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ON I'HE

COMPARATIYE
STADY OF MATHEMATICAL
MODELS
FOR EARLIEST
VISIBILITY
OF THE
CRESCENT
MOON
AND THEIR
MODIFICATION
Cdndidare:
M U I IA M MA D SITA H ID
QU
RESH I
lo
SupeNisor
(D..)
N.sidddh
Khan
Prcfesso..
Depadmenr
ofMarlEma
cs
Unive$ity
of Karachi
Prcscntcd
in prrtiatfulfitme
ofrhe requircments
for rle deerce
DOCTOR
OF PHILOSOPHY
Ar Insliruk
ofSpae
&
ptder&,
Aslrophysics
unlversity
of Kamchi,
Kamchi
September,
2007
/
CIiII-TIFICA'TE
welcc.pllhe
lhcsh as cortunrjns to the rcq0iEd $afttnrd
CERTIFICATE
c. incd thn th. ..ndidltc hr! @mplcr.d $c rh. T undr ny supervision
a-w"*
,/U*sql
.',.hs
la'
t r- aanh,d$
Ur/
,{'
\4{t
6{"
iii
tnU'onaneofAltah
The md n 3}.'d/tul ard t to rno8t D3''cficent
Dedicated to my late mother
Anwer Sultana
whose patient struggle in life and
passion for mathematics
motivated me to study
I am d.cply graleful
to Prolcssor Dr. Nasituddin Kndn, my SrDervisol aor his
patience.
inkluble sriNlla(on and counlloss sugg6tions dsht from the bcSinning rill rhG poirrt
*hen I .n ablc ro complerc lhis $ork.
I sould ole lile lo expess Dy
CFlilude
for tne valuble suSgestions polided
by
Prcfessor Dr. Roshid Kadal Ansli of IcdeEl Urdu UniveBily. Karachi_ in rhe bcginnnrs
ol tlis prcjed
My spccial $hks for Prcfcssor Dr. Mtrhamn)ad Ayub Khar
you$rlzai
ol
Urne6nj ofKonchi$no
Emincd a nofiaror tor mc nbuglour rhis \ork I mus,tso
suhnrit nry hunblc tanks lo Prolcser Dr. Muhannad ltoys of rjnilcGny
of Kuata
l-!mpur. Maliysia, Dr Abdul Haq Suhan ol Univeriry of Sanaa,yenren
tor reir kind
cnconmAcment during $is sort.
lhanls !E ats due aor Mr MulNflrnrad shotrl Odch
n nleins rhc wcbsllc NN\.icoon)ior!
dnd Mr
(hitid
shorkor nriNgilg
\\\rr!r!]N4lt!!!!.9r1!rr. uorh lhc*
"ohsitc
rcnraincd ! eurcc ot infomllliotr. rcscd'lh
prpeu aDd.laln lbr rhn \orl lo hrve b..o posibt. l_asr b nor rhc leasr; I subnjn m,
stccral rhdnlis llr Dr Shlbbir Ahs.n oi Lahorc Universny of M.meeNnr Scienccs
$hoe {aluablc nrge$iions helped nre in cdnins rhn dissedation.
I sish b cxtcnd my sirrccrc thanks to lhc University of Knrachi. i! pirticutar ns vicc
chrncll
. Prolcs$lpr Pecuda
Qasinr
Rm. lor rhc consislcnl DoRI suppon tor rho
My sife. cbildo. and in-laws enained under lols of prcsure durine lhis proloneed
periodofny\ort
lor shich no gralirude
nay bc enough.
MSQ
Abstract
The pmbl.m
of delemining
ftc day when
Uc nev tunar crcs.nl can be 3en ti6t
ar an, site of observarion hs Efrained an opch
pobtem
since andquirr, The
phenon.non
ImniB imFnel for beeioing ! luw mon$ in a puEly
ob*rvariomt
lunar calcnd.i. In li. n6! chapler the asrrcnomicat pdamercn
relare.i lolheprobtcnr are
!.!ieRtd alohe si$ a briefdcsriplion
oasme rules oafitrnb arribut.d ro rhc ancicnr
and lhe nr!ie!.1 nodets lhc afecrs ot geognphical
loc.rion on rhc problcr
orc aho
dcscribed. A brief Evierv ofc.tendaB
lnd.ssociared celestiat cycles h atso pescnled
$nh splri.l chphasis on |hc rulcs enurcjarot for Islamic ob*rarionat
lu.arcalcnd,r a
.{rlr as lo'r cemu, AD. ln lhe end of the ch.prf Eviov or rhe conlrib[ion of thc
.strcnoncrs of 2orr' cenrurr is pesentcd
$al b.8im rvirh thc etoFical toodct or
Solvins fte pnblm
ol lhe ti6l visibilny
oa lbe n.$. lumr crcsccnr inlolvcs
lenedy colcrlations
and thc trsc ofatt ctcFenrary !slrononjic0t rechniqucs. A tovi.w ot
n e tcchniq,es and algorilhms is pEsc
.d in rhc *cond chlpr. Sp$i.l emphNis is
Ailrn
lo r|r dekminarion oa linr of oriunclion of Moon sirh rhe SuD. i c binh of nc*
Moon. rh. risinsand seu'hgol thr Smnnd rhe M@n_ posnionsofrhc
sun,nd thc Moor
ar 2n! tnrc on rhc dll or rc day aftc. conjL .rion
.t.tc
ch.prr cnds rith a brict
dsscrption of the .ompurer prosranr
Hitotot dsvebp.d r'.r compftrioN done ir rhis
\ort
A n$v posam
is deEloped in ordq lo prcdnce
the dala Fquied aor rhis \ol[
$ar is
Cencrally.or
avlitabte troh orher sotlwarc lhat aheadycxrsr
ShniDg $ilh simtl Ulbytonian crncrion. fic lhnd chaprr eiptores rhe ancienr
dnd the Drdielal hlrbeoaricat
hodets follo\d b, rhe dcscriprion ol. narh.natical
trploEion of oedieval Mutim Aslomn6. Condricat considehions
asiaGd
wilh the prcblen
are.xplorcd
in nrore dclaitin oder ro evalu0le the Lunlr Ripencss Las
o.0
'ls
sMcess, suggc$ed in lhc medieval e6. Son nodincado.s to rh la$ aru ate
suggesled Thc shoncominss of the ripenc$ lav a,c then di*ussd and lieht is shcd oD
rhe Easns rhat lead ro lhe dcvelopnent of ARCV-DAZ
,.trrion b4d nodels b, the
cdly 2di cenlury astononeB. Thc significanr findin8 of the chaprer h $al borh lhc
simpk Babylonian c ldion and rhe Lunar RipeNss IEw a! morc successfutin tcrms of
thcn co.sistnct Nnh rn. posirile
sghrings dords in comparison b fie hodeh
ddllopcd in th fiBr haliof2(]ucenrury Ascroa46Sobsonationsisuscdforleslinslll
modcls in thil {ork. nr.r incldc obseNations collccted since thc latcrhrlaof l9'i cemtry
ln conparison lo lh. empnical odcls nrd to prcdicr lhe visibilil) of lhe nc$
lu. cr*enl iill rhe lid balfot $e l$ndelh cnlur)- lhe 6od.ls dcleloped on rhe
b6is of
phFical rheoriN of sl! brighhess and extincrion trc cxPloEd nr thc lol'nh
.[dfl*. i he* models incl"de l[o$ d.ralotrd by Bun aM sclDrftr scpamLl]. Btoin
bed his mddrl on lhe rveige briehhcss of lhc lull Mdon and lhe lriligh slv.
