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## One-Line Diagrams &

Transmission Line Examples
Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
2
Topics
One-Line Diagrams
Example Transmission Line Problems
Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
3
One-Line Diagram
generator
bus
transformer
transmission line
circuit breaker
Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
4
Example
line parameters:
length =100 miles
z =0.1 +j1 /mi
y =j5 x 10
-6
S/mi
|V
2
| =22 kV
S
3
=5 MVA
PF =0.866 (lagging)
find complex power supplied
by the generator if the line is
modeled as short, medium
and long
Gen.1
1 2
Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
5
Example
first express the load in terms of
V
2
and I
2
find the power angle
find the three-phase real power
find the three-phase reactive
power
Gen.1
1 2
|V
2
| =22 kV
S
3
=5 MVA
PF =0.866
(lagging)
( ) ( ) MW
3 3
cos 4.33 P S

= =
( ) ( ) sin 30 MVAR
3 3
2.5 Q S

= =

( )
1
cos 0.866 30

= =

Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
6
Example
now for per-phase
find the per-phase real power
find the per-phase reactive power
find the phase voltage
find the line current
Gen.1
1 2
|V
2
| =22 kV
S
3
=4.33MW +
j2.5MVAR
PF =0.866 (lagging)
MW
3
1.44
3
P
P

= =
MVAR
3
.83
3
Q
Q

= =
kV
kV
,2
,2
,2
12.7
3
12.7 0
ab
an
an
V
V
V
= =
=
A
,2
,2
1.44 .83
131.0 30
12.7
a
an
S M j M
I
V k

+
= = =

as reference
2
Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
7
Example
now for the short line model
find Z (hint: )
now find the sending end
(generator) voltage and current
now find the complex power
Z
,1 an
V
,2 an
V
,1 a
I ,2 a
I
line parameters:
length =100
miles
z =0.1 +j1 /mi
y =j5 x 10
-6
S/mi
Z zX
( )( ) 0.1 1 100 10 100 Z j j = + = +
A
,2
131 30
a
I =

kV
,2
12.7 0
an
V =
kV
,1 ,2 ,2
23.02 27.7
an a an
V ZI V = + =

,1 ,2
131 30
a a
I I = =

( ) MVA
MW MVAR
3 ,1 ,1
3 9.05 57.67
4.84 7.64
an an
S V I
j

= =
= +

Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
8
Example
now for the medium line model
find Z
find Y/2 (hint: )
find the sending end voltage and
current
Z
,1 an
V
,2 an
V
,1 a
I
,2 a
I
line parameters:
length =100
miles
z =0.1 +j1 /mi
y =j5 x 10
-6
S/mi
( )( ) 0.1 1 100 10 100 Z j j = + = +
A
,2
131 30
a
I =

kV
,2
12.7 0
an
V =
2
Y
2
Y
Y yX
S 0.00025
2
Y
j =
,1 ,2 ,2
1 22.75 28.1 kV
2
an an a
ZY
V V ZI

= + + =

,1 ,2 ,2
1 1 124.7 27.4
4 2
a an a
ZY ZY
I Y V I

= + + + =

Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
9
Example
and sending end complex power
Z
,1 an
V
,2 an
V
,1 a
I
,2 a
I
line parameters:
length =100
miles
z =0.1 +j1 /mi
y =j5 x 10
-6
S/mi
A
,2
131 30
a
I =

kV
,2
12.7 0
an
V =
2
Y
2
Y
( ) MVA
MW MVA
3 ,1 ,1
3 8.51 55.5
4.83 7.01
an a
S V I
j

