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Sampling Method

GPA 2166
Prepared by :
Candra Aditya Wiguna 6512010005
Magda Dwi Apriani 6512010014

Agenda
Scope
Important Note
Definition
Principles of Sampling
Safety
Scope of GPA 2166
Purpose
To recommend procedures for obtaining
representative samples from flowing natural
gas stream
Not Included
Two-phase sample
Composite gas sample
Vacuum sources
Note of GPA 2166
Hydrogen Sulfide
Should be analyzed on site
Moisture
Should be analyzed on site or using moisture saturation
calculation
Dew Point
Determine the dew point using chilled mirror test (the gas
portion at two-phase system is at hydrocarbon dewpoint)
Temperature setting
Temperature of the line must 30F (17C) above the calculated
hydrocarbon dewpoint
Note of GPA 2166
Equipment
All equipment between sample valve and sample
cylinder must be maintained above hydrocarbon
dewpoint
Sample conditioning downstream and sample purging
must be maintained above hydrocarbon dewpoint
Regulator must be heated due to temperature decrease
because of the JT process
Flow control must be located at the outlet of sample
container
Flow control must be located at the end of an extension
tube (pigtail) to thermally isolate the cooling effect
caused by JT process
Definitions
Absorption
Natural gas constituents are dissolved into a liquid or solid that is not
considered to be part of the mixtures liquid phase
Adsorption
A thin film of molecules adheres to aliquid or solid surface
Chilled mirror test
Used to determine dew points (water and/or hydrocarbon) by passing
the natural gas over amirror while gradually reducing the temperature of
the mirror until condensation forms in the surface of the mirror
De-sorption
Adsorbed or absorbed molecules are release from a liquid or solid
surface
Definitions
Floating Piston Cylinder
A sample container which has moving piston that has sample pressure on
one side of the piston, balanced by a pre-charge pressure on the other
side of the piston
Flow-Proportional Composite Sampling
The process of collecting gas over a period of time at a rate that is
proportional to the pipeline flow rate
Gas Sampling Separator
A device in the sampling system used to remove contaminant liquids
from the natural gas sample
Multi Phase Flow
Two or more phase such as vapor and liquid in the sample stream
Representative Gas Sample
A gas sample that is compositionally identical, or as near to identical, as
possible to the sample source stream
Sample Container
Any container used to hold a natural gas sample
Sample Probe
A device extending through the meter tube or piping into the stream to
be sampled
Single-Phase Flow
For natural gas, natural gas flowing at the temperature above the
Hydrocarbon Dew Point and free of compressor oil, water, or other liquid
or solid contaminants in the flow stream
Principles of Sampling
Purging Fill and Empty Method
Purging Controlled Rate Method
Evacuated Container Method
Reduced Pressure Method
Helium Pop Method
Glycol or Water Displacement Method
Floating Piston Cylinder Method
Portable or On-Line Gas Chromatograph
Aparatus
Aparatus
Aparatus
Aparatus
Principles of Sampling
Fill and Empty Purge Cycles
Method
Principles of Sampling
Maximum gas pressure in
container, psig (kPa gauge)
Number of fill and empty
cycles
15-29 (100-200) 13
30-59 (200-405) 8
60-89 (405-615) 6
90-149 (615-1025) 5
150-500 (1025-3450) 4
>500 (>3450) 3
Fill and Empty Purge Cycles
Method
Number of Purge Cycles = log
(X)
Y
X = atmospheric pressure + fill pressure (psia)
Y = maximum allowable mole fraction of contaminants
Principles of Sampling
Purge Rate Controlling Method
H
i
g
h
e
r

V
o
l
u
m
e

Longer Purging
Reducing Pressure Method
Reducing
pressure
from high
pressure
line to
sample
line system
Sample not
allowable to
cross the
two phase
area
Helium Pop Method
He
5 psig
Desired
pressure
Water and Glycol Displacement Method
Water and Glycol Displacement Method
Water and Glycol can cause
absorbtion and desorbtion
Use Glycol as
displacement
medium
When
temperature
is below
32F (0C)
Use Water and
Glycol as
displacement
medium
When
temperature
is above
32F (0C)
Seals or
Lubricant can
absorb
sample
component
Seal or
Lubricant
must be inert
Floating Piston Cylinder Method
Open sample
valve
Open purge
valve
Close purge
valve
Open sample
inlet valve
Adjust pressure
Adjust pressure
Portable Gas
Chromatography
Must using a
regulator
Must heating the sample
tubing and regulator
Use stainless steel
and nylon 11 tubing
Separator in downstream
sample conditioning must be
heated and cleaned regulary
On-line Gas
Chromatography
Must reduce pressure at or close to
the sample probe to reduce
transfer sample lag time
Sampling system
must be heated
Using bypass to get
the current sample
Using membrane filter to
protect GC from the
unwanted liquid
Portable and On-line GC Method
Handling
Sample container should be stored on shelves or
racks
If sample container is known to have leaked, secure
another sample. If another sample is unavailable,
follow company procedure
Sample container should be heated to a minimum of
20
O
F (11
o
C) above sample source temperature.
Sample Containers should be held at temperature for
at least 2 hours prior to sample analysis
Safety
No. Activity Hazard Consequences Control
1 Sampling
Natural Gas
Hydrocarbon
vapors
Can cause fire
Can cause
explosion
Technician should
be trained properly
Dangerous
component (H
2
S)
Can cause
health hazards
Replacing
breathing air
Technician should
be trained properly
Auto-ignition and
air mixture
Explosion Dont open valve
rapidly
High Pressure Can injure the
technician
Technician should
be trained properly
2 Transportation Pressure Can cause leakage
of the sample
Containers should
meet appropriate
pressure and
pressure relief
requirements
Those who transport
or ship sample
containers must be
trained
Safety
Hazard Preventive
Hydrocarbon vapors are flammable and
can be explosive
Technician should be trained properly in
the safe handling of natural gas
Natural gas samples may contain
component that cause health hazards
(H
2
S) or replacing breathing air
Heating in laboratory analysis Ensure that any heating device meets the
requirements
Transportation Containers should meet appropriate
pressure and pressure relief
requirements.
Those who transport or ship sample
containers must be trained in the current
regulations.
Auto-ignition of natural gas and air
mixtures in gaas sample cylinders
Dont open valves rapidly
High pressures Technician must be properly trained to
work with compressed gasses.
Sampling equipment shoul be rated
equal to or higher than the highest
expected pressure.pressure reduction
from pipeline must be carried out with
appropriately designed pressure
regulators.
Pressure relief devices should be used to
protect from over pressure conditions
No. Activity Hazard Consequences Control
3 Analysis Heat Injured the
analyst
Ensure that any
heating device
meets the
requirements