Schacfeis model calculales th. octual lin ins mdgnitud. oaihc skj and $c ntgnnud.
of rhc cftsdrl id tcsls a vkibilitt cldinr on rh. bnsis ol nugnirrd. coniGt and rs
difte{nr ir nrtuLc tio$ allother nodeh An.ra bdel deeriprion of Bruin s modcl ihe
scmi-cnrpiricrLnDdel olYillot is discu$ed in d{(.i1. Nhich isconsiderud to be rlt nDn
Nnrflchcnsi\c !trd aldrcnlic nrodcl. Y{llop dcducdd his busic d.h lrotrr lr ns
\isibilnJ curvcs. On nre brsis of Schadfcas tcchliqocs
qc
hd\c rlconsLruorcd Inui s
model rnd pruduccd lcw
visibililt crNes Md. ncs scmi-enrpnicll
nodel lbr rhe
\isibilnJ oanc$ llnar crcscenl fte delclopNcnl
ofllris n.w nrodel is one oith( Naior
{chicve.nEoflhis$ort.AllIhemodelsarclestddnthssamcdaldselasisusedinrhe
!rc\ious
chaplcr lhc nc$ nrodcldc\cloPLd in lhis
qorl
is found lo be rhe bcst aDonssl
rlB nlodcflr dr) dels in rcnrs olils cdnsnlcnct Nilh lh. nunrb.r olposirilc sishrinSs
in lhc d asduscd A compali$n ofsuccess oaqch nodcl h aho disNsed in tlns
Al $e end of $c founn chapler a emtce} is iEmed b *di dle tulhcnticirt of a
claim of siehlins or ne\ cte$e on lhe bsis of a rmi_enpnical
modcl and th'
Nasnitudc conlras oodel
-fhe
sisnific.nce of such a stats) hN bcn highlignred 4s
rherc ae found d nuob.r of authenric ne\r cG$c risibihv claims thlt are nol
coosisienr wnh a *ni-cmpilical nodel tn lhcse ces a semi'copnical nodel des not
allow visibilil, ofthe cltsm wilnoul oprical aid bu rhe magnitude conkasr is in f.vour
ofvisibility. This happens s aeminpirical modcl dcs nor bl. i.to considcnrion lhc
elsvation of lhc sne of obseoation abole sed levsl md dr wcarher conditions t-he
maSn'lud. contBl model consided all lhese facto6.
Dcyond $eorctical considerarions a na$ematical model should possess poucr oa
appliabilily. The prine
applidion of rhc mathemaical nodels cxplo&{. anatysed an,l
develoFd in this $ork is lo dermin rhc adiesr visibihy ota ncN lunn cft*cniar 8J
location oflhc {orld and lo lerify a chim ofcre$on lhibiliry. Ap.n froh $is prirlc
applietion in the fiih chafler rhc sedi+mpi.ical modch arc applicd b devetop a
hchnique for cilculdring the leneti oan$v obsc(d lun cascent. The phenom..on of
shonentu! otcrcscent lengrh is lino"n for centuries ond drrinS 20ri cenl!try a nrnrbc! of
4!$ns hale b(tn suSgcscd lor $e eme. Ilo\rer. our sugg.srd rNhnique is rhc tld
ofilsn rc ihr pdvid.
a simplc com brionili@lforcrlculatirglensrholob*ncd
.Nsccnl. Mooover. lhc *-nlichpincdl nlodch are nlso rfplicd r. lcril} thc act(dl
p@ti$'l obsen.t,onal lun.r cdendar i,r Paki$an for lhe lasr sc\cn
)c
s. rhc nDdcls
and thc
tnctis.d
calcndar aN found to bc in asEemcnr in 95% oi$e ncs mooff duling
thc pciod
of srudy. Morivaled by rhis hish rare of consh(cncl rve hrvc pNscntc(t a
''PEdicted Obscn arioml Lunar C.leod.i forPakisan.
A sumntr' ofrhis Nhole.flon h preseired in lhe lasr ch.prcr. v.nols ihpoarrr
issues aE hiehliSlt d $nh a di$ussion on rh. aurur. scope of Esearch nr the arcd
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CONTENTS
Urdu R.ndenng of Abslracl
Introduction
Ll P@nd.6 for visibiliry olNry Lumr Cr$chr
L2 sienillcmce o| ceogdphical t calion
t.l Tbe Rut.s oaThunb: The Ani.m & fi. Medievrl
1.4 Crl.ndas and CelesdalCycles
L5 condbution oflh zod cotury Aslro.on6
Astronomicsl Algorithms & Techniqucs
Dyne cs ofMmn ed |he Eanh
Coordindtes of rhe M@n
Nes Lu@ Caenl visibihy Pard.ic'!
Thc Softve Hiblol.qpp
2.
3.
2.1
2.2
2,t
2,5
2.6
2.1
2.8
2,9
2
l0
tl
20
24
25
l0
4i
5l
55
58
63
15
76
82
t03
122
Ancicnt, Mcdicv{l & Etrly 20$ Ccntury Modcls
l. |
'ftc
ltabylonian Crilcri!
3.2 Some Sphncd Trigonomebc Consi.lcations
l.l Thc Lud Ripehess I,3w md ils Modiicdlion
1.4 Ehpidcal Models of Edly 2d CenNry
1.5 ConposonahdDiscussion
5.
125
t27
l3?
ta6
tt9
t67
t'|2
l7l
l9l
t9E
6.
