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TRAINING REPORT

OF
SIX MONTHS INDUSTRIAL TRAINING, UNDERTAKEN


AT
SWARAJ ENGINES LIMITED
Mahindra and Mahindra


IN
Mechanical Engineering


ON


SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE DEGREE

OF
BACHELORS OF ENGINEERING

IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING




Submitted to: Submitted By:
Er. A.P. Singh Satnam Singh
BE (Mech) 8
th
sem
UE109066








ACKNOWLEDGEMENT




I hereby take this opportunity to thank those people who helped in successful
completion of my training. This training gave me an opportunity to learn a lot of
new things and meet great people who shall be held in great esteem.

Firstly I would like to express deep gratitude & indebtedness to Mr. Amritpal
Sharma, under whose supervision and hard-work I successfully completed my
training at SWARAJ ENGINES LIMITED.

He consistently helped and guided me in achieving the prime objective of my
training.

I also thank the teachers of the mechanical department of my college who
consistently helped me.

Last but not the least; I would like to thank the staff and work force of S.E.L
who always gave their full co-operation in helping us to understand what we
asked for.


PREFACE



Training is an investment and hence should be able to get due returns in terms
of better quality of workmen and Engineering for future.


SWARAJ ENGINES LIMITED, M&M. today is one of the major Tractor
Producer Industry, giving their best performing machines to their customers.
As concerned with my Industrial training it is of my best opportunity during
my Engineering to learn many things about the Automobile Industry through
this Industry.


During my training I got the opportunity to learn things that would pay to me
in my near future. I pay thanks to the training faculty of our college and to staff
and operators of SWARAJ ENGINES LIMITED for their co-operation during
my Industrial Training.


CONTENTS



1
1

1
2

Company Profile

Types of Engines Manufacturing In SEL
1
3
-
1
5
Assembly Shop & Project Undertaken
1
6
Engine Testing Shop & Project Undertaken
1
7

Machine Shop & Project Undertaken

Bibliography




















COMPANY PROFILE

INDUSTRY BACKGROUND
The Indian tractor industry as it now is a major segment of its engineering
industry. However till 1947, Indian firms assembling semi knocked down (SKD)
kits in collaboration with foreign manufactures met the tractor requirement of the
country largely through imports and partly. Though the first tractor company was
set up in India 1960, but the growth in real terms started from 1974, when the
government banned the import of the tractors. Today India is the largest tractor
producing and consuming country. In an effort to reduce imports and develop
indigenous technology, the government, permitted setting up of the major
manufacturing companies.

1. EICHER GOOD EARTH 1960
2. TAFE 1964
3. INTERNATIONAL TRACTORS 1965
4. ESCORT TRACTORS 1966
5. FORD TRACTORS 1971
6. HMT 1973
7. PUNJAB TRACTORS 1974
8. KIRLOSKAR 1974



PTL CAME INTO BEING
Keeping in mind Punjab agrarian economy it was decided by Punjab Government
to encourage the growth of industries with complements Punjabs agriculture
growth. The task was entrusted to P.S.I.D.C. and with dual objective of industrial
and agriculture growth, PTL was established on 27
th
JUNE 1974.

INTRODUCTION TO SWARAJ GROUP
Swaraj group came into existence with the establishment of Punjab Tractors
Limited on 27
th
June 1974. The company was Indias first large scale based on
totally indigenous design & technology, was promoted by Punjab State Industrial
Development Corporation (PSIDC) with the help of Govt. of India & Public
financial Institutions.




MAJOR COLLABORATIONS OF SWARAJ GROUPS
Swaraj group has entered into technical and financial collaborations with various
national and international companies. The maximum shareholder of Swaraj is
now Mahindra and Mahindra. Swaraj Mazda Limited was set with technical and
financial collaborations with Mazda Motors corporation of Japan. Technical
collaboration was entered into Komatsu Forklift Company of Japan for
manufacturing fork lifters at swaraj combine Division. Swaraj Engines Limited was
set up in technical and financial collaboration with kirloskar Oil Engines Limited,
pune for Manufacturing diesel engines.

