n =escriptie:Narratie
"nal,sis cate%orisin%4 codin%4 loo.in% for themes etc.
QUESTION C: &ie an e'ample for both 5uantitatie and 5ualitatie research. E'plain
four differences bet$een them.
See e+a,)les abo'e/ 01a%titati'e 2 Positi'is,/ 01alitati'e 2 I%te)reti'e
"lso4
P1r)ose E+a,)les
01alitati'e To proide rich narratie
descriptions $ith $ords of
Obserations of school rene$al
teams to understand the role of
;
phenomena that can enhance
understandin%.
parents.
01a%titati'e To describe phenomena
numericall, to ans$er specific
5uestions or h,potheses.
The relationship bet$een amount
of home$or. and student
achieement.
=ifferences bet$een 5uantitatie and 5ualitatie research
(refer to po$er point lecture 1"pa.ah !en,elidi.an/en% slide no. 1?*1C)
QUESTION 1: @h, is it important to hae research ethicsA
1. Norms )ro,ote the ai,s of research4 such as .no$led%e4 truth4 and aoidance
of error. 9or e'ample4 prohibitions a%ainst fabricatin%4 falsif,in%4 or
misrepresentin% research data promote the truth and aoid error.
). Since research often inoles a %reat deal of cooperation and coordination
amon% man, different people in different disciplines and institutions4 ethical
standards promote the 'al1es that are esse%tial to collaborati'e &or34 such
as trust4 accountabilit,4 mutual respect4 and fairness.
0. Ean, of the ethical norms help to ensure that researchers can be held
acco1%table to the )1blic.
;. Ethical norms in research also help to build )1blic s1))ort for research. !eople
more li.el, to fund research pro6ect if the, can trust the 5ualit, and inte%rit, of
research.
?
?. Ean, of the norms of research promote a ariet, of other important ,oral a%(
social 'al1es4 such as social responsibilit,4 human ri%hts4 and animal $elfare4
compliance $ith the la$4 and health and safet,.
.
QUESTION >: State C aspects of research ethics that a researcher should follo$
1- Disc1ss i%tellect1al )ro)erty fra%3ly
2- .e co%scio1s of ,1lti)le roles
!- 4ollo& i%for,e(5co%se%t r1les
"- Res)ect co%fi(e%tiality a%( )ri'acy
#- 6ali(ity of the research-
The content of the research should be accurate and precise in order to aoid pla%iarism
or cheatin%. This $ill determine $hether the information or the data collected b, the
researcher is alid and done $ithout deception.
7- A))ro'al fro, a8e%cies or a%y a1thorities
TOPIC 2: T9PES O4 RESEARCH
QUESTION 1: State four t,pes of educational research.
1. 7asic
). "pplied
0. Ealuation
;. "ction
T,pes of (esearch desi%n:
01alitati'e 01a%titati'e
Ethno%raph,
2ase stud,
Bistorical
Narratie
E'perimental
Quasi*e'perimental
Sure,
2orrelational
C
QUESTION ) : E'plain each of the follo$in% cate%ories of research: basic4 applied4
action and ealuation.
P1r)ose E+a,)les
.asic To increase .no$led%e and
understandin% of phenomena.
Understand ho$ feedbac. affects
motiation or learnin% st,les of
adolescents.
A))lie( To sole practical educational
problems.
=etermine best approach to train
teachers to use portfolios for
assessment.
E'al1atio% To ma.e a decision about a
pro%ram or actiit,. To determine
the $orth of a pro%ramme4 the
stren%ths and $ea.nesses and
ho$ to improe.
=ecide $hether to .eep or phase
out a pre.inder%arten pro%ram.
Actio% To improe practice in a school or
classroom.
=etermine $hich %roupin%
procedure results in the hi%hest
achieement for all students.
7"SI2 (ESE"(2B
7asic (a.a fundamental or pure) research is drien b, a scientist3s curiosit, or interest in
a scientific 5uestion. The main motiation is to e'pand man3s .no$led%e4 not to create
or inent somethin%. There is no obious commercial alue to the discoeries that result
from basic research.
"!!-IE= (ESE"(2B
"pplied research refers to scientific stud, and research that see.s to sole practical
problems. "pplied research is used to find solutions to eer,da, problems4 cure illness4
and deelop innoatie technolo%ies4 rather than to ac5uire .no$led%e for .no$led%e3s
sa.e.
1
"2TION (ESE"(2B
Action research focuses on solin% practitionerGs local problems. It is %enerall,
conducted b, the practitioners after the, hae learned about the methods of research
and research concepts that are discussed in ,our te'tboo.. It is important to
understand that action research is also a state of mindF for e'ample4 teachers $ho are
action researchers are constantl, obserin% their students for patterns and thin.in%
about $a,s to improe instruction4 classroom mana%ement4 and so forth.
E+"-U"TION (ESE"(2B
Evaluation inoles determinin% the $orth4 merit4 or 5ualities of an ealuation ob6ect.
Ealuation is traditionall, classified accordin% to its purpose:
Formative evaluation is used for the purpose of pro%ram improement.
Summative evaluation is used for the purpose of ma.in% summar, 6ud%ments
about a pro%ram and decisions to continue of discontinue the pro%ram.

