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Quick Breads

- Quick to make and quick to bake

- Use chemical leavening agents (that release gases through chemical reactions between acids and
basis contained in the formula, which in turn, form bubbles or air pockets throughout the dough or
- These gases expand as the product bakes. The protein in the dough or batter then set around these
air pockets giving the quick bread its rise and texture.
Chemical Leavening Agents
1. Baking Soda sodium bicarbonate (NaHC

); an alkaline compound which releases carbon dioxide

gas if both an acid and moisture are present. Heat is not necessary for this reaction to occur.
Therefore, products made with baking soda must be baked at once, before the carbon dioxide has
a chance to escape from batter or dough.
Acids commonly used with baking soda are buttermilk, sour cream, lemon juice, honey, molasses
and fruits high in acid such as citrus. Generally, the amount of baking soda used in a formula is only
the amount necessary to neutralize the acids present. If more leavening action is needed, baking
powder not baking soda, should be used. Too much baking soda causes the product to taste soapy
or bitter, it may also cause a yellow color and brown spots to develop.
2. Baking Powder is a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and one or more acids, generally, cream of
tartar (KH

) and sodium aluminium sulphate (

. Baking powder also

contains a starch to prevent lumping and balance the chemical reactions. Because baking powder
contains both the acid and the base necessary for the desired chemical reaction, the quick bread
formula does not need to contain any acid. Only moisture is necessary to induce the release of

There are two types of baking powder: single acting (requires only the presence of moisture to
start releasing gas. The eggs, milk, water or other liquids in the formula supply this moisture) and
double acting baking powder (there is a small release of gas upon contact with moisture and
second, stronger releaser od gas when heat is applied).

3. Baking Ammonia (ammonia bicarbonate or ammonia carbonate)- adds crispness in some baked
goods, primarily cookies and crackers. It releases ammonia and carbon dioxide very rapidly when
heated. The strong odor it releases as it bakes dissipated once the product is cooked above 140F.
It is suitable for low-moisture products with large surface areas that are baked at high

Mixing Methods
Mixing Technique Fat Result
Biscuit Method Solid (chilled) Flaky dough
Muffin Method Liquid (Oil or melted butter) Soft, tender, cakelike texture
Creaming Method Softened (room temperature) Rich, tender, cakelike texture

Crumb the interior of bread or cake; may be elastic, aerated, fine or coarse grained
Procedure for Preparing Products with the Biscuit Method
1. Measure all ingredients.
2. Sift the dry ingredients together.
3. Cut in the fat, which should be in a solid form.
4. Combine the liquid ingredients, including any eggs.
5. Add the liquid ingredients to the dry ingredients. Mix just until the ingredients are combined. Do not
over mix, as this causes toughness and inhibits the products rise.
6. Place the dough on the bench and knead it lightly four or five times. The dough should be soft and
slightly elastic, but not sticky. Too much kneading toughens the biscuits. Use a slow speed and a short
mixing time when kneading biscuit dough in a mixer.
7. The dough is now ready for make-up and baking.
Make-up of Biscuit Method Products
1. Roll out the dough on a floured surface to a thickness of to inch. Be careful to roll it evenly. Biscuits
should double in height during baking.
2. Cut into the desired shapes. Cut straight down; do not twist the cutters, as this inhibits rise. Space cuts
as close together as possible to minimize scraps.
3. Position the biscuits on a lightly greased or paper-lined sheet pan, if placed with sides nearly touching,
the biscuits will rise higher and have softer sides. Place farther apart for crusty sides.
4. Reworking and rerolling the dough may cause tough, misshapen biscuits. Nevertheless, it may be
possible to reroll scraps once by pressing the dough together gently without kneading.
5. Tops may be brushed with egg wash before baking with melted butter after baking. Bake immediately
in a hot oven.
6. Cool the finished products on a wire rack.
Procedure for Preparing Products with the Muffin Method
1. Measure all ingredients.
2. Sift the dry ingredients together.
3. Combine the liquid ingredients, including melted fat or oil.
4. Add the liquid ingredients to the dry ingredients and stir just until combined. Do not over mix. The
butter will be lumpy.
5. The batter is now ready for make-up and baking.
Make-up of Muffin Method Products
1. Muffin pans and loaf pans should be greased with butter, shortening or commercial grease. Paper
liners may be used and will prevent if the batter contains fruits or vegetables. Paper lines, however,
inhibit rise.
2. A portion scoop is a useful tool for ensuring uniform-sized muffins. Be careful not to drip or spill batter
onto the edge of the muffin cups; it will burn and cause sticking.
3. Allow muffins and loaf breads to cool for several minutes
4. Cool the finished products on a wire rack.
Procedure for Preparing Products with the Creaming Method
1. Measure all ingredients.
2. Sift the dry ingredients together.
3. Combine the softened fat and sugar in a mixer bowl. Cream on low speed until the color lightens and
mixture fluffs.
4. Add eggs gradually, mixing well.
5. Add the dry and liquid ingredients to the creamed fat alternately. In other words, a portion of the flour
is added to the fat and incorporated, then a portion of the liquid is added and incorporated. These
steps are repeated until all the liquid and dry ingredients are incorporated. By adding the liquid and dry
ingredients alternately, you avoid over mixing the batter and prevent the butter-and-sugar mixture
from curdling.
6. The batter is now ready for make-up and baking.
Make-up for Creaming-Method Products
Panning and baking procedures are the same as those for quick breads prepared with the muffin
Troubleshooting Chart for Muffins and Quick Breads
Soapy or Bitter flavour Chemical leaveners not properly
mixed into batter
Too much baking soda
Sift chemicals with dry ingredients.
Elongated holes (tunnelling) Over mixing Adjust formula
Do not mix until smooth; mix only
until moistened
Crust too thick Too much sugar
Oven temperature too low
Adjust formula
Adjust oven
Flat top with only a small peak in
Oven temperature too low Adjust oven
Cracked, uneven top Oven temperature too high Adjust oven
No rise; dense product Old batter
Damaged leavening agents
Bake promptly
Store new chemicals properly
Do not overmix