VARIOUS DIVISIONS OF SWARAJ GROUPS

SWARAJ consists of six divisions:

1. Swaraj Tractors Division.

2. Swaraj Mazda Limited.

3. Swaraj Automotive Limited.

4. Swaraj Engines Limited.

5. Swaraj Foundry Limited.

6. Swaraj Combine Division.

1. SWARAJ TRACTORS DIVISIONS

It is located in phase IV, SAS Nagar. It started with an annual capacity of 5000
tractors with capital of Rs. 37 million. In 1974 it went into commercial production
with Swaraj 724 a 26.5 BHP tractor as its first model. During its 22 years of
production it has not only expanded its manufacturing capacity to more than
24000 tractors per annum but also added more products into its manufacturing
range.

2. SWARAJ MAZDA LIMITED
P.T.L entered into technical and financial collaboration with Mazda Motors
Corporation, Japan in 1984 to set up another company by name Swaraj Mazda
Limited (SML) for manufacturing LCVs (Light Commercial Vehicles) with capital
outlay of Rs. 30 Crores. It is situated near Ropar town in the state of Punjab.
S.M.L. went into commercial production in the year 1986, at present it is
manufacturing T-3500 buses of 3.5 tonnes payload capacity.

3. SWARAJ COMBINES LIMITED
PTL setup the Swaraj combine division (SCD) near chapper Cheri village located
in Tehsil Kharar, district Mohali of Punjab state. It was set up with capital outlay of
Rs. 2.6 crores to manufacture self-propelled harvesters or combines. In 1985 it
also brought out diesel fork lifters of 2 tonnes and 2.5 tonnes lifting capacity. Later
on the company entered into technical collaboration with Komatsu fork Lift
Company of Japan for manufacturing both the diesel and electronic fork lifters of
capacity up to 10 tonnes. In April 1995, it has also started production of Swaraj
922 tractors.

4. SWARAJ AUTOMOTIVE LIMITED

Swaraj Automotive Limited situated at Nabha, district Patiala of Punjab state. It
was a sick unit before the Swaraj group over took it, and with constant of the new
management is again on the path to success. It supplies tractor seat, mudguards,
bonnets etc. to the tractor division and seat to Maruti Ltd.

5. SWARAJ ENGINE LIMITED

Keeping in view the need to meet various emissions norms SEL has produce
emission measurement equipment and various standards are stringently followed.


DEPARTMENTS OF S.E.L.

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

MACHINE SHOP

ASSEMBLY AND TESTING SHOP

QUALITY SHOP

MAINTENANCE SHOP

TOOL ROOM

STANDARD ROOM AND TOOL CRIB

STORES

TYPES OF ENGINES MANUFACTURING IN SEL
The Plant Manufactures five types of engines, which engines are sent to the
swaraj tractor division, S.A.S. NAGAR. One of these is a single cylinder engine
exclusively designed R&D plant of Swaraj. Out of rest one is two cylinder and
others three cylinder engines. All the engines are Euro-3 and SEL is planning for
modifications to be introduced, so that its engines may be Euro-4 compatible. The
specifications of these engines are:

1. S-15, Single Cylinder:



2. RV-2, Two Cylinder:




3.RV-3, Three Cylinder:




4. RB-30, Three Cylinder:












5. RB-33, Three Cylinder:

























ASSEMBLY
SHOP





DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF ASSEMBLY LINE

CRANK SHAFT FITMENT
CAM SHAFT FITMENT
GEAR CASING FITMENT
CRITICAL AREA PISTON ASSEMBLY
CYLINDER BLOCK FITMENT
OIL SUMP FITMENT
CYLINDER HEAD FITMENT
WATER PUMP FITMENT
FIP [FUEL INJECTION PUMP] FITMENT
FUEL TIMING


CRANK SHAFT FITMENT
The crankshaft, sometimes casually abbreviated to crank, is the part of an
engine which translates reciprocating linear piston motion into rotation.



CAM SHAFT FITMENT
A camshaft is a shaft to which a cam is fastened or of
which a cam forms an integral part.