= =
= +

,1
22.75 28.1 kV
an
V =

,1
124.7 27.4
a
I =

Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
10
Example
now for the long line model
find (hint: )
find Z (hint: )
find Y/2 (hint: )
Z
,1 an
V
,2 an
V
,1 a
I ,2 a
I
line parameters:
length =100
miles
z =0.1 +j1 /mi
y =j5 x 10
-6
S/mi
( )
( ) sinh 0.0112 0.2237
' 10 100 =99.66 84.3
0.0112 0.2237
j
Z j
j
+
= +
+
A
,2
131 30
a
I =

kV
,2
12.7 0
an
V =
'
2
Y '
2
Y
S
'
0.000251 89.9
2
Y
=

( )
'
sinh X
Z Z
X

=
( )
1
2
yz
0.00224 87.14 =

( ) ( )
( )
'
tanh .5
2 2 .5
l
Y Y
l

=
Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
11
Example
find the sending end current and
voltage
now find the power
Z
,1 an
V
,2 an
V
,1 a
I ,2 a
I
line parameters:
length =100
miles
z =0.1 +j1 /mi
y =j5 x 10
-6
S/mi
A
,2
131 30
a
I =

kV
,2
12.7 0
an
V =
'
2
Y '
2
Y
,1 ,2 ,2
' '
1 ' 22.65 28.0 kV
2
an an a
Z Y
V V Z I

= + + =

,1 ,2 ,2
' ' ' '
' 1 1 124.7 27.4
4 2
an an a
Z Y Z Y
I Y V I

= + + + =

( ) MVA
MW MVAR
3 ,1 ,1
3 8.47 55.4
4.81 6.97
an a
S V I
j

= =
= +

Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
12
Example
result summary:
short line
medium line
long line
error becomes more pronounced as
line length increases
Gen.1
1 2
|V
2
| =22 kV
S
3
=4.33MW +
j2.5MVAR
PF =0.866 (lagging)
MVA MW MVAR
3
9.05 57.67 4.84 7.64 S j

= = +

## MVA MW+ MVAR

3
8.47 55.4 4.81 6.97 S

= =

MVA MW MVA
3
8.51 55.5 4.83 7.01 S j

= = +

3
Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
13
Hyperbolic Equations
Last lecture I claimed that using the long
line model will yield the exact same
results as the -equivalent circuit. Am I
right?
( ) ( )
1 2 2
cosh sinh 22.64 28.0 kV
c
V V X Z I X = + =

( ) ( )
2
1 2
cosh sinh 124.7 27.3 A
c
V
I I X X
Z
= + =

( )
1
2
c
z
Z
y

## MVA MW+ MVAR

3
8.47 55.4 4.81 6.97 S

= =

yes!
Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
14
Transmission Matrix
we also talked about the transmission
matrix:
and defined the elements (for a long
transmission line)
A B
C D

=

T
1 2
1 2
V V
I I

=

T
' '
1
2
Z Y
A = +
' B Z =
' '
' 1
4
Z Y
C Y

= +

' '
1
2
Z Y
D = +
Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
15
Transmission Matrix
matrix multiplication
,1
,1
' '
1 '
12700 0 2
' ' ' ' 131 30
' 1 1
4 2
an
a
Z Y
Z
V
Z Y Z Y I
Y

+

=

+ +

,1 ,2
,1 ,2
an an
a a
V V A B
I I C D

=

,1 ,2 ,2 an an a
V AV BI = +
,1 ,2 ,2 a an a
I CV DI = +
will yield identical results
to the long-line model
Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
16
Transmission Matrix
T can be modified to fit the nominal model
by replacing Y with Y and Z with Z
solution procedure remains the same
Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
17
Transmission Lines
revisit the example:
receiving end voltage was 22 kV
sending end voltage was 39 kV
Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
18
Transmission Lines
revisit the example:
receiving end voltage was 22 kV
sending end voltage was 39 kV
is this voltage drop acceptable?
power characteristic
power produced by the generator:
losses are quite high!
MW+ MVAR 4.81 6.97
MW+ MVAR 4.3 2.5
4
Henry Louie
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Washington
19
Transmission Lines & Transformers
solution is to use transformers to increase
voltage for transmission
increase V =>I decreases =>losses decrease
transformers are used again to reduce the