Phyaic.l Modala & their Evolution
4.1 Bruid s Physical Model
4.2 Y.llopl sinslc Pamel.r Mo.lel
4,1 Srch.f.ls Umitiog Magritudc Mo&l
4 4 A Nry Crirrion For vilibility of Nry Luc cEsdt
Applicrtion
5.1 Ln$h of Cd!c.
5-2 Ob6.ri{tional L|lM C.lctrdrn of Pakkur
Dircusion
Th. sonwm Hihlol.cpp 205
fte Anci.nl Med'.valrnd E dy 2of
'enluo
Models 2ll
Th. PhysiolModcls
24!
Lwcd.nd.r2000'20{t
255
Futurccalendar2ooE-2ol0 264
21t
Chapter No. I
INTRODUCTION
Slnce rhe anclent ttmes rh. 6preaEn@ ot nw tunar cr6cent marked lhe
beginningofa new monlh. With the dvotopment ot ctv zarions org.ntrtng lme tor
e(ended pe
ods lnto weeks, months snd
teaE,
the tlnar
phase
cyctes tead to tho
evolutio. ot calendaB. lh6refore the pobtem
ot dotermining the day of tiFt
sEhtingol nw crescent moon arlbcted hlman betngr tt Invotves con stderatio n or
a nuhber of astronomlcat es wett as other facto6. On the orher hand th6 probtem
ol obserylng the new tunar cres.6nt at an eaniesr
posstbte
momenl ts chalenging
for bolh amateuE and
professtonat
.5tonome6. Th6 .st,onomtcat paEmetets
on
whlch thesolution olthlsprobtem
ts bas6d are b eflydtscussed in the ftsl .iicte ot
The circudstarces and parameteE
assciated with th problem
of sighting
new runar cresce.t
Sreatty
vrry wirh th v.rytng post
o. or obseder on rhe
globe.
The atfecls ot the
geographicat
tocation on the probtem
ls briefiy discussed in rhe
next 6rtlcle. Atempts to determlne crle a tor the delermintngthe flrst ltslbitity ot
new runar c@scenr ai..y ptac
rpp.ared as any as the Babytonian ers (Faroohier
al, 1999, Bruin, 197?, tty.s, 19946). Signncanr adrances were made by Mustims
and AEbs during medlevgt perlod.
A brtl nccount ot thes6 ancient aid medieval
effons b discu$ed ln thtd.dtcte
ofthts chapter.
Srnce anliqolty changing phas6
o, the Moon and a comptete cyct or rhese
vrriallorc has been ured a3 meansot kptnEaccount ofcatendaG. |yas hasgiven
a delailed accounr of the history of ihe scince of lunar crescent vlstblity and the
lslahic Calenda. (rryas,
1994.), Dogger h6 di$ussed lhe history and rhe
deveropn. of calenda6 (ooget,1992),
Fetngold &orshowitz hav. presenred
a
(omparEllvesludy
or morethan
rwnry catendaG or vsrtous
(ypes
both sncien, a;d
moden (Reingold
& Dschowttz,
2OO1). A numbor otorhor rutnors navo contrtbur.d
on rcraid tssle. (atr.3hk,
1993, y.s,
1997, Odeh, 2oo4 etc.). A. ,ghr from rhe
beginnlng the c6tenda6 rE 6s$ctated wirh th. cycts ot rh heavens, rhe eme
.re Evi*ed atongvilh
tno a$ociated catendaB in the nen anbb oi thts chapter
wlth speclal emphasts on the tst.mic Lunar catendai
Durlng the modrn rims tt wa3 onty in rhe tasl quaner
of the 19rh century
lh.l weslem askorom66
stangd erpto,ing the pbblem
of ea l6sr sigh trg o, new
lunar
'oscent.
the tast antcte is a bnot luruoy of lrorature that delcribed and
ttweropod vaious
c,ire.t. o, models for lhe $tulto. ot
probtm
ot d.t.rmining
th
day or lh fl6t vlslblltty
ot tun.r crescont at any ptac
on th6
Elobe
du nE 2olh
Ll PARAMETERS
FOR VISIlIILITY
OF NEW LUNAR
CRf,SCDNT
The Moon. the ody natunt sateuirc oflhe Eanh. is
eoiog
ound lhe [anh h an
orbit thot is a hiShly iftgrlar ellipe Thc i resutariries in lhe pd$
of rhe M@n a duc lo
llrc facl Et its norion is govemed
by not onty tbe gEln
ional pu
oflhe Eanh. bur is
also aaf.clcd by toan) of rhe ncishholiing
cetestial objecN (Danby,
1992). \\,nh r
Hadh s varying dhr&ce fron lhc Sun, thc e,Iecioa $e Sun,s gnvnodonat
pull v,rics
srbstmti ly snh rheElarile posnionsofthe
Eanh and the Moon. Moreov.!,lhe afcors
orthe confisur.lion
oflheshole
Sotrsrslem (losirions
ofa| lhe major ptMcrs
a.d $c
major ar.rcid9 on rhc morion oflhe Moon is oor nesligibte, Thus, accoding ro rhc
''Eplremirids
Lun,irs Prisiemcs,, popularly
tnoh d Chapont,s tuM tho,y ELp,
2000/82 (Chapronl-Touze
& Chapronr. t 983, Cluprcnr-Touzc & Chaprcnt,
t99l), tor lhe
b.sl possible plecision
iD te lonSirude, hdnde md lhe disrance (bclsen
lhc Mon and
the Eonh), dere aE equired as nany as 15i227 priodic
rrms. On lbe othf hand, for
dcteminhg 6e position
ofrhe Sun b r simile d.8E of acc@cy one rqdB 2,425
periodic
rems in vicw olrhe
,Variarions
S.culairs des Orbnes
plandaiet,
rhe Fiench
pr.netary
thory lnoM as VSOP87 (B&raSnon
& Fl!Bo!, t988, Meus' 1998). The
accurat dterni.alio. of lhc posiiiom
of the Su dd tl'e Moon is tbe fisl slep towards
explorins |he circunsr.ee of rlE vGibihy of ihc !a lud .esnt, Handling sdh a
laqe hnmber of
pdiodi.
terms mak6 this fiEt slep very ciucial. The lest of the sludy
dep.nds on th. Elativc pcitio$
of lhe Ss and thc M@n ed rhe hod&i at md aner
thc aunsel for a.y place on the &nh.