GEAR CASING FITMENT
A gear is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with
another toothed part in order to transmit torque. Two or more gears working in
tandem are called a transmission and can produce a mechanical advantage
through a gear ratio and thus may be considered a simple machine.


CRITICAL AREA PISTON ASSEMBLY
In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to
the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod.





CYLINDER BLOCK FITMENT
The cylinder block or engine block is a machined casting (or
sometimes an assembly of modules) containing cylindrically bored
holes for the pistons of a multi-cylinder reciprocating internal
combustion engine, or for a similarly constructed device such as a
pump.




OIL SUMP FITMENT
Oil Sump is used to store the lubricating oil which is supplied oil which is supplied
for lubrication to different engine parts through section tube.


CYLINDER HEAD FITMENT

In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head (often informally abbreviated
to just head) sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. It consists of a
platform containing part of the combustion chamber (usually, though not always),
and the location of the poppet valves and spark plugs.

WATER PUMP FITMENT
Water pump is used to supply water in different parts of engine for cooling
purpose.





FIP FITMENT
Fuel injection pump is used to supply the fuel for combustion.



COMPLETE ENGINE



1. PROJECT UNDERTAKEN

Time study of RB CYLINDER BLOCK LEAK TEST

AIM: Time study of RB cylinder block leak testing

ACTIVITY

1. Pick up the Component from Conveyor using tackle.


2. Load the component on fixture of Leak testing unit


3. Remove the tackle from component & move hoist side


4. Locate the component from 2 locating pins


5. Put 3 clamps in position & ensure the location of rubber washer in push rod
holes.

6. Switch on the clamping lever upward to clamp the component hydro-
pneumatically.

7. Ensure the drain pipe in vertical position & fill the tank with coolant up to level
marked

8. Observe the unit for 30 seconds for any air bubbles occurrence


9. After 30 seconds drain the coolant by operating the lever downward


10. Close the air inlet valve


11. Down the lever to declamp the component.
12. Pick up the component from unit by inserting tackle & lifting up from unit.

13. Move the hoist to conveyors & unload the component on conveyor & draw
back the tackle & move towards starting position











2. PROJECT UNDERTAKEN
BUMPING:
It is a process in which T.D.C. of engine cylinder or clearance between piston and
cylinder head is set by placing shims between liner and cylinder head.
Why Bumping is used:

Bumping is used to provide proper clearance between Piston and cylinder head.
Generally piston comes above or below the T.D.C. of engine while rotation of crank shaft
during assembly and when this happens it means it will result in head noise. In order to
avoid this shims according to need, of desired thickness are introduced between liner and
cylinder head. By this process all cylinders of engine have the same clearance value.




Tools and Gauges used in BUMPING:
BUMPING tool is in the form of a rectangular bar which is placed over liners with
the help of studs and pressed with help of runners so that liner should be properly
fitted during the movement of piston.
Here bumping gauge measures the distance that how much piston is above or
below the engine T.D.C. during its upward stroke and displays the reading on its
digital panel.whe piston moves above the T.D.C.








Marking T.D.C:

When the first piston from flywheel side is at its T.D.C. then a point is marked below
the pointer on pulley.







Shim
Shims are the spacer of big size which are inserted between liners and cylinder head in
order to lift the cylinder head to avoid head noise.









Bumping shim and CV shim
The shim which is bigger in size and placed at outer surface of liner is known as
bumping shim. This shim is used to support the cylinder head.
The shim which is smaller in size as compared to bumping shim and placed at inner
surface of liner is known as CV shim. This shim is used to provide clearance between
piston and cylinder head.




Shims used of various thickness according to various
reading:
READING THICKNESS OF SHIM
For positive reading 1.2mm
0 to -0.10 1.2mm
-0.10 to-0.20 1.2mm
-0.20 to-0.30 1.3mm
-0.30 to-0.40 1.4mm
-0.40 to-0.5 0 1.5mm

These are the readings for Bombay engine.
Before shims are inserted on liners, oil is applied on shims in order to prevent rusting.
Then these shims are placed on a inclined rod. In this arrangement shims get stick to each
other. When they are inserted on liners then sometimes worker put two shims instead of
one. This results in rejection of engine during testing. The naming of positions of
different shims on stand was also not done properly.



