Image Processing is a powerful era of
the Modern Digital Technology. Compression is a
process of minimizing the size in bytes of a graphics file
without degrading the quality of the image to an
unacceptable level. In this paper, we have discusses
about Digital Image Compression for the good
performance complexity of still imagery and the
comparative study of several algorithms. In future we
are going to propose a new plan to provide a reduction
in computation over the sparse matrix and using the
various test images for the entropy coding and quality
scalability is enabled by simply truncating the generated
bit rate distortion performance.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

3 Aufrufe

Image Processing is a powerful era of
the Modern Digital Technology. Compression is a
process of minimizing the size in bytes of a graphics file
without degrading the quality of the image to an
unacceptable level. In this paper, we have discusses
about Digital Image Compression for the good
performance complexity of still imagery and the
comparative study of several algorithms. In future we
are going to propose a new plan to provide a reduction
in computation over the sparse matrix and using the
various test images for the entropy coding and quality
scalability is enabled by simply truncating the generated
bit rate distortion performance.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Sparse Transform Matrix at Low Complexity for

Color Image Compression

Dr. K. Kuppusamy, M.Sc.,M.Phil.,M.C.A.,B.Ed.,Ph.D

#1

, R.Mehala, (M.Phil, Research Scholar)

*2

.

#

Department of Computer science and Engineering,

Alagappa University, Karaikudi, INDIA

Abstract- Image Processing is a powerful era of

the Modern Digital Technology. Compression is a

process of minimizing the size in bytes of a graphics file

without degrading the quality of the image to an

unacceptable level. In this paper, we have discusses

about Digital Image Compression for the good

performance complexity of still imagery and the

comparative study of several algorithms. In future we

are going to propose a new plan to provide a reduction

in computation over the sparse matrix and using the

various test images for the entropy coding and quality

scalability is enabled by simply truncating the generated

bit rate distortion performance.

Keywords: image compression, sparse matrix,

entropy coding, quality scalability, bit rate

etc.

I. INTRODUCTION

A. Image

An image is an essentially 2-D signal

processed by the human visual system. The

signals representing images are usually in

analog form. An image is a processing,

storage and transmission by computer

applications, they are converted from analog

to digital form.

B. Digital Image

A digital image is a representation of

a two-dimensional image as a finite set of

digital values, called picture elements or

pixels. Pixel values are typically represented

at gray levels, colors, heights, opacities etc.

Digital Image Types

1. Binary Image

2. Color Image

3. Gray Scale Image

4. Indexed Image

Digital image processing focuses on two major tasks

1. Improvement of pictorial information

for human interpretation

2. Processing of image data for storage,

transmission and representation for

autonomous machine perception Some

argument about where image

processing ends and fields such as

image analysis and computer vision

start.

C. Image Compression

Compression is a process of reducing or

eliminating redundant or irrelevant data. An

Image compression is the addresses of the

problem of reducing the amount of data

required to represent a digital image. The

Compressed image is not directly

displayable. It must be decompressed before

input to a Color Monitor. It also reduces the

time required for images to be sent over the

Internet or downloaded from Web pages.

Basic data redundancies

1. Coding Redundancy

2. Interpixel Redundancy

3. Psychovisual Redundancy

Coding redundancy is present when less

than optimal code words are used. Interpixel

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 6June 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 1616

redundancy results from correlations

between the pixels of an image.

Psychovisual redundancy is due to data that

is ignored by the human visual system.

Image compression techniques are reduced

the number of bits required to represent an

image by taking advantage of these

redundancies. An inverse process called

decompression (decoding) is applied to the

compressed data to get the reconstructed

image.

f(x,y)

Compressed Image

F(X,Y)

D. Basic Image Compressed Model

The JPEG compression process contains

three primary parts as shown in JPEG

Encoding flowchart. To prepare for

processing, the matrix representing the image

is converted from RGB color space to

YCbCr and undergoes the subsampling

process. Then the partition process divides

the matrix into the size was dependent on the

balance between image quality and the

processing power of the time. This is

formally called block and passes them

through the encoding process in chunks.

To reverse the compression and display a

close approximation to the original image the

compressed data is fed into the reverse

process as shown in JPEG Encoding flow

chart. These figures illustrate the special case

of single-component (grayscale) image

compression. Color image compression can

then be approximately regarded as

compression of multiple grayscale images,

which are either compressed entirely one at a

time, or are compressed by alternately

interleaving 8x8 sample blocks from each in

turn.

JPEG encoding flow chart.

JPEG decoding flow chart.

II. TRANSFORMATION

A reversible process that reduces

redundancy and/or provides an image

representation that is more an enable to the

efficient extraction and coding of relevant

information.

Examples

1. Block-based linear transformations,

e.g. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)

2. Wavelet decompositions.

3. Prediction/residual formation, e.g.

Differential Pulse Code Modulation

(DPCM)

4. Color space transformations, e.g. RGB

to YCrCb.

5. Model prediction/residual formation,

e.g. Fractals

A. Image Representation with DCT

DCT coefficients can be viewed as

weighting functions that, when applied to the

64 cosine basis functions of various spatial

frequencies (8 x 8 templates), will

reconstruct the

Original block.

