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CONCEPTS IN BEAM DESIGN BY: AYAZ MALIK

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CONCEPTS IN BEAM DESIGN
MOMENT & SHEAR CONNECTIONS: Shear connections are designed to resist shear only &
are assumed to act like a roller or hinged support. The web (shear) connections are
capable of sustaining relatively larger rotations without developing significant moments.
Such connections usually resist twisting of the beam, but allow distortion, i.e., warping
of the cross-section. This makes the connection a simple connection in torsion.
In moment connections the flanges of the beam are connected to the flanges of the
column. Such connections resist moment as well as shear. Rigid (moment) connections
may also prevent warping of the cross-section of the beam, making the connection also
rigid in torsion.


FASTENERS IN FLANGES: A beam or girder is designed primarily on the basis of its
flexural strength. Holes in the cross-section tend to reduce this strength. However, tests
on the beams have shown little reduction, even in sections having as much as 15% of
the flange area removed. Therefore, CSA S16-09 allows the presence of fastener holes
constituting 15% or less of the gross area of a flange.
MOMENT CURVATURE RELATIONSHIP: Assuming that the strains developed in a beam
cross-section due to bending, vary linearly, the curvature is defined as the angle change
between the original & deformed positions of the cross-section. It is given as;

Shear connection Moment connection
M M


y
y y <y

Strain-Stress distributions
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y




Although theoretically an infinite strain is required for the section to reach Mp, in most
wide flange shapes approximately 98% of Mp is attained at strains of two times y. If it
is desired that the stress nowhere exceeds the yield stress, then the corresponding
moment is termed the yield moment.

y
or
y

The plastic moment capacity is expressed as;

y

y

Moment-Curvature relationship is affected by the residual strains. When the applied
bending moment reaches a value of 0.7My, the total strains in the tips of the
compression flange will reach y (assuming that the maximum residual strain is 0.3y. If
additional moment is applied, the flange tips will be ineffective in accepting the
increased stresses, & therefore larger strains than those anticipated will be necessary to
develop the required resisting moment. This gradual yielding will modify the M-
relationship as shown by dashed line in the above figure.
FLANGE LOCAL BUCKLING: As the compression region of the beam is subjected to
increasing stresses as the external load increases, it is possible that at some level of
stress less than the yield strength, the plate elements that make up the cross-section
will buckle. If this happened, no more loads can be applied & attempts at increasing the
load will simply result in the amplification of the buckle. The approach that is used in
Residual strains
neglected
Strain hardening
considered
Residual strains
considered
Mp
My
0.7My
M

Moment-Curvature relationship
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steel design is to establish limits on the slenderness for any of the elements that are in
compression such that the desired overall behavior of the beam can be attained.
CLASSES OF SECTIONS BASED ON CSA S16-09: As shown in the figure, for Class 1
section, the moment resistance reaches Mp & then increases slightly with further
deformation as strain-hardening takes place. If the plastic moment capacity, Mp, is
maintained through relatively large inelastic deformations, the section is called a Class 1
section. Class 1 sections have the capacity to both attain their plastic moment capacity
& undergo inelastic rotations. The Class 2 sections also attain their plastic moment
capacity but the requirements for large inelastic deformations do not exist. Therefore,
CSA S16-09 specifies a less restrictive width-to-thickness ratio for Class 2 sections as
compared to Class 1 sections; however, the factored moment resistance specified for
both sections is the same & is based on the plastic section modulus.


The width-to-thickness ratios for Class 3 sections are even less restrictive than those
for Class 2. From figure above, the plates composing the cross-section should be capable
of allowing the member to develop a moment resistance just equal to the yield
moment, My. In general, the plate will behave elastically at this stage, although some
deterioration due to large compressive residual stresses in the flange tips may be
expected. The factored moment resistance specified for Class 3 sections is based on the
elastic section modulus.
Sections having plate components that are too slender to meet the requirements for
Class 3 sections are classified as Class 4 sections. As shown in the figure, Class 4 sections
buckle locally at a moment less than My & the moment resistance is a function of the
width-to-thickness ratios of the plates composing the section.
My
Load-Deflection relationship
Mp
Mo
Ideal behavior
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4

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Class of
Section
Slenderness limits
Factored moment
resistance
Flange Web
1

el
t

y

h
w

00

y

Mr y p
2

el
t

0

y

h
w

00

y

Mr y p
3

el
t

00

y

h
w

00

y

Mr y y

EFFECT OF SHEAR ON BEAM STRENGTH: Theoretically, the presence of the shear force
will reduce the flexural strength of the cross-section. However, it is impossible to
separate this weakening influence from the increase in strength produced through
strain-hardening. In fact, experiments have shown that beams tested under relatively
high shear forces will develop moment capacities that are approximately 15% greater
than beams tested under pure moment (zero shear) conditions. However, the web may
fail either by shear buckling or shear yielding before the full flexural capacity of the
section has been attained. Thus, the strength of the beam is reduced below its capacity
under pure bending. The slenderness of the web of most rolled section is often
sufficiently small such that buckling will not take place before yielding. The primary
problem then is to prevent premature shear yielding of the member.
Normally, major portion of the shear is taken by the web in a wide flange member;
therefore, the factored shear resistance is expressed in CSA S16-09 as,