1. We have made a new arrangement of shims in which stand is not inclined, it becomes
vertical and rods becomes long and horizontal and a stopper is fixed at the free end of
rod. The naming of positions of different shims on stand is done properly.
2. We have used a pressure gun in order to apply air pressure on shims arrangement on
horizontal stand so that their stickiness should not take place. By using these methods in
arrangement of shims, the rejection of engine is decreased up to a great extent as shown
in graph.





Air pressure applied on shims.



ENGINE TESTING
SHOP










ENGINE TESTING
ENGINE SETTING WITH EDAC (Error Detection & Correction)
SYSTEM

1.Fix engine clutch plate.
2.Clamp the engine.
3.Loosen throttle rod from throttle motor side.
4.Engage throttle with FIP lever at zero position.
5.Tighten throttle at dynamo end.
6.Check power is ON at panel.
7.Keep throttle controller at external at panel.
8.Check & assure switch is at push side.
9.Put switch to set position.
10.Pause for few seconds & press green limit button untill it is ON.
11.Set the knob to run position.
12.Start the engine.
13.Start button on panel should be in ON position.
14.Assure external mode.
15.Open the software.
16.Fill up proper engine no. code, FIP no. etc. & click save button.
17.Click on start button in software.
18.After testing fill up all operator check points.
19.Save the data.
20.For rework click on C hold.
21.After rework click resume if engine is not stopped.
22.If engine is stopped, click resume & double click on step from which engine
was stopped.





SOP for Engine Testing

S No. RPM Load (in %) Time
(in min)
Check Points
1. Idle NIL 3 Check oil pressure, oil
through rocker lever & any
abnormal noise.
2. 1300 20 4 Clean all fuel banjoes
&check for any leakage.
3. 1500 40 4 Check for any leakage from
water connection points.
4. 1800 60 4 Check for any lubricant oil
leakage, leakage from
banjoes and joints.
5. NLFT NIL 1 Check no load full throttle
RPM
6. NLFT
Setting
&1800
100 9 Adjust NLFT if required.
Check load on engine & fuel
time adjust if required.
Spray water on engine, dry
engine using air and check
for leakages using special
torch.
7. 1200+/-100 OVER LOAD 2 Check peak torque points.
8. Low Idle NIL 1 Check for un usal noise.
Check for hunting at idle
RPM & Oil pressure. Also
check for any leakage from
flywheel end side main oil
seal.
Check difference in oil
pressure at idle and NLFT.
It should be minimum 0.8
kg/cm
2
.





Test Bed Passing Range for XM Engines

S No. Parameters RV2
XM
RV3
XM
RV30
XM
RV2 XM
+3A
(AVL)
RV3
XM
+3A
(AVL)
RV30XM
+3A
(AVL)
1. Engine BHP
(Declared)
24 35 31 24 35 31
2. Test bed BHP
passing range
23.3-
25.2
34-
36.8
30.1-
32.6
23.3-25.2 34-36.8 30.1-
32.6
3. Fuel delivery 46
+/- 2
45
+/- 2
40
+/- 2
46
+/- 2
44
+/-2
40
+/- 2
4. S.F.C. 180
max
175
max
176 max 180 max 175
max
176 max
5. Rated RPM 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800
6. NLFT 1950
+/- 50
1950
+/- 40
1950 +/
-40
1950 +/-
50
1950+/-
40
1950 +/-
40
7. Idle RPM 650
+/- 50
650
+/- 50
650+/-
50
650+/-50 650+/-
50
650+/-50
8. % B.U.T Min.
15%
@
1100+
/- 100
rpm
Min.
12-20
%
@
1100
+/-
100
rpm
Min.
15%@
1100+/ -
100 rpm
Min15%
@1100+/-
100 rpm
Min12-
20%@1
100+/-
100
rpm.
Min
15%@1
100+/-
100 rpm
9. Smoke FL/OL 2/3.5 2/3.5 2/3.5 2/3.5 2/3.5 2/3.5









