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Lab # 11 EE352 Electromechanical Systems

Name :____________________ Roll # : ______





Plotting V-curve of a Synchronous Motor

Equipment:


1. Three Phase Slip Ring Induction Motor DL30120
2. DC Machine DL30200
3. DC Voltmeter (2)
4. DC Ammeters (2)
5. AC Voltmeters (1)
6. AC Ammeters (1)
7. 3-Phase Power Meter (Measuring Unit)
8. Variable DC Supply
9. Tachometer

Theory:

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
Synchronous motors are AC motors that have a
field circuit supplied by an external DC source. They convert AC electrical power
to mechanical power. It is electrically identical to an alternator or AC generator.
Some characteristics of the synchronous motor are:
It runs either at synchronous speed or not at all i.e. while running it
maintains a constant speed. The only way to change its speed is to vary
the supply frequency.
It is not self-starting. It has to be run up to synchronous or near
synchronous speed by some means before it can be synchronized to the
supply.
It is capable of being operated under a wide range of power factors both
lagging and leading.

PRODUCTION OF TORQUE:
In a synchronous motor, a three-phase set of
stator currents produces a rotating magnetic field, B
S
. The field current, I
F
of the
motor produces a steady-state magnetic field, B
R
. Therefore, there are two
magnetic fields present in the machine, and the rotor field will tend to line up with
the stator field, just as two bar magnets will tend to line up if placed near each
other. Since the stator magnetic field is rotating, the rotor magnetic field will
constantly try to catch up. Larger the angle between the two magnetic fields, the
greater the torque on the rotor of the motor. The basic principle of a synchronous
motor operation is that the rotor chases the rotating stator magnetic field around
in a circle, never catching up with it.

SPEED OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR:
The rotor (which is initially unexcited)
is speeded up to synchronous or near synchronous speed by some
arrangements and then excited by the DC source. The moment this
synchronously rotating rotor is excited, it is magnetically locked into position with
the stator i.e. the rotor poles are engaged with the stator poles and both run
synchronously in the same direction. It is because of this interlocking of stator
and rotor poles that the motor has either to run synchronously or not at all. The
synchronous speed is given by the usual relation:
P
f
N
S
120
=
However, this engagement is not very rigid. As the load on the motor is
increased, the rotor progressively tends to fall back in phase by some angle but it
still continues to run synchronously.

V-CURVES:
The V-curves of a synchronous motor show how armature current
varies with its field current when motor input is kept constant. These are
obtained by plotting armature current while motor input is kept constant and are
so called because of their shape. There is a family of such curves, each
corresponding to a definite power intake.
To draw these curves experimentally, the motor is run from constant
voltage and constant frequency bus bars. Power input to motor is kept constant
at a definite value. Next, the field current is increased in small steps and
corresponding armature currents are noted. When plotted, we get a V-curve for a
particular constant motor input. Similar curves are drawn by keeping motor input
constant at different values.

EFFECT OF FIELD CURRENT CHANGES:
Considering a synchronous
motor in which the mechanical load is constant. When the field current is
increased, the magnitude of the back emf, E
A
in the motor increases, but does
not affect the real power supplied by the motor. The power supplied by the motor
changes only when the shaft load torque changes. Since a change in armature
current, I
A
, does not affect the shaft speed and since the load attached to the
shaft is unchanged, the real power supplied is unchanged. The terminal voltage
is also kept constant by the power source supplying the motor.
Therefore, as the value of E
A
increases, the magnitude of I
A
first decreases and
then increases again. At low E
A
, the armature current is lagging and the motor is
an inductive load. It is therefore consuming reactive power Q. As the field current
is increased, E
A
increases and the armature current eventually lines up with the
voltage and the motor is purely resistive. As the field current is further increased,
the armature current becomes leading, and the motor becomes a capacitive load.
So now it consumes negative reactive power Q or alternatively supplying
reactive power to the system.

For each curve, the minimum armature current occurs at unity power
factor, when only real power is being supplied to the motor. At any other point on
the curve, some reactive power is being supplied to or by the motor as well. For
field currents less than the value giving minimum I
A
, the armature current is
lagging, consuming Q. In this situation, the motor is said to be under-excited.
For field currents greater than the value giving minimum I
A
, the armature current
is leading, supplying Q to the power system as a capacitor would. This case is for
an over-excited motor. Therefore, by controlling the field current of a
synchronous motor, the reactive power supplied to or consumed by the power
system can be controlled.

Also, as explained above that an overexcited motor can be run with
leading power factor, this property renders it extremely important in phase
advancing purposes in industrial loads driven by induction motors and lighting
and heating loads supplied through transformers. Both transformers and
induction motors draw lagging currents from the line. Especially on light loads,
the power drawn by them has a large reactive component and the power factor
has a very low value. This reactive power results in losses in many ways. By
using synchronous motors in conjunction with induction motors or transformers,
the lagging reactive power required by the latter is supplied locally by the leading
reactive component taken by the former, thereby relieving the line and
generators of much of the reactive component. When used in this way, the
synchronous motor is called a synchronous capacitor because it draws leading
current from the line.


Procedure:

Connect the Circuit as shown in the circuit diagram with no Field Voltage
applied to the Rotor windings in the start and rotor winding shorted out so
that the said machine can be run as a Squirrel Cage Induction Motor

Apply the rated voltage to the machine so that the machine starts running
at less than Synchronous Speed in Induction Mode.

Start the Field Voltage Supply so that I
F
current can flow towards the rotor
windings. Un-short the rotor windings which were done to start the
machine as Induction motor. At this point the machine is converted into its
synchronous operation and is working at Ns speed.

Note down the values of Armature Current I
A
(Use DMM to measure I
A
)
and power factor (cos) from the Measuring Unit for increasing values of
Field Current. The applied voltage to the stator remains constant. Only
changes in its armature current will occur.

Do not increase the field current more than 2.5A

Repetition of the same instructions can be done by changing the load
(shaft load) on the Synchronous Machine by attaching a Shunt Generator
and Load on it. In this way another set of readings and another V-curve
can be plotted.

Draw the curve between Field Current on the x-axis and Armature Current
on the y-axis on MATLAB


Observations:

Voltage Applied = _______ V (Line to Line Voltage)

At No Load :

S.No
Field (Rotor) Current Armature Current Power Factor
I
F
(A) I
A
(A) cos
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10



Circuit Diagram:




























Synchronous Motor
DC Shunt Generator
Generated Voltage
Speed
(Tachometer)
3 Phase AC
Voltage Supply
V
L-L
= 380V
From Variac
Measuring Unit
L1
L2
L3
N
L1
L2
L3
N
V
V
A
Line Current I
L

Line Voltage V
L


DC Voltage Supply
0-220V

Resistive
Load

Comments:

Why Synchronous Motor is not self start motor?
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What does the lowest value of Armature current for a given set of readings
signify? Can that current be made zero practically by changing Field Current?
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Why Active Power remains constant when field current is increased? Explain with
the aid of Phasor Diagram?
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Why Reactive Power (consumed) decreases when field current is increased?
Explain with the aid of Phasor Diagram?
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