These theoris detemio. lhe c.l$i.l ecliptic coodiiates of the sold sy$en
obj*|' fid dc b6ed on sphencal polar c@rdinats. The fig Ll.l sho\s the spheiical
pol.r
coordiMle sys&n, The origin of lh. syslen O is nher lhe ccntrt of lh E nh ot
lhat ofthe Sun. The xy'plane k the plane olsliptic, the
plane
i. shich the E horbi6
iound the Su, The x-dis
poin6
in the diEtion ol the vcmal Equimr
l
which is the
poinr
of intersection of the Ecliptic (palh
of rhe Eanh arcund rhe Sun) and lhd celesrial
equaror (rvhos plde coimides wnh rhe pl.ne oa rhc lereslrial equalor). P is $e objsl
llhc
Moon in gcocemric
sysem or thc Earth in llelioccn(ric sy(em) $hosc stheical
porq
@dimrs
tp.
0.
0)
e
p
=
lo4.
0
=
4oP 6d
e-zzo?.\i\ee
P ist\.
prcjccrion ollhe position P ollhe objccl on ro the xy-phne. In the celestial ecliptic
cmdinaB the cetesial loicitudc I = o dd rhe cel.$ial l6(ludeP= 9f
- el=
zPoP
).
whcn fie hcli@enilic eclipric coordinates ofthe E nh aa elaluared usins VSoP ft.y
aE $en tdslomed inlo lh gc@nric eliplic coodimles of lhe Sun The corjuncdon
or $e Bidh ofNe\ Men occu6 wben }{1 = Is.
Fig. No I I I
SuDpoe ('-.r",/.)!d (.,,r",t)
E thc p6isc
dist nc6, etipri. tonSnld.
..d Oc hnud. of lhc Moon .nd rt Sltr Bperiv.ty, Ff.Gd ro fi. nsr cquircx ol
rh. d.y of @njucrion. For .ny t@tor on th. Esnh wnh Gcri.l eotdimrcs. I rh.
rcGrdal lonsiud. ot rh.
d@
.d
t
is rh. Lcid.l tlrirud., thc ti6t scD i. de
d.rcmimtion of dc visibihy ot ft. nd t!@ cE$.ni is ro d.r.diF rh. aclut
dyMicrl tin (TD
oi rD T., of rlE @njwtion. N.xt, om Eqdc coBidcrine rh.
la.!l tima ofslrdns ofrt. Su {d rlE M@n. IfT, lrd Tm
(CoordiDr.d
Urivcdt Tin.
TUC) bc lhe rinB of rh. lcat sunsa ud rhc hooEt, ihcn d. i* G$cnr h.y b.
visiblc only ilT, <
To, This La4 to lh. p.md.r
LAG - Tr
-
Tr.
Using th. cclipric c@rdiNl6 ot |he sun 6d thc Mon drt.ut.l.d for rh. 1.. o,
dy orho noD.ni of tiD., Oc cqq|oi.t @rdin c! of rh. |m bodiB (a.,4)!nd
(a..t,)
cd bc oh.ircd. Vhcdd. rhc nght aeBion k $c djspt@mcnr of$. objer
fbm wdal .qdnox .long lh. cctcsli.t cqu|or (in $.
q.
qudtut
s I
). md d
js
$c
delin.rion or rhe displ.ccftnl
of$. obj.cl fbm dc pt.E
or ue.qullor t c.l lour
Aigl. tf is rh.i oblaircd fon Oc dilT.Ene of thc leEt Sid.c.t Tin. (r_SD
and rh
ishr e.6iotr. This liMuy gies
ihc leat horianr.t c@diiat s, dimuft
(,r).
rhc
displ&.md ol rhe objer fbi rhc diEcdon of lh. Nonh rowrds E 5r ,tong $.
hodenlal in l@l sty .nd rlE ald|ud. (r),
rh.
hciehr
or rh. objer lbov hori&o. Aftcr
.djustus for $. cf@rioi ed $. h.ishr of rh. obencr's to..rion .bovc s.. trycl rhc
ropo..nric c@rdiiaks (,4., rr
).nd
(,{,
.}.
)
of lhe M@n and de sun, 6!..rivty aE
lo almosr all rhc nod.ls fo..&lid hoo!-nddng, rh. mj.nt s rcll .s lh.
mod.m, th. difieE@ ofeinurlrs (D,,tz
=
l!r.
-
/r.l. can.d rlodvc szimurh) .id thrt ot
rltiluda (ARcv
- ,-
-/'.,
c.llcd e of vision) $ rhoM in rhc fig 1t.2, at th. rin. of
lc.l su@t T, Th. e of vkion is ale l.m.d s F of d.fft$ion. TIF tig, |.t.2 de
show rhc *pa{ion bctwn ln. Sun lnd rh. M@ that is tsM !s 0E .rc of tilnl
abbrtviacd s ARCL .rd is .ls tioM $ .tong$ion.
Ap&1 frh rh. Elni* &idrh, rlE e ofvision !d tn. e oflighq dE dirc.it
lor nnien visibility of luE d.gnr rauircr ro aat it|ro @mid.6iion a @dba of
other
pm$rd.
On. e.h
p@ntq
t ihe As. ofthe Moon (AcE)
=
Tt To d.ffned
s th tine elaps.d sine th la.t onjuncli@ rill rh. doc of(rlE sn!.r or tlE any orhd
rclevut tioe) obsvltion Arbrhe inponDt lir.ror is dE Widft of Cres.r
(w)
thti
depIds on rhc digre of$e Moor. As dE din@ of 6. Moon frm rhe 2trt veies
6on &@.d 0.14 nillion km to a@nd 0.4 nillid tD ln. Fni{i.rr.d of rhe luw
disc vri6 liom I t e ninutF io | 65 e minur6.
Fig I L2
Ihun if rhc M@n ir dGc$ to in anh.r th. rirc of obs{tion rne c|ts@i
would b wid.g lnd th6 bndttrd Winh of tlE
qtsfl
i! di.6tly prcFrlo@t
lo rhc
Ph.F (P) of th. M@, thll is r tunqio of dE ARCL. r\ @mpla. ltul of all rh.$
2
2.
3
T.
T.
t-
T-. T.
BdTimeofvhibilily Tr
Age oflhe M@netTr AC
Arc'ofvision ARCV
Relative AziDurh DAZ
Arcorlight(Elo!8afion) ARCL
Pbseofcqc.n P
Widlhofcrcs@nl w
A conputarioml stnlegy may be lo stad b, deternining $e tim. of Bidh of lhe
New Moon or conjlnctio. or th. Moon *ith the snn. For .ny
plee
on the
slobe
deremirc rh. dm ot suner |har follos rhe timc of bidn of ncw M@n. For this monenr
conpute thc
e@entic
.cliplic coorditulcs of both lte Sun aod $. Moon. Tlmfom
the* coodinat.s to lhe lGal horizonbl c@rdinates. Tbereby coFPute tnc LAC,lhe Age,
ARCL, ARCV. DAZ and the width W. The ddoih of all $6e computations shau bc
5.