Test Bed Passing Range for Green
Engines

S No. Parameters RB30 TR+ RB33 TR+ S-15 TR+
1. Engine BHP
(Declared)
45 50 21.2
2. Test bed BHP
passing range
41.6- 46.5 46.5 - 52.0 20.3-20.7
3. Fuel delivery 54
Max
62
Max
84.5
Max
4. S.F.C. 182
Max
182
Max
194
Max
5. Rated RPM 2000 2000 1900
6. NLFT 2150
+/- 50
2150
+/- 40
2020
+/- 40
7. Idle RPM 650
+/- 50
650
+/- 50
650
+/- 50
8. % B.U.T 12 Min.
@ 1200
Rpm
12 Min.
@ 1200
rpm
10 to 15
%
9. Smoke FL/OL 2.0/3.8 2.0/3.8 3.2/4.0












PROJECT UNDERTAKEN

1. Engine Test Report

Engine No. STD004874
Engine Model RV3 XM +3A (AVL)
Engine Code 39.1354
FIP No. 41821305

Date 28/03/2014
Shift B
Test Bed No.9
Tester E.No.2570
Inspector E.No.2596

Test Started @ 9:14:02
Test Stopped @ 9:43:48
Total Run 00:29:46


S No. Check points Specifications Actual Remarks
Min. Max.

Ok/ not ok
1. Engine idle
speed
600 700 683 Ok
2. Engine fly up
speed
1900 2000 1943 Ok
3. Max power
(BHP)@rated
speed
33.33 36.8 34.4 Ok
4. SFC value@
rate speed
100 175 172.2 Ok
5. Fuel delivery 42 46 43.9 0k





TEST CYCLE

S
No.
Speed
rpm
Torque Engine
Power
Fuel
Delivery
Flow
Rate
Fuel
Time
Fuel
Wt.
SFC
1. 1299 3.8 5.1 0 0 0 0 0
2. 1499 8.34 12.5 0 0 0 0 0
3. 1799 12.72 22.9 0 0 0 0 0
4. 1943 0.19 0.4 0 0 0 0 0
5. 1799 18.82 33.9 42.7 5.78 62.3 100 170.7
6. 1801 18.79 33.8 42.3 5.72 63.01 100.1 169
7. 1802 19.09 34.4 43.9 5.93 60.84 100.3 172.7
8. 1100 22.32 24.6 0 0 0 0
9. 1965 0.23 0.5 0 0 0 0
10. 683 0.12 0.1 0 0 0 0


S
No.
Exst
Temp
Water
outlet
temp
Lub.
Oil
Temp
Lub.
Oil
Pr.
Pr. 2 Atm
Pr.
Pr.
4
CF DIN Smoke Step Time
1. 709 44.3 30.3 5.39 .006 .965 0 1.06281 0 9:21:66
2. 702 45.8 30.2 5.47 .007 .965 0 1.06281 0 9:25:07
3. 686 47 30.3 5.66 .007 .965 0 1.06281 0 9:29:05
4. 680 46.7 30.3 5.77 .008 .965 0 1.06281 0 9:30:04
5. 690 46.5 30.4 5.58 .008 .965 0 1.06281 0 9:31:58
6. 677 47.5 30.4 5.54 .008 .8 0 1.06281 0 9:33:37
7. 694 48.4 30.5 5.48 .008 .965 0 1.06281 0 9:35:37
8. 685 48.5 30.7 4.78 .008 .965 0 1.06281 0 9:42:45
9. 682 48.2 30.6 5.54 .007 .965 0 1.06281 0 9:43:14
10. 686 48.2 30.6 4.49 .006 .965 0 1.06281 0 9:41:41








GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION





























2. ENGINE TEST REPORT

Date 3/3/2014
Shift A
Test Bed No.8
Tester E No.3274
Inspector E No.2596
Engine No. STB04393
Engine Model RB33 TR+
Engine Code 47.1409
FIP No. 41769823

