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# TAKEHOME REACTOR DESIGN

## PROGRAMA DE INGENIERIA QUIMICA

1. Consider the hydrolysis of acetic anhydride carried out in dilute aqueous solution in a batch
reactor:

(CH
3
C0)
2
0 (A) + H
2
0 2CH
3
COOH.

The initial concentration is C
A0
= 0.03 mol L
-l
, and the initial temperature is T
0
= 15C. Calculate the
time (t/min) required for 80% conversion of the anhydride:

(a) if the reaction is carried out isothermally at T
0
;
(b) if the reaction is carried out adiabatically;
(c) if the reaction is carried out nonisothermally and nonadiabatically with UA
c
= 200 W K
-l
, T
a
= 300
K, and V = 100 L.
Data: Arrhenius parameters are A = 2.14 X l0
7
min
-1
and EA = 46.5 kJ mol
-1
. The enthalpy of
reaction is -209 kJ (mol A
)-1
, the specific heat of reactor contents is 3.8 kJ kg
-1
K
-l
, and the density is
1.07 kg L
-l
.

2. A liquid-phase, exothermic first-order reaction (A products) is to take place in a 4000 L CSTR.
The Arrhenius parameters for the reacting systems are A = 2 X 10
13
s
-1
and E
A
= 100 kJ mol
-1
; the
thermal parameters are H
RX
= -50 kJ mol
-1
and Cp = 4 J g
-1
K
-1
; the density () is 1000 g L
-1
.

(a) For a feed concentration (C
A0
) of 4 mol L
-1
, a feed rate (v) of 5 L s
-1
determine X
A
and T at steady-state, if the feed temperature (T
0
) is (i) 290 K;
(ii) 297 K; and (iii) 305 K.
(b) What is the minimum value of T
0
for auto thermal behavior, and what are the corresponding
values of X
A
(c) For To = 305 K as in (a)(iii), explain, without doing any calculations, what would happen
eventually if the feed rate (v) were increased.
(d) If the result in (c) is adverse, what change could be made to offset it at the higher throughput?
(e) Suppose the feed temperature (T
0
) is 297 K, and it is desired to achieve a steady-state
conversion X
A
of 0.932 without any alternative possibility of steady-state operation in the quench
region. If a fluid stream is available at 360 K (Ta assume constant) for use in a heat exchanger
within the tank, what value of UA (J K
-1
s
-1
) would be required for the heat exchanger? Show that
the quench region is avoided.

3. An exothermic first-order liquid-phase reaction A R is conducted in a PFR. Determine the
volume required for 90% conversion of A, if the process is adiabatic.
Data:
Cp
A
= 143.75 J mol
-1
K
-1
v
0
= 360 L h
-1

Cp
R
= 264.1 J mol
-1
K
-1
H
RA
= - 19000 J mol
-1

C
A0
= 2.5 mol L
-1
= 0.85 g cm
-3

k
A
= 2.1 X 10
7
exp(-6500/T) min
-1
T
0
= 325 K

4. A liquid-phase reaction A + B C is conducted in a 50-L batch reactor. The reaction is first-order
with respect to each reactant.

(a) Determine the time required for 90% conversion of A, if (i) the reaction occurs adiabatically; (ii)
the reaction occurs isothermally at T
0

(b) Determine

and T
a
(as functions of time), if a cooling coil is placed in the tank to maintain the
isothermal conditions required in (a) part (ii).
(c) For (a) part (i), sketch the conversion-versus-time and temperature-versus-time profiles.

Data: C
A0
and C
B0
are 0.50 mol L
-1
and 0.75 mol L
-1
, respectively. The initial temperature (T
0
) is 400
K, and the heat capacity of the reactor contents is 3.8 J g- K-l. The fluid density is 0.75 g cmm3,
and the heat transfer parameter (UAc) for part (b) is 100 W K
-1
. The reaction is exothermic (- 145 kJ
(mol A)
-1
), and k
A
= 1.4 X 10
7
e(-7700/T) L mol
-1
min
-1
.

5. (Multiple reactions wirk hrnt effects) Xylene has three major isomer m-xylene, o-xylene, and p-
xylene. When o-xylene is passed over an catalyst, the following elementary reactions are observed
(Problem 8.25 Fogler):

The feed to the reactor is equal molar in both m-xylene and o-xylene (species A and B). For a total
feed rate of 2 mol/min and the reaction conditions below, plot the temperature and the molar
flow rates of each species as a function of catalyst weight up to a weight of I(H) kg.
(a) Find the lowest concentration of o-xylene achieved in the reactor.
(b) Find the highest concentration of m-xylcne achieved in the reactor.
(c) Find the maximum concentration of o-xylene in the reactor.
(d) Repeat parts (a) to (c) for a pure feed of n-xylene.
(e) Vary some of the system parameters and describe what you learn.
(f) What do you believe to be the point of this problem?
All heat capacities are virtually the same at 100 J/mol K.
C
T0
= 2 mol/dm
3

H
RxIO
= - 1800 J/mol o-xylene
H
Rx3O
= - 1100 J/mol o-xylene
K1 = 0.5 exp[2( 1- 320/T)] dm
3
/kg cat. min
k2= k
1
/Kc
k3 = 0.005 exp { [4.6 (1 - (460/T))]} dm
3
/kg cat. min
Kc = 10 exp[4.8(430/T - 1.5)]
T0 = 330 K
T
a
= 500 K
Ua/p
b
= 16 J/kg cat .min C
W= 100kg