6,
1.
E.
10.
SIGNIFICANCE OF GEOGRAPHICAL
LOCATION
t.2
Fo! $c pioblem of rhc .dli.st lisibility or the Ncw Cre$enr Moon $e
orientatiob ofthe
paths of the Sun and the Moon Eladve lo mch othcr dM tlarile to lhe
hoizon h significdnl. They chatrgc scason lo seaon as \tll as
year
lo
,car
a.d olso
depeod on thc latitudc of lhe place. Due 1o fte axial rctation of lhc lanh cvcrv object in
lhe sly appsr 10 hvel along a cidular palh (The Diuftal Patb) ext nding frcm ealcm
horimn ro thc $'eslm borircn. Thn parh lics in a plae pellcl
lo th
Plane
of thc
equalo. Tlc obj*ts in ou sty sbos. delimtion is coNLnl
(sld
and other exd_$lar
sysreh objccq slw.ys remd. in a 6xed smallcircle in our 3ky with Norlh Ccleslial Polc
being ren Pole i.e. rheit diurnal palhs cE no( only 6xed bul lic in
plan.s parallel to each
olhr. Thc
Plan.
of the orbn of lhc ednh eund lhe Sun h inclined to lhe pla.e of lhe
Equalor .l s .ngl of eosd 21tr 26' 26" lhcefor tne deliMiion ot lhe Sun in ou tkv
vdi.s frch 230 26' 26" $nth ro 230 26' 26 nonh oYr a
y6.
Thc declimtion ofrhc
Moon vdi.s frem aoDd 280 S5 south to 280 35' ;onn duting. llMlion penod Thc
durtng ! dry rdlt.' dF pdh of dt Su B itt pdh of dp rroor @ bc 6Bid6.d r
snrll circl. tl[l h.rc th.i poLs
tl rlE Nodt cdcdi.l Pol6 i.. rlE dil4l plrlr3
ofrhc
Su .d th. MM do nd lie ii p||G
F
.lld
(o
tlE
pLG
of dE di!.nrt prtht
ot d6
Fo.
ple3
on E!n[ wirh Lrtu L.
8ral6
(t.1
660 ]a'
(Mln
q
ort) rlE! e d.yr
dunls .sy
rd,
*ha Son tqn iB b.low th. hdid dl dry
(d
ltoe lh. horian dl
da!). Sinilllr forplrc6wirh ld' h.gldrlbo6f 25'drhdorl! dE .I!d.ys
dun.8 .tqy luu rEtl etE d! Moon n bdor rL hdizoi dl &y
(or.borc
tt&
Ap.n fion th.
plr6
chc to dr Gqld bd! tt Su!d thc Mmmy16l
v6y clole to tE ho.izon. Fo. pb.
d$. lo tlE audor ilE Cclcs'rl Equnor
p6ss
doe lo dE anh !d tlElfd! ti. pdnr
of ft S{n.!d dE Moon |!mi. hiSh in $c
dq. Bu in
ph6
wnh higls hd L. ih. Cd.lrid Equdd i! clos lo th. Hdid o
th.l th.
p.tlB
of tlE S!..!d tlE M6 my b. d@ d cq bclow th. horizon. Th.
68|le @. 1.2.1 CFs lh. driw dirrdd of dE cliDlic.td cd.ri.l .quror ia
6np.rid lo tlE hdid for.
lLe
rin hrgl |tin|d. d dr dm of hol o&r !r
!d!d rsd .quimx
(6liFic
in ttl.) .n rorld aodd .qlircx
(6liFi.
in pinl) .
N
\l.rsllldib 1l'
Figur.No.1.2I C.l.eid SdE fo. d obffi in hi8lj blnud.
Thi! figue clorly 3howr th.! for hid ldiod.! vhcr d'c dccli.dion oflhc Sun k
eulh (wirt r in th. mnltfr h.hirph6c bctBa Sumd $lnie rld th Auruhtul
Equinox or ba96 &tunn l .quiu !d thc wint6 5lni@) tho
p.th
of rh. Su and
@nt
qu.dly
rhd of ih. M@n |!Dir vrry okr!. ro th. hori4n. Ir rn F @nditi@3 th.
w M@. .8q @nju.rion .nlE tlDitr h.low hqid or Ery cloF ro tlE ho.izon
matina it inposibl. to s da .nq lF d ilre d.y! nm djuncrio. Th. iu.rion
b.con6 @e ifdldng lhb p.n
ofdE
yd
th..L.li.dioo oftlE M@. is oti of0a
&.linrlion of th. Su4 p|nia,brly
clos to AduFnd Equircx
(@nd
S.prcmbd.nd
tuob6} B.rsq vqol .quitux !d dF SUDE Solricc
(t@d
,uc) th.dlipric is
rehtircly high .trd th.
p.O3
oflh. S{n .d th. Md e higls 10. Dtina it asid to
s rel.dv.ly
tqDgq
cGsnB Th. enl.rid n aG!.d
gedly
for th $urn@
Hdnd \r'
FiglE No. | 2.2: Cclcadd Sph@ &|r D obr.ffi in low lrlind.
Sihihrly $. fg@ m. 1.2.2 dbE th. ddiE dndllod ofdc ..liptic !d
@lqlirl equ|tioi ii oonpcilor to thc hodzon for i pLc. with low hritude ai {@rd
wrul e{ui@r
(eliplic in ligln blw) .rd |@rd auMMl .qui@x
(alipiic in ligln
pirl). ftir fise d$ 3ho* thd clo* io @tunr.l .quiDx t||
PrlB
ofrh. Sun ed rh.
M@n r. rchrivcly cloF ro th. hodan.rd if !h. D.clintti@ ofthc M@. is slh of
rnll ofthc Sun tn. drdhid & nd !6y
lpod
fd liSltilg of ! tl.riv.ly y@ng d*.nl.