Test started @ 6:26:31
Test stopped @ 6:54:08
Total Run 0:27:37







S
No.
Check
points
Specifications Actual
Reading
Remark
s
Min Max
1. Engine Idle
Speed
600 700 669 Ok
2. Engine Fly
up speed
2100 200 2156 Ok
3. Max. power
(BHP) @
rated speed
47.5 52.5 52.5 Ok
4. SFC value @
rated speed
170 175 167.6 Not Ok
5. Fuel
Delivery
1 62 58.4 Ok




TEST CYCE


S NO. Measured Values
Speed Torque Engine
Power
Fuel
delivery
Flow
Rate
Fuel
Time
Fuel
wt.
SFC
1. 665 0.19 0.1 0 0 0 0 0
2. 1302 5.43 7.1 0 0 0 0 0
3. 1502 10.35 15.5 0 0 0 0 0
4. 2156 0.17 0.4 0 0 0 0 0
5. 2000 27.62 55.3 63.9 9.6 37.56 100.2 173.8
6. 2001 26.19 52.4 58.4 8.78 41.01 100 167.6
7. 2002 26.21 52.4 58.4 8.78 41.17 100.4 167.6
8. 2000 26.27 52.5 58.4 8.78 41.17 100.4 167.6
9. 1202 31.19 37.5 0 0 0 0 0
10. 2160 0.16 0.4 0 0 0 0 0











S
No.
Temperature Pressure CF
DIN
S
m
o
k
e
Step
Time
Exst Wtr
out
Lub.
Oil
Lub.
Oil
Pr.
1
Pr. 2 Atm Pr. 4
1 30 11 19.5 4.53 0 1.994 .965 0 1.0628
1
0 6:29:18
2. 30 11.4 19.6 5.07 0 1.994 .965 0 1.0628
1
0 6:33:09
3. 30 11.4 19.8 5.11 0 1.995 .965 0 1.0628
1
0 6:37:03
4. 30 10.8 20.2 5.48 0 1.994 .965 0 1.0628
1
0 6:41:57
5. 30 13.8 20.6 5.14 0 1.994 .965 0 1.0628
1
0 6:45:24
6. 30 12.3 21.2 5.01 0 1.994 .965 0 1.0628
1
0 6:48:21
7. 30 12 21.4 4.95 0 1.994 .965 0 1.0628
1
0 6:49:50
8. 30 11.6 21.5 4.91 0 1.995 .965 0 1.0628
1
0 6:51:03
9. 30 11.7 22 4.28 0 1.994 .965 0 1.0628
1
0 6:55:03
10. 30 11.7 22 5.04 0 1.995 .965 0 1.0628
1
0 6:55:33






GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION















CHECK POINTS
1. FIP Model
2. FIP Hunting
3. Engine No. & Code
4. Lub. Oil level
5. Compressor Leakage
6. Valve Leakage
7. Tappet Noise
8. Gear Noise
9. Valve Touch
10. Humming Noise
11. FD Noise at overload
12. Water Mixing with Lubricating Oil
13. Diesel Mixing with Lubricating Oil
14. Engine Overheating
15. Unusual Vibrations
16. Seating Rubber Bush Bottom
17. Lub Oil Leakage
18. Fuel Leakage
19. Blow by
20. Engine washing













MACHINE
SHOP










MACHINES USED IN MACHINE SHOP:

Vertical milling machine

Horizontal milling machine

Radial drilling machine

Gang milling machine

Rough boring machine

Semi-finish boring machine

Finish boring machine

Honing machine

Gun drilling machine
Washing machine

Rotary grinder
Rough milling machine

XLO valve lapping machine

Line boring machine


OPERATIONS BEING DONE:

Grinding

Drilling

Semi-finish boring

Finish boring

Tapping

Milling

Chamfering

Reaming

Lapping

Washing
CRANK-CASE:



Crankcase is the housing for accommodating crank shaft and cam shaft. In
SWARAJ tractors, crank case is cast separately and attached to cylinder
block. The bottom face of crank case walls is flanged to strengthen the
casing and to provide a machined joint face for sump to be attached. Crank-
shaft is supported in the crank case through a number of bearings called
main bearings. The construction of the crank case has to be such as to
provide very high rigidity because it must provide reactions for the heavy
forces set up to gas pressure in the cylinders. The cylinder block is mounted
above the crank case. At the top of the cylinder block is attached the
cylinder head. Attached to crank case is sump, flywheel, gear casing, fuel
filter, water separator etc.

