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The Method of Moments

Consider the inhomogeneous equation

where is a linear operator, is known, and is to be determined. Let
be expanded in a series of known functions , , , the domain
of , as
where the are unknown constants to be determined. We shall call the
expansion functions or basis functions. For exact solutions, the
summation is infinite and the form a complete set of basis functions.
For approximate solutions, finite summation is employed. Since is
linear, we have
It is assume that a suitable inner product has been defined. Now
definte a set of weighting functions, or testing functions, , , ,...
in the range of , and take the inner product of the above equation with
each . The result is
The set of equations can be written in matrix form as
, ,
If the matrix is nonsingular, its inverse exists. The are
then given by
The solution may be exact or approximate, depending upon the choice
of and . The particular choice is known as Galerkins
Example 1.
Exact solution :
and .
We have
Then, .
For ,
For ,
For ,
which is the exact solution.
Example 2:
Pulse function:
Triangle function:
Let , , then
HW#3: follow example 1, solve
by letting
Plot the result with the exact solution .
Antenna Problems
In free space,
Therefore, there exist a dyadic satisfies
is called Greens function. In general, in any structure, Greens
functions exist for computing the electric fields generated by a given
1. Specify excitation .
2. Identify PEC.
3. Identify the induced surface
current on the PEC due to
and let
4. Satisfy B. C. On the PEC.
For , we have
Similarly for slots on PEC, complementary formulation for magnetic
currents exist. Let
If two regions are separated by PEC with slots on it, then the slots can
be closed by putting equivalent magnetic currents on them. Let the
regions be named and . Let be the normal vector pointing from
to . Let the electric field on the slots be . Let the magnetic current in
region and be and respectively. Then,
At the slots, the magnetic field must be the same calculating from region
and . We have
For , we have
Example: Slot-coupled microstripline-fed patch antennas
Pocklingtons Integral Equation for a dipole
Let the length and the radius of the dipole be and , where such
that we can ignore the circumferential current, therefore and
. Assume the conductivity of the dipole is vary large that is a
surface current exist on the surface of the dipole. Since , we can
also assume doesnt vary circumferentially. That is is only a
function of . Then
The approximation in the above equation is under the assumption that
the surface current can be approximated by a line source at the center
since .
If only consider the field at surface of the dipole, .
If an incident wave , the field will induce a current distribution on
the dipole surface. The induce current will produce scattered field .
The boundary condition requires that on the surface of the dipole
Integral Equations
The equation derived in previous section is called Integral Equation.
The right hand side is the known incident field , while the left hand
side is the unknown current distribution to be solved.
Approximate by a series of known expansion functions such that
where are coefficients of the expansion functions and are unknown.
For instance, choose impulse functions as defined below
Point Matching
For conveniences, rewrite the integral equation as

Let be the mid-point of each segment, then
Rewriting in matrix form, we have
For , we have
Source Modeling
1. Delta gap: or for .
2. Frill Generator:
3. Plane wave:
The input impedance becomes if the applied voltage is
located at -th section.
Weighted Residuals and the Method of Moments
Let weighting functions be a set of known functions.
Instead of point-matching, the integration equation is integrated with the
weighting function as follow:
The matrix formulation will be the same except
Obviously, if , the result is the same as point-matching.
This general formulation is called the Method of Moments. If the
weighting functions are chosen to be the same as the expansion
function, i.e., , its called Galerkins method. In most
cases, Galerkins method gives better result than point-matching.
Other Expansion and Weighting Functions
1. Triangle functions (piecewise linear)
2. Piecewise sinusoidal:
3. Sinusoidal interpolation:
Adding Lumped Loads
If an ideal lumped load is inserted into a
wire antenna at coordinate having
current , the electric field across can
be considered as a delta function having
amplitude . The original integral
equation becomes
Therefore, the new impedance matrix is related to the unloaded one
Method of Moment in Electrostatic Applications
Example: Stripline Capacitance
For a line charge , the voltage generated by this charge is
The potential produced by a distribution of charge is
If the distribution of the charge is discretized to sections as in the figure,
let the charge density be constant in a cell and be denoted as . Let
and be the coordinate and potential at the center of section . Let
be the length of section . We have
As shown in the figure, let the plates be divided to 36 sections with the
same section length . Eight sections are on the central strip and 28
sections are on the top and bottom strips. Also let and .
By solving the above equation, the capacitance can be found by
dividing the total charge with voltage .
HW# 4 Let , find the capacitance. Compared with the formula
in Pozars Microwave Engineering, pp 154157.