Tbh is lhe hain rcason bcbind @nsidedng Age of Moon s not a vcry good
indicabr for
dt visibilily of cF56t. In sprinS.nd Mmr vcry
t$utrg.ge
cltg cd h. sn lnd
dudng th. {ullmn and *inle6 very old clescent may .scape sighling in th holthern
hemisphed. Thc situalion is rcveB.d s6odlly for de sud@ hmisphec,
whcn lhe M@n is wsl of fte sun (el6rial loncnudc or rh. M@n is noc rh&
$ar ofdre Sun) i. our sky it is Old Moon carching up wilh rhe Sun. The Old Cre$enr can
b. en in lhe mominss befoE lhc suriF. An r $e binh of Ncw Mmn (c.leslial
longilude of rhe Moon b*omes jusl
eratd
lhe rbat of lhe sun) rhe Mooi Eehes e6r
oltheSun6dcan no$ b. *njustaftssun*t. How.vn dcpending on ih. d{limrioB
olrhe Sun and the Moon and lhe localion of$e observer $e new cBcent My et well
bcfoE thc sunst in which cG it is iDFssible lo * th ncr crsceft Th8 the fisl and
rhc Do$ nnporLnr clilerion aor lhe visihility of the .ev.$ccm Moon is ftar the Moon
*$ anr $c sunscl. Alknately $c cnbrio. for thc visihilily of thc l5l cd$ent is dDt
rhc Moon riss before lhe suni*.
Whcn thc cresent is very close ro th sun il rcmains invisiblc dE to the facl tbar
$c ohospherc close to lhe sun remains highlt illnminated evcn afi( $e sunser'
Thqefoe fi.rc n6 to be a frininum lhrcshold epaEtion or Elongarion between fic Sln
,nd rhe Moon b.loN vhich ihe crecent cannol be sen. Thh minimud o. lhrshold
eloneation varies hotuh to oond 6 fie djsrance bctween lhc Earlh and $e Moon keeps
valyine. Vhcnclossl (at apoee) $e Moon h tround 350000 kn lrom thc Eanh ind !l
lhe fdhat
(perig) il k aound 400000 lo. Thus a Ne\ Mon ar apogec mat be *cn
whennscbnsation fod rhc Suh is snallrnd a New Moon at periSce may nol b s.cn ar
nuch ld8cr elongaton. Thi. is du. ro the fst that closer is thc Mmn the larsr dd
brigbler ir appead in oui sky ahd wheo il k farrher il appeaB saller and less biShl at
rhc se elongalion. Thts .nother inpona crir.rion is lhar $e New Mmn cm be *en
for a combinorion ofcenain optinlm valu.s ofelong ion and lhe distanccof$e Moon
fom fi. E.nh. thi! conbiMlion Esults into tlE op(nm valu of thc widlh orcFvnl
A cFsenr wi$ small longation $al appea6 lare.t md briSller al apogee may be seen
and a.rc$cnr snh ldgc clone.lion $ar apDcar snalle. snd laintr at p(riscc nar nol
RULTS OF THUMB: THE ANCIENT & TtII Mf,Dtt:vAL:
'rhe
edlist rcferehc. for ey rireno. for lhc visibitir! ofncw luntr cresccnt is
annburcd ro rhe BabJ,lonians (Foueringhm,
r9r0. Aruin. 1977. Schaete!. lgttsa. yas.
I 994. Faloohi er a1. I s99
elc.). Most oflhe cxplom a&ibute ttE tollowinS rutc of $unb
'Thc ,.n lunar .rescent i s.ek \ en its aAQ
Nons4 loas 18 hihnles h.hi4d th. tns.!
nnrc thdn 21 ho^ un1 L
h na3 bem pointcd
oul ihar th. ,crual Dabytonu (lcnon
ephislicarcd
ar coopEEd ro lhk siopl. tule (F.r@hi
l ar 1999)_ ft is eilhs ou, trck ot
knostcdse oa lhen era or the nissing hjsbncd rccords $ar h6 rcsridd our
compchos'on
of lheir effons. Autcnric
Ecods of sighljne of new cEscent
s young
as
5 hours durirs
Babylo.id c
qisls
(I6loohi
el ai 1999. Andcrtic & Fihis. 2006) in
lit 6turc. Sinilady.
in modcm time ftsc.nc lagsjnS o.tyjr nrnucs
behind $e su.*l
harc bccn *m wi(h
aec tcaslhan
20 n6uB. Thc dala ser of46j obsetuations
considcar
duflnC lhis $ork (b
b. di*lssd in ddait in chaFcd
j
dd 4) inctldcs
jt
cascs whcn rhc
crcscd $nh l, C tcss rhan 48 Dinutes w.s cpond to h.vc bNn *en wilhour any
oplicalaid. rvhcEas.26
ca*s arc tncE in shich lhe age ofMoon ws lcs than 20 ho!6.
Rece rc-evatuation
o|r(ords
ofthe sigbdngs o|mscsrs in Babyton and Nineleh aho
sholv rhar cFscenh much younger
rhd 20 hou* dd lho* lassrng bchind sunser
muclr
l.ss rhln 40minures were sen (Andolic
& Fimch.2006),
these rccenr
compurarionat
ef|ons for the recorded obseBarions
oa lhc
Babylonian
e6 ctearly indicarc
lhar lhe lule of thmb asociared wnh rhn eD is an ovcr
simplificadon.
lr has bcen eccndy ctaihed rh.t Babytonians
had rodularcd
I hrt,
nalhehalicdt tun&
lheory which
rhey uscd for prcdicring
vartuus paramercBotth
tunrr
l0
notion s iounded in thc lue phmdjs ih.y pEpaed (Fat@hi
d al, 1999). Ac@rding
lo lheF $udies it is pointed
out lhal the noonset-su$et lag atone.ould nor have been
used as lhc visibilily dit.rion
by rhe Babylo.ids. BabytoniaN sysren had $c tollowi.S
rlohedrior rL, -
moon*r
tasrme rin deCrees,,S) - conninr
In vdious
$ud,cs lhe vrtue
of$e conqant rs dedlce
&ound 2l d.8R<. Hokercr
on lhe basis ot rhc confimed
,car
.567to
yetu
.77
rhc \atue of rhc .o6ranr is deduced ru
r999).
ftum | 7 degFes lo anyrhere
209 positile
siehlings fmnl
be 2l degrees (Far@hi
cr at,
Sinilarly hosr of$c modcm
aulhou arribule
rules ot th
ttpe lo fie Muslinrsand
A6bsofmedieval
tinrcj
''Th. t.latie
attitLt!
UnCy)
>
Ao ahd koans.t,ulet td|tin >.t2
nin cr_
lr has been indicared
lhar Mrslins. reatization
thar rhe Eddh-Moon dhlancc laries during
one comptet
cyctc ot tlhar ph.ses
and lhe hininuh moonsr lag lime considercd b,
^Ebs
vaiied fiom 42 ninures for Moon ar perigee.nd
48 ninurcs for Moon at aposee
Thonsh
lhis
-nrle
of thunt.
is no4 sophisricated
6 compNd ro $e one
art'buled ro |hc Babylonims
sli
jr
does nor povidc
rhe complere prcrup
of rhe cffons ol
Arabs ad Mulin'
h $c hedirwt
ines exltrir
ur ofAolemaic
sy{en ed rhe
spherical risonodeq
devetop.d
b, Ambs lead to the L!n& Rrp.es
flnclion (bat
depends
on locatbritud.
ofrheptace
ofobrNadon
dd lbe c.testiat
to,gilude
ofthe srn
and lhe Mooh) 6 eartr as lO cenrury AD (Bruin
t97?)