The material of crank case is cast iron because it has following
Advantages :-

1. Good foundry material

2. High machinability

3. It does not warp under high temp. & pressure developed in cylinders

4. It is slightly porous nature as it retains better lubricant oil film

5. It does not wear too much

6. Sound damping properties

7. Low coefficient of thermal expansion

8. It is relatively cheap



MACHINING PROCESS OF CRANK CASE




The casting of crank case is brought in the machine shop from vendor and
following operations are performed on following machines in sequence :-

1. SUNKAP MACHINE:

This machine is first machine of crank-case line on this machine is used for
milling of sump face, cap mtg. face, top face (RV2, RV3, RB30/RB33) of
crank-case. Milling at all three faces is done simultaneously by three milling
cutters.



2. VERTICAL MACHINING CENTRE (V.M.C.):
There are two machines used for same operation for increasing production
rate. It is used for milling, drilling and boring operations on Sump face, Cap
mating face, Fuel filter Separator mating face drilling



3. DUPLEX MILLING MACHINE:

This machine is Special Purpose Machine (S.P.M.) which is used for rough
milling of gear end side and flywheel end side. In this machine cutter came
from both sides and milling both sides simultaneously.





4. GANG MILLING MACHINE:

This is again a special purpose machine used for gang or gap milling. The
milling of sides of cap mounting face are done. It has eight face milling cutters.

5. RADIAL DRILLING MACHINE:

On this machine, tapping of 8 holes on cap mounting faces is done. Also
tapping operation in holes on sump face is performed .After that dowels are
pressed on cap mating face by dowel pressing tool.


6. ROUGH BORING MACHINE:

It is a S.P.M. made by Kirloskar. On this machine, rough boring of Cam
bore, Crank bore, and IG (intermediate gear) bore is done. Here the boring
tools enter from both sides i.e. gear end side (GES) and flywheel end side
(FWS).

7. GUN DRINLLING MACHINE:

It is used for drilling a main oil gallery of 16.


8. WASHING MACHINE:

After drilling main oil gallery, the washing of crank-case is done for removing
chips etc from the gallery.



9. NOTCHING UNIT:

It is used for making a notch in crank bore in crank case. Notch is used for
supporting bearing, which is used to avoid friction between cap face and
crank shaft.



10. HORIZONTAL MACHINING CENTRE:

This machine is used for drilling and boring operations on gear side end and
flywheel end side.


11. VERTICAL MACHINING CENTRE:

This machine is used for drilling, milling, boring of top face and liner boring
of crank-case. Two machines are used for same operation.

12. INDEXOR (3 in No.):

This machine is used for making various galleries, dipstick hole, oil pressure
gauge hole etc.

13. OIL GALLARY WASHING MACHINE:

Washing is done first with air, then with coolant. After this studs are inserted
in holes on cap mfg. face and caps are tightened with impact wrench.


14. SEMI FINISH BORING MACHINE :

As the name suggests, this machine is used for semi-finish boring of cam
bore, crank bore and idler gear bore of crank-case. In this machine
tool came from one side.




15. FINISH BORING MACHINE:

This machine is used for the finish or final boring of crank bore, cam bore
and idler gear bore is done. After this operation these bores should have
the final dimensions.

16. TAPPET BORING MACHINE:

This is VA-50 a V.M.C. machine made by COOPER. This machine is used
for finish boring of tappet hole where push rods are fitted .

17. FINISH DUPLEX PAL MACHINE:

This machine is used for finish milling of gear end side and flywheel end
side with two cutters on both sides.
18. HORIZONTAL MACHINING CENTRE :

This machine is used for boring and reaming operation on Gear end side
and flywheel end side of crank-case.

19. ALEX GRINDER:

This is rotary surface grinder used for grinding of two side caps. Caps
are clamped with magnetic table.


