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Reference Data

Conversion Factors:

MULTIPLY BY TO OBTAIN MULTIPLY BY TO
OBTAIN

Atmospheres 14.70 Lbs./sq. inch
(Absolute)
Atmospheres 2116.8 Lbs./sq. inch
(Absolute)

B.T.U/min. 0.02356 Horsepower
B.T.U/min. 0.01757 Kilowatts

Feet 30.48 Centimeters

Feet of Water 0.4335 Lbs./sq. inch
(62F)

Gallons 231 Cubic inches
Gallons of Water 8.34 Pounds

Horsepower (Boiler) 33.479 B.T.U./hr.
Horsepower (Boiler) 9.803 Kilowatt-hrs.

Inches 2.54 Centimeters

Inches of Water 0.03613 Lbs./sq. inch

Liters 61.02 Cubic inches
Liters 0.264 Gallons

Tons of Refrigeration 12000 B.T.U./hr

_____________________________________________________________________
Heating and Cooling Calculations:
CFM=Cubic feet of air per minute passing through the coil
Weight per cu ft..=Weight of 1 pound (.075)
Sp ht=BTU required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of air 1 degree F (.24)
T
o
=Temperature of air entering coil in degrees F.
T..=Temperature of air leaving coil in degrees F.
T
1
=Temperature of water leaving coil in degrees F.
T
2
=Temperature of water entering coil in degrees F.
H
1
=Enthalpy of entering air.
H
2
=Enthalpy of leaving air.

Capacity of Hot Water Coil

GPM =CFM X 1.08 X (T T
o
)
(T
2
T
1
) X 500

Capacity of Chilled Water Coil

GPM =(H
1
H
2
) X CFM X .075 X 60
(T
2
T
1
) X 500
Chiller Tonnage

TONS =GPM X (CHWR CHWS)
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Chiller Coefficient of Performance

COP =(CHWR CHWS) X GPM X
0.0417
0.28433 X KW

DC Current Kilowatts KW ={Amps X Volts}/1000

AC Single Phase Kilowatts KW ={Amps X Volts X Power Factor}/1000

AC Three Phase Kilowatts KW ={Amps X Volts X 1.73 X Power Factor}/1000
VAV Box Air Flow Rate (CFM)

CFM=Cubic feet of air per minute passing through the duct
A..=Duct area in sq. ft.
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V..=Velocity of the air
Pv.=Pressure in inches of H
2
O from PV3

Equation Q =AV

0.0763 is the density of dry air at 60
o
F

The duct diameter units are in ft.

CFM =1096(Duct Diameter/2)
2
((Pv/.0763))

Linear Reset Schedule Formula

The linear reset schedule is used to reset a particular setpoint based on a particular parameter. Some
examples are:
Boiler hot water supply temperature reset based on the outside air temperature. In this instance, the hot
water bypass valve is modulated to control the temperature of the water flow.
Supply air temperature reset based on the space zone calling for the most cooling or heating.
Chilled water supply temperature reset based on the chilled water return temperature.

Y..=The variable that is reset
m..=The slope of the reset line
x...=The parameter that the reset is based upon
b...=System constant that defines the equation of the line
Y
1
.=Minimum value of the reset variable
Y
2
.=Maximum value of the reset variable
X
1
.=Minimum value of the dependent value
X
2
.=Maximum value of the dependent value

STEP 1: Determine the minimum and maximum values of the system, i.e. Y
1
, Y
2
, X
1
, and X
2
.

Example: Boiler hot water reset schedule. When the outside air temperature is 50 degrees F or below, the
hot water supply temperature should be reset to 140 degrees F. When the outside air temperature is 90
degrees F or above, the hot water supply temperature should be reset to 110 degrees F.

From the sequence of operation above, Y
1
=140, Y
2
=110, X
1
=50, and X
2
=90.

STEP 2: Determine the slope of the line.

m =Y
2
Y
1
=110 140 =-30 =-0.75
X
2
X
1
90 50 40

STEP 3: Determine b. Plug in the known parameters into the equation of the line and solve for b.

Y =mx +b b =Y mx =140 (-0.75)(50) =72.5

b =177.5

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STEP 4: Plug in the calculated values for m and b into the equation for a line.

Y =mx +b =(-0.75)x +177.5

Here, Y is the HOT WATER SUPPLY TEMPERATURE and x is the OUTSIDE AIR
TEMPERATURE.

Although CBAS 2000 calculates linear reset equations automatically with the RESET
SCHEDULE function, a sample calculation point in another program for this example
would look like:

HOT WATER SUPPLY TEMPERATURE = -0.75 X OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE + 177.5









































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