= y(0,0) x + y(1,0) x + + y(7,7) x

Original

image block DC (flat) basis function

Mapper Quantize

r

Symbol

Coder

Symbol

Decoder

Inverse Mapper

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 6June 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 1617

AC basis functions

B. Differential Pulse Code Modulation

- Lossless JPEG and 4.3 DPCM are

based on differential pulse code

modulation (DPCM).

- In DPCM, a combination of

previously encoded pixels (A, B, C)

is used as a prediction (c) for the

current pixel (X).

- The difference between the actual

value and the prediction (c - X) is

encoded using Huffman coding.

- The quantized difference is encoded

in lossy DPCM

Properties

Low complexity

High quality (limited compression)

Low memory requirements

C. Color Space Transformation

The process of compression starts

from the conversion of color space. We use

the transform matrix, to convert the three

dimensions color matrix of the image from

RGB to YCbCr pixel by pixel.

0.299 0.587 0.114 0

0.1687 0.3313 0.5 0.5

0.5 0.4187 0.0813 0.5

Y R

U G

V B

( ( ( (

( ( ( (

= +

( ( ( (

( ( ( (

D. Spatial Transformation

A spatial transformation modifies the

spatial relationship between pixels in an

image, mapping pixel locations in an image

to new locations in an output image.

Toolbox Includes Functions:

- Resizing an Image

- Rotating an Image

- Cropping an Image

- 2-D Spatial Transformations

- N-D Spatial Transformations.

E. Histogram

Histogram consists of a graph

indicating the number of times each levels

occurs in the image.

original output

III. QUANTIZATION

Quantization refers to the process of

approximating the continuous set of values in

the image data with a finite set of values. The

input to a quantizer is the original data, and

the output is always one among a finite

number of levels. This is a process of

approximation, and a good quantizer is one

which represents the original signal with

minimum loss or distortion.

There are two types of quantization

1. Scalar Quantization

2. Vector Quantization.

Color space conversion from RGB to YCbCr

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 6June 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 1618

In scalar quantization, each input

symbol is treated separately in producing the

output, while in vector quantization the input

symbols are clubbed together in groups

called vectors, and processed to give the

output. This clubbing of data and treating

them as a single unit increases the optimality

of the vector quantizer, but at the cost of

increased computational complexity.

A quantizer can be specified by its

input partitions and output levels. If the input

range is divided into levels of equal spacing,

then the quantizer is termed as a Uniform

Quantizer, and if not, it is termed as a Non-

Uniform Quantizer. A uniform quantizer can

be easily specified by its lower bound and

the step size. Also, implementing a uniform

quantizer is easier than a non-uniform

quantizer. Take a look at the uniform

quantizer shown below. If the input falls

between n*r and (n+1)*r, the quantizer

outputs the symbol n.

A uniform quantizer

A many-to-one mapping that reduces

the number of possible signal values at the

cost of introducing errors. The simplest form

of quantization (also used in all the

compression standards) is scalar

quantization (SQ), where each signal value

is individually quantized.

The joint quantization of a block of

signal values is called vector quantization

(VQ). It has been theoretically shown that

the performance of VQ can get arbitrarily

close to the rate-distortion (R-D) bound by

increasing the block size.

IV. IMAGE COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES

The image compression techniques

are broadly classified into two categories

depending whether or not an exact replica of

the original image could be reconstructed

using the compressed image.

These are:

1. Lossless technique

2. Lossy techniqhe

A. Lossless compression technique

In lossless compression techniques,

the original image can be perfectly recovered

from the compressed (encoded) image. These

are also called noiseless since they do not

add noise to the signal (image).It is also

known as entropy coding since it use

statistics/decomposition techniques to

eliminate/minimize redundancy. Lossless

compression is used only for a few

applications with stringent requirements such

as medical imaging.

Following techniques are included in lossless

compression:

1. Run length encoding

2. Huffman encoding

3. LZW coding

4. Area coding

1. Run Length Encoding

This is a very simple compression

method used for sequential data. This

technique replaces sequences of identical

symbols (pixels), called runs by shorter

symbols. The run length code for a gray scale

image is represented by a sequence {Vi, Ri}

where Vi is the intensity of pixel and Ri

refers to the number of consecutive pixels

with the intensity Vi. If both Vi and Ri are

represented by one byte, this span of 12

pixels is coded using eight bytes yielding a

compression ratio of 1: 5.

Run Length Encoding

2. Huffman Encoding

This is a general technique for coding

symbols based on their statistical occurrence

82 82 82 82 82 89 89 89 89 90 90

{82,5} {89,4} {90,2}

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 6June 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 1619

frequencies (probabilities). The pixels in the

image are treated as symbols. The symbols

that occur more frequently are assigned a

smaller number of bits, while the symbols

that occur less frequently are assigned a

relatively larger number of bits. Huffman

code is a prefix code. Most image coding

standards use lossy techniques in the earlier

stages of compression and use Huffman

coding as the final step.