QUESTION 0: State and e'plain four t,pes of 5uantitatie research.
i- Descri)ti'e research
To describe the current status of an identified ariable.
To proide s,stematic information about a phenomenon.
The researcher does not usuall, be%in $ith an h,pothesis4 but is li.el, to deelop
one after collectin% data.
The anal,sis and s,nthesis of the data proide the test of the h,pothesis.
S,stematic collection of information re5uires careful selection of the units studied
and careful measurement of each ariable.
E'amples of descriptie research:
>
o " description of ho$ second*%rade students spend their time durin%
summer acation
o " description of ho$ parents feel about the t$ele*month school ,ear
ii- Co5relatio%al research
To determine the e'tent of a relationship bet$een t$o or more ariables usin%
statistical data.
The relationships bet$een and amon% a number of facts are sou%ht and
interpreted.
(eco%niHe trends and patterns in data4 but it does not %o so far in its anal,sis to
proe causes for these obsered patterns.
2ause and effect is not the basis of this t,pe of obserational research. The data4
relationships4 and distributions of ariables are studied onl,. +ariables are not
manipulatedF the, are onl, identified and are studied as the, occur in a natural
settin%.
E'amples of correlational research:
o The relationships bet$een the t,pes of actiities used in math classrooms
and student achieement
o The relationship bet$een intelli%ence and self*esteem
iii- 01asi5e+)eri,e%tal research
To establish cause*effect relationships amon% the ariables.
"n independent ariable is identified but not manipulated b, the e'perimenter4
and effects of the independent ariable on the dependent ariable are measured.
The researcher does not randoml, assi%n %roups and must use ones that are
naturall, formed or pre*e'istin% %roups.
Identified control %roups e'posed to the treatment ariable are studied and
compared to %roups $ho are not.
8
E'amples of 5uasi*e'perimental research:
o The effect of part*time emplo,ment on the achieement of hi%h school
student
o The effect of preschool attendance on social maturit, at the end of the first
%rade
i'- E+)eri,e%tal research
Uses the scientific method to establish the cause*effect relationship amon% a
%roup of ariables that ma.e up a stud,.
" true e'periment is an, stud, $here an effort is made to identif, and impose
control oer all other ariables e'cept one.
"n independent ariable is manipulated to determine the effects on the
dependent ariables.
Sub6ects are randoml, assi%ned to e'perimental treatments rather than identified
in naturall, occurrin% %roups.
o The effect of positie reinforcement on attitude to$ard school
o The effect of teachin% $ith a cooperatie %roup strate%, or a traditional
lecture approach on studentsG achieement
QUESTION ;: State and e'plain four t,pes of 5ualitatie research.
01alitati'e Research
Qualitative research relies primaril, on the collection of 5ualitatie data (i.e.4 nonnumeric
data such as $ords and pictures).
The four ma6or t,pes or methods of 5ualitatie research:
1D
!henomenolo%,.
Ethno%raph,.
&rounded theor,.
2ase stud,.
Phe%o,e%olo8y
The first ma6or approach to 5ualitatie research is phenomenolo%, (i.e.4 the descriptie
stud, of ho$ indiiduals e'perience a phenomenon).
Bere is an e'ample based on the description of a carin% nurse (from E'hibit 1;.0)
IIn a carin% interaction4 the nurseGs e'istential presence is perceied b, the client
as more than 6ust a ph,sical presence. There is the aspect of the nurse %iin% of
oneself to the client. This %iin% of oneself ma, be in response to the clientGs
re5uest4 but it is more often a oluntar, effort and is unsolicited b, the client. The
nurseGs $illin%ness to %ie of oneself is primaril, perceied b, the client as an
attitude and behaior of sittin% do$n and reall, listenin% and respondin% to the
uni5ue concerns of the indiidual as a person of alue. The rela'ation4 comfort4
and securit, that the client e'presses both ph,sicall, and mentall, are an
immediate and direct result of the clientGs stated and unstated needs bein% heard
and responded to b, the nurseJ (9rom 2res$ell4 188>4 p.)>8).
Eth%o8ra)hy
The second ma6or approach to 5ualitatie research is ethno%raph, (i.e.4 the discoer,
and description of the culture of a %roup of people).
Bere is the foundational 5uestion in ethno%raph,: What are the cultural
characteristics of this group of people or of this cultural scene?
7ecause ethno%raph, ori%inates in the discipline of "nthropolo%,4 the concept of
culture is of central importance.
2ulture is the s,stem of shared beliefs4 alues4 practices4 lan%ua%e4 norms4
rituals4 and material thin%s that %roup members use to understand their $orld.
One can stud, micro cultures (e.%.4 such as the culture in a classroom) as $ell as
macro cultures (e.%.4 such as the United States of "merica culture).

Case St1(y Research
11
The third ma6or approach to 5ualitatie research is case stud, research (i.e.4 the
detailed account and anal,sis of one or more cases).
Bere is the foundational 5uestion in case stud, research: What are the
characteristics of this single case or of these comparison cases?
" case is a bounded s,stem (e.%.4 a person4 a %roup4 an actiit,4 a process).

7ecause the roots of case stud, are interdisciplinar,4 man, different concepts and
theories can be used to describe and e'plain the case.

*ro1%(e( Theory
The fourth ma6or approach to 5ualitatie research is %rounded theor, (i.e.4 the
deelopment of inductie4 Kbottom*up4K theor, that is K%roundedK directl, in the empirical
data).
Bere is the foundational 5uestion in %rounded theor,: What theory or eplanation
emerges from an analysis of the data collected a!out this phenomenon?
It is usuall, used to %enerate theor, (remember from earlier chapters that
theories tell ,ou KBo$K and K@h,K somethin% operates as it doesF theories
proide e'planations).
&rounded theor, can also be used to test or elaborate upon preiousl, %rounded
theories4 as lon% as the approach continues to be one of constantl, %roundin%
an, chan%es in the ne$ data.
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