20. GANPAT WASHING MACHINE:

This machine is used for final washing of crank-case with coolant to
remove all chips or other particles present in crank-case holes etc.


21. BUSH PRESSING UNIT:

After final inspection a bush is pressed in cam bore on gear end side to
avoid friction between cam shaft and cam bore during running of engine.




















PROJECT UNDERTAKEN

Valve leakage in RB cylinder head.
The main reason for leakage in cylinder head valves is wrong seat generation. The
PROBABLE CAUSES were proposed for this problem were:-
Pallet station Interference between outer dia. of seat & internal dia. of exhaust
valve.
Improper clamping
Faulty casting design

ANALYSIS OF ALL THE CAUSES:-
Pallet station :
It would have been possible that the leakage in the heads was specific to a
particular pallet and station in the machines.

The Makino machine a51 comprises of 2 pallets with 3 stations each. These were known
as top, left & right pallet station and for analysis of this cause the components were coded
when they were machined so as to determine if this problem was specific to a pallet
station. The coding was done as follows according to
PALLET (1 or 2) _STATION (T, L or R)
For e.g. The top station of pallet 1 was written as 1T.
The right station of pallet 2 was written as 2R and so on.

PALLET STATION ANALYSIS
S. NO. PALLET STATION LEAK TEST RESULT
1. 1T OK
2. 2R NOT OK
3. 2L OK
4. 1L NOT OK
5. 2R OK
6. 2T NOT OK
7. 1L NOT OK
8. 1T NOT OK
9. 2L NOT OK
10. 2L OK
11. 2R OK
12. 1T NOT OK
13. 1L NOT OK
14. 2T OK
15. 1L NOT OK
16. 1R OK
17. 2R NOT OK
18. 2T NOT OK
19. 1L NOT OK
20. 1R NOT OK
21. 2L OK
22. 2T OK
23. 1L NOT OK
24. 2L NOT OK
25. 1R OK
26. 2T NOT OK
27. 1L NOT OK
28. 2R NOT OK
29. 2L NOT OK
30. 1T NOT OK
31. 2R OK
32. 1L NOT OK
33. 2L NOT OK
34. 1R OK
35. 2T NOT OK
36. 2L OK
37. 1L NOT OK
38. 2R OK
39. 1T NOT OK
40. 2R NOT OK

CONCLUSION-
It was found out that the leakage problem was independent of the pallet and station at
which the component was machined. Therefore this was justified that the problem is not
in any particular pallet but in the process on the whole.
Improper clamping
The clamping system is responsible to hold the component in its place while machining
operations take place on it. The clamps used were flat surface therefore they could not
incorporate for any irregularities in the casting of head. To minimize this effect,
ROLLER clamps by TESA are used so that even if there is any variation in flatness of the
casting, the clamps will hold the component in position.


Before After

FLAT CLAMPS ROLLER CLAMPS BY TESA

ANALYSIS:

CONCLUSION-
The bar graph describes that the percentage of failed or rejected components fell steeply
in general after changing the clamps of pallet 2 in machine 499.01 . This justified that the
clamping of components was not proper earlier and that this issue needed to be addressed
and changing the clamps was a positive move.


Faulty casting design
On further exploring the scenario it was found out that the casting design was not
adequate according to the requirement for the clamps and needed modification.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
FLAT CLAMP ROLLER CLAMP
% of leaked components
% of leaked components

CASTING MODIFICATION

CONCLUSION-
The modifications in casting to increase the surface uniformity lead to better clamping of
the component in the pallet station. The clamps were able to hold the component
completely under all vibrations.
RESULT AND FUTURE SCOPE
The 2 major causes for cylinder head leakage were
Improper clamping
Faulty casting design
After addressing to these problems, there has been a drastic change in a positive direction
in the no. of rejected cylinder heads.
As on 28/04/2014 morning A shift, only 3 components out of 96 pieces were found to
be leaking.
FUTURE SCOPE:
Efforts are still on to further minimize the rejection due to leakage of cylinder heads to <
1%.





BIBLIOGRAPHY




1. Daily dairy.


2. Operators & Engineers


3. www.swarajenterprise.com