3. LZW Coding

LZW (Lempel- Ziv Welch) is a

dictionary based coding. Dictionary based

coding can be static or dynamic. In static

dictionary coding, dictionary is fixed during

the encoding and decoding processes. In

dynamic dictionary coding, the dictionary is

updated on fly. LZW is widely used in

computer industry and is implemented as

compress command on UNIX.

4 Area Coding

Area coding is an enhanced form of

run length coding, reflecting the two

dimensional character of images. This is a

significant advance over the other lossless

methods. The algorithms for area coding try

to find rectangular regions with the same

characteristics. These regions are coded in a

descriptive form as an element with two

points and a certain structure. This type of

coding can be highly effective but it bears

the problem of a nonlinear method, which

cannot be implemented in hardware.

Therefore, the performance in terms of

compression time is not competitive,

although the compression ratio is.

B. Lossy compression technique

Lossy schemes provide much higher

compression ratios than lossless schemes.

Lossy schemes are widely used since the

quality of the reconstructed images is

adequate for most applications .By this

scheme, the decompressed image is not

identical to the original image, but

reasonably close to it.

Major performance considerations of a lossy

compression scheme include:

1. Compression ratio

2. Signal - to noise ratio

3. Speed of encoding & decoding.

Lossy compression techniques includes following

schemes:

1. Transformation coding

2. Vector quantization

3. Fractal coding

4. Block Truncation Coding

5. Sub band coding

1. Transformation Coding

In this coding scheme, transforms

such as DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform)

and DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) are

used to change the pixels in the original

image into frequency domain coefficients

(called transform coefficients). The selected

coefficients are considered for further

quantization and entropy encoding. DCT

coding has been the most common approach

to transform coding. It is also adopted in the

JPEG image compression standard.

2. Vector Quantization

The basic idea in this technique is to

develop a dictionary of fixed-size vectors,

called code vectors. A vector is usually a

block of pixel values. A given image is then

partitioned into non-overlapping blocks

(vectors) called image vectors. Then for each

in the dictionary is determined and its index

in the dictionary is used as the encoding of

the original image vector. Thus, each image

is represented by a sequence of indices that

can be further entropy coded.

3. Fractal Coding

The essential idea here is to

decompose the image into segments by using

standard image processing techniques such

as color separation, edge detection, and

spectrum and texture analysis. The library

actually contains codes called iterated

function system (IFS) codes, which are

compact sets of numbers. This scheme is

highly effective for compressing images that

have good regularity and self-similarity.

International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology (IJCTT) volume 4 Issue 6June 2013

ISSN: 2231-2803 http://www.ijcttjournal.org Page 1620

4. Block truncation coding

In this scheme, the image is divided

into non overlapping blocks of pixels. For

each block, threshold and reconstruction

values are determined. The threshold is

usually the mean of the pixel values in the

block. Then a bitmap of the block is derived

by replacing all pixels whose values are

greater than or equal (less than) to the

threshold by a 1 (0). Then for each segment

(group of 1s and 0s) in the bitmap, the

reconstruction value is determined. This is

the average of the values of the

corresponding pixels in the original block.

5. Sub band coding

In this scheme, the image is analyzed

to produce the components containing

frequencies in well-defined bands, the sub

bands. Subsequently, quantization and

coding is applied to each of the bands. The

advantage of this scheme is that the

quantization and coding well suited for each

of the sub bands can be designed separately.

V. APPLICATION TO COLOR IMAGE

COMPRESSION

We will apply the above transform

matrix in a standard JPEG baseline encoder.

The quantization operation is applied after

transformation using proposed matrix, the

diagonal term of the matrix can be merge

into the quantizer.

VI .CONCLUSION

In this paper, we proposed a sparse

matrix transform for color image

compression. A fast algorithm for

computation is also developed. The basis of

the proposed algorithm is based on integers,

and made sufficiently sparse matrix. In future

we are going to propose a new plan to

provide a reduction in computation over the

sparse matrix and using the various test

images for the entropy coding and quality

scalability is enabled by simply truncating

the generated bit rate distortion performance.

It can be suitable for fast VLSI

implementation.

REFERENCES

1. Subramanya A, Image Compression Technique,

Potentials IEEE, Vol. 20, Issue 1, pp 19-23, Feb-

March 2001,

2. Hong Zhang, Xiaofei Zhang & Shun Cao,

Analysis & Evaluation of Some Image Compression

Techniques, High Performance Computing in Asia

Pacific Region, 2000 Proceedings, 4th Int.

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3. Ming Yang & Nikolaos Bourbakis ,An Overview

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Circuits & Systems, 2005 48th Midwest Symposium,

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7 10 Aug, 2005

4.Milos Klima, Karel Fliegel,Image Compression

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5. Ismail Avcibas, Nasir Memon, Bulent Sankur,

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6. Dr. Charles F. Hall, A Hybrid Image Compression

Technique, Acoustics Speech & Signal Processing,

IEEE International Conference on ICASSP 85, Vol.

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7. Wen Shiung Chen, en- HuiYang & Zhen Zhang,

A New Efficient Image Compression Technique with

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8. W.B.Pennebaker and J.L.Mitchell, JPEG Still

Image Compression Standard, Chapman & Hall,

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9. David H. Kil and Fances Bongjoo Shin, Reduced

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