Babylonie
crirerion
to have
ben cmpirical
in
h indeed lery
sinplc for praclcar purPoses
and is supposed
no significdt
chahgc in rhh rill
Flarively rc.nr rimes, ho$vr,lhc atiesr Hildu tdis litc
pa,ch
Sidn it ( D 5OO)
hints towards thc idponance of$c Vidrh oflhc luM crc$ent (Bruii,
1977) Thus an
elabootc stsreo of calcularioc involvcd in delemining the tinc of licsr visibilitt
appeds to have developed only abund AD 500. Morcexplicirnentiohsofrhcsederaited
calcularions are loud ar vuios plaes
in the dly Islmic litenle (Brui., 197?).
Ohe ol thc ealiesl Muslin Aircnomcr eho developed lnc lables fo. se lidnC
the luna!crescenl s lisibilitywas
Yaqub lbn Tdiq (Ke.nedy. 1968).lt has bcen eponcd
in $e litcraluE (Atuin,
1977) that lbn Taliq had r.cogniad the imponance oflhc Width
(w) oflhe crescenr. Thh not only shows rhat ar rhd rine rhe varying dislance ot rhc
Moon had been rcaliud bul it aho mdc ir possible 10 inpov upon dc ncs cr*cnl
vnibilily cinerion. Bruin hd Eponed th Al-Ailuni had $e Falizario. oflhe tong ind
dillicult calcularions inlolved in lhe dercnnimlion tor the nev lun,r aesccm vnibitiry
lnd in hG Crloro.,os "
reconrmcnded rhc work ofMuhanm.d lbn crbn At B,llani
l
ltnlhook oJAtto"o,'t
t?rstard to Lario by Nalino, l9|]3).
'lhe
sihplc *nclioh for cadiesr vhibiliry oflunarcrescchr evotved sjnce lhe riftes
of B6btlonids
qas
passd
onb rnc Muslims drcueh Hindus wirh !e,)-' tinle
inprclemenr. Molilated
by the
euEnic
iijuhctions a.d rhe salnlgs of rn
prollrr
Muhamnad (PBUH)
rh.
Fobtem
ofearliest sighring of hnar cE*enl \s
lhomnehl).
Invesriglredby
rlrc earlJ Mrslih aslronomcGotsLhto
l0'tccnluryAt).
OD the bash ofreatiarion
of the idjponance ofwid$ various
Arab asllonomcrs
conclndcd td lor celics( vjsibilil, ofcrc$.nl thc minimun equabrial $pararion offie
Sun lnd the Moon varics
from t00 whcn lhe crescent is widesr up to l2i whcn llr
cNcc.l is n@$cst Such der,il.d
calculariotr \.rc wor\cd oul.s earty as 9ri cenrur)
AD by Muslinr asrrononers as$ciated wirh rhc Ab&sid coun of Al,Mahun. Fronl
monesr the* {stbnoncf Al-BaIsli
kncw lh,r ihc cnleria that.gc of n@, shoutd b
moe tnan 24 hou6 (or arc sepdarion belveeo $e Sun sd lhe Mooh) isa good
sldtine
poinr
but i A only m appnrnarion.
H. bt,.vcd LlEr lhc dcienl6hnomc6
d,d nor
understohd the phnonenon
conpteretr,
According to Bruih, AtDatani,s compuradonal
sork is o very elabo6re sysrm of mrheharit catculalions (Bruin,
| 977).
t2
'Ihis
work is nor intcndcd lo explor lhc hisbry oa Aslonon! rulatn lo thc
canie$ sigltingoflhe new lunarcresccnt. Tbe Babylonia. and the nlcdielalcilons shall
nol bc dplocd frem a hi$orical
FBpecrivc,
wc shall rcstricl our explodlion onl) on
rlR codprison of $cse clTons sith $os ofthe moden ons. llowcvq $c mcdiclal
narh.nalical ide6 shall b. erploEd in morc dcoil in chaprc. :1.
I.,1 CALf,NDARS AND THE CELESTIAL CYCLES
Dogeel defines calendar 6
'! syslcm ol orgaizine ,ir4 tbr fi.
pupos. of
@lonins im ow cxtend.d priodt (Doge( 1992). tl is a schcmc lor keping an
.ccounr ol da!i.'wceks . monrh.
. 'yc!6 - ceolunes and
"nillennia
. Thc bsic
notion bchind I calendar isor8anizingr,la.olroairiconrinuous now rhal isindcp(ndcnr
ol any ehcn. of irs orsaniztion. Ahongst lhe divisions of timc in dayi. w.chs dc
eme aR dtccrly 4sociared snh $c celestial c_aclcs. the D,"r,at, \h. Ann@l
^d
rhc
/,rur. A @nplele daily rcvolurion of lhe s\t. de DildEl norion. is Efertsd b 4 a day.
lechnicallt an apparcnr r,/df.t,' h the inlcpal bcrseen rwo successivc rransiN oflhc
Sun ar any pllcc. Du. lo thc morion of rhc Eanh mund $e Sun rhe sky appc.m ro
rclolvc round tbe Eanh very slowly (lss rban a dcste pn da!) and one contterc
Evolurion of sky i. rhis way is Ffmd lo 6 o
,.ar.
I {hnilr! a t opictt
y.ar
k trc
time inleNal bctweh lwo successivc pseges
oflh. Su rluough vcdat eqlinox. one oa
r\e porn6
ol inFMcrion ol rhc celB(dtequarorand rhe actiptic
Each calendar is dilided i.to yea6. yeas
inb nonths. non$s inlo vNks ed
dals Most oflh know calmdm rha( mcn dcviFd bd sevcn da$ in a rvak. tn
diflaent Esions md cras 4 to lodot weks halc aho bccn considercd. ltowclcr rhc
nuobcr of days in a dond hd EDained variabl. in diltcc.i calcndars md wi$in a
paniculd
calcndar. Tlr scbeme. il$ce isany. ofdift!nl DUmb$ofdays in a monlh of
a calendar is ba$d or rnc typ. ol cal4dar, Most of lhe knom atcndars.E clarsificd
iflo dtree major typcs. Solar Calcndm. Sriclly L@r C.tcnda6 and Luni-Solar
Calenda6. A blief description is Evi.$d in rhe foltowinel
1l
Solsr Cal.nd6 m b4d on the ulrl motion of lhe F-!nh @und the Su..