r

w

s

If the web is relatively slender (in plate girders), it can buckle under the action of the
shear stresses before it is completely yielded. In this case, the shear stress, Fs, is reduced
from 0.66Fy. In order to set the shear strength equal to 0.66Fy which would mean that
shear buckling will not take place before the web is completely yielded, the requirement
for limiting depth-to-width ratio specified by CSA S16-09 shall be satisfied,
h
w
3

y

where, Kv is shear buckling coefficient & is equal to 5.34 for an unstiffened web.
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DEFLECTION LIMITATIONS
Building Deflection Loading Application Maximum
Industrial Vertical Live, snow Members supporting inelastic roof coverings L/240
Live, snow Members supporting elastic roof coverings L/180
Live, snow Members supporting floors L/300
Maximum wheel
load (no impact)
Crane runway girders for crane capacity of 225kN
& over
L/800
Maximum wheel
load (no impact)
Crane runway girders for crane capacity under
225kN
L/600
Lateral Crane lateral Crane runway girders L/600
Crane lateral or
wind
Storey drift h/400 to
h/200
All others Vertical Live, snow Members of floors & roofs supporting construction
& finishes susceptible to cracking
L/360
Live, snow Members of floors & roofs supporting construction
& finishes not susceptible to cracking
L/300
Lateral Wind Building drift due to all effects h/400
Wind Storey drift (relative horizontal movement of any
two consecutive floors) in buildings in cladding &
partitions without special provision to accommodate
building frame deformation
h/500
Wind Storey drift, with special provision to accommodate
building frame deformation
h/400

If deflections caused by dead loads are significant, then they can be counteracted by
cambering the member. In this process, a present deflection (in the opposite direction
to deflection due to applied loads) is built into the member. Cambering can be achieved
by cold bending for smaller members & for larger members, by heating one flange &
part of the web of the member either locally or uniformly along the length.
NBC, 2010 states that a dynamic analysis shall be used to determine the effects of
vibrations due to machinery or rhythmic group activities, such as aerobic exercises, if
the natural frequency of the floor is less than 6Hz.
CONCENTRATED LOADS & REACTIONS: The reactions from the beam are resisted as a
concentrated load by the column. However, in the beam itself, the reaction is
distributed over the depth of the web. On the other end, a concentrated load may be
delivered to one of the flanges & provision must be made for its transfer into the web.
The issue with this is that a large compressive force in the web may lead to local
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yielding of the web over most of its depth & also might result in overall buckling of the
web over most of its depth. This situation is shown in figure below.



The problem of local yielding is addressed by assuming that the load or reaction is
distributed uniformly over the length of the bearing plate, N, & then spreads out. The
area available to resist the load effect in the region of the flange-to-web junction is
taken as w (N + 10t) for the interior load & w (N + 4t) for the reaction. Therefore,
At interior points,

r

i
w(0t)
y

At exterior reactions,

r

e
w(t)
y

To account for the possibility of overall buckling, CSA S16-09 provides the following
rules, which are based largely upon empirical evidence,
At interior points,

r
.
i
w

y

At exterior reactions,

r
0.0
e
w

y

Where, bi is taen as 0.80 & be is taken as 0.75.
Both sets of equations (actual & empirical) should be checked & the lower value should
be selected as capacity.
If the factored compressive resistance is exceeded, the length of the bearing plate could
be increased (provided web yielding governs the web capacity) or a pair of bearing
stiffeners might be provided to help carry the load.
P
N
N
R
Concentrated loads & reactions
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LATERAL TORSIONAL BUCKLING: Lateral torsional buckling can occur at any stage
during the loading history; after Mp is reached, between Mp & My or even before My is
reached. The lateral-torsional buckling capacity of the member depends on its unbraced
length, the bending moment distribution along the length of the member, the location
of the applied load on the cross-section, the restraint conditions at the supports, & on
a variety of cross-sectional properties.




A stocky beam is defined as a beam that is able to reach its local buckling capacity
before lateral-torsional buckling occurs. On the other end, a slender beam buckles
laterally before the member yields. For the intermediate member, the bending moment
at the instant before lateral-torsional buckling is sufficient to cause portion of the
member to yield. A Slender member buckles laterally before the member yields.
The resistance of the member to lateral bending depends upon the weak axis bending
stiffness of the cross-section, EIy.
Local Buckling,
Mr = Mp = y
r = 1.15
p
-
0.8
p

u

Inelastic lateral buckling,
r = 1.15
y
-
0.8
p

u

Elastic lateral buckling,
Position before
buckling
Position after
buckling
Position before
Loading
Lateral-torsional buckling motion
Beam failure Modes
L
Mcr
Intermediate
Class 1 or 2
Slender
Class 3 or 4
Stocky