''ycai in such calendds h ihc
"Trcpial
Yee, defined abolc. Thon the lcng$ ota
'tropical y&" (Dogger, 1992) b
givcn
by:
365.2421396698-0,0000061s359r-7,29xr0_r0Ir +2,64x10'07r
(1,4,1)
7 s $e tinc in Julian cenruics sincc fic epoch J2000.0
gilcn
by:
T-(JD-245rt4t0!t6525
(1.4.2)
vherc JD is rhe Julid Dat which is th. dm in .mber ofdavs ctaD*d sine heo n@n
at Genwich on Janua.y l. 4712 in Julid Cal6d{. Cwnlly thc loglh of t@pil ycar
n 165.2421898 days or 365 days.5 hos.48 ninurcs ed 45.2 sends. As it is nor a whote
number on yer
of a eld calodar @rsists of cirher_ 365 days ot t66. tn old Jution
crlendr cvery fourih yc&
@.lained 166 days (i.e_
a teap yed)
a otbq yff
conhincd
165 days In lnc cuftntly us.d Cregoiian calendr! the leap ycd
rutc is nodificd. A
century ycd
y
0ike
1700, 1800 elc) whict is a lop yer
i. Juli& calmdtr bur is nol
complerely divisible by 400 is nor a tep ycar
in OEsorian mtcndar. Thus in crer,400
yeas theE ae I 00 l@p y6
in Jnlitu Calrdff wiced in cESori& calqda, rb@ are
only 97. The setu od nfuy o1her natMl pbsomcna
toltov lnis sotar cyclc. sp.cialty
haBcsing rides, lhe length ofdays,lbc dmes of imir, suser, sunds. etc. I$e JLrtian
calendar B insrilured on Jdu.ry l. 45 Bc by Juli$ caM. wirh rhc hlp of
Alciandlie strononr
Sosigm6 &d w r nodificadon ofdc Roman Republidn and
the ancicnr Egyptian calendaB (Michels,
196?). WtEcd lhe crcso.ian catendar was
n(csibrcd du. to rhc facl ln.r dqinS oe od . lDlf nil.mia lhe Julim otcndar w6
displaed from the ssonal vsiatioos
by s much s l0 days. Thus
pope
Crcsory X t
corclnukd a conmission in l6rt qrury AD for lh. cslndar Efoms. The dain anrhor da
dE nN sysrem w6 slononer Aloysiu Litju of Naplcs (Coync
el ,t_ 1981. Dull4
1988, Moyer. 1982 ed Micb.k 196?). When it ws implcn.nted ofljcialy. rhe ddre
October 4, I t82 (Thuday)
in tne Jllie cal.ndar 6 fouosEd by rhc dale Ocrcb$ I 5.
1582 (rdday)
ii the Crcgorian alendd. Ther.by aU dare conversioo algoilbms have to
kecp accoul of thh skipping of days in r]te solar calendar. Difercnl counrries, culluics
and Fligiou omhMiiics adaprd to rhis DodilicElior ar diff@.1 !inc. Ir is lheEtorc a
high hrk for hisrorifls ro tccp racl of r]E apprepriare dalcs.
,n every solr
qlendr
thft
@ iwctle mo.lbs. For simple dithmcric Ea$ns
theE colld hdve been seven months of 30 dars and fi ve of I I days (in a nomal ye.r and
six ofl0 days plw
3ix or 3l days in a lcap
re&).
How;ver in pncrice
sincc rh ime of
CEek it w6s knoM lhar d wi.r6 h.lfofa nodat
,u
h6 l8l days whee6 rhc
summ.rhalf@
ains I84 days. The it&n for ih. sue is lie faler molio. of thc Eznh
rhc
Frihelion.
thc Eanh clossr ro $; Su dar oeun on aound January 4,i. Srdnins
with January cvery ancinale nonlh is of3t days tiu Juty. rcbru.ry h of28 days (o.29
days for a le.p yctu)
sd lhe Br G ofto days.&h. The.ltdar
nonrLs ofjl days
dd l0 dals omintB
$.d frcm AuSul ro DMnber
ln a Strictly Lunar catndd, lhar is ba$d on $e luharion pcriod
in one year lhcle
arc eilher 354 days or 155 days. Tbe clrcnr ave!.8. of$e lunation period
h 29.510589
days or 29 days, 12 hou6. 44 ninui4 dd 2.9 $con.l$(A$nrcmical
Atnaiac.
2007).
HoEEr ihis aEase is.hrging,
Aaodin8 ro rh. tun5. lltery of Chaprcnl-Tou&,
dd
chapont
lh.e vdiadons
!E eoukd for by the tolowing cxpEssion (Chdpon!
'lbur'ind
Chapro
,
1988):
whce T n givcn
b, ( L4.2). An,
rrEdicutu
phe
cycl. my v.ry fmn te nes hv uD to
seven hom. Tnus rhis priod
vtuj.s froh !romd 29.2 days ro mor lnan 29.3 days fom
nontn lo nonlh. Tnerefore
in aU Iutu
calend&s rhe numbe! ofdays in a nomh is eithcr
29 or 10. l. Arithmetic Lunar calcndq
rheE $ lllenate hontns of29 and 30 davs. tn
obiwrional
lue Rt.ndd $.8
6 bc s mey 4 rhE. rcns{ulirc mon$s
o, 2,
days
qch
od d mdy s folr conKud@
momh5 of 30 days e.ch
{
oys, I 994). In an
20.5305888511 + 0.o0oo0o2t62l,
a_
I.o4!
IO.
o
!
a. Da)5 ( r.4 r)
l5
Tnerc is no fixed nle for leap ycs
in r obseNarional tunar calcndar. rhcrccdn
nol be anr. HoEver in lbe Aritineric
L@d cattutd our ol lO yea6. cyclc t I yc6
aE
hap
tcds
(3Js dayt (ly.s
1994. R.igold
& Dcrshowirz 20Ol_ Tsybutsty,
t9Z9). l.hc
rule is rhal lhe
tear
nunbf /is a teap yer it
Arnhn.tic calcndar ther. are cilh.r 6 monlhs of 29 dals md 6 nonrhs of tO days. (a
notml ycar)
or 5 momlB of 29 days ad 7 nonlhs of 30 da's (! lep yd).
(
l4 +
ll.))modi0)<
lt (t.4A)
Olhwisc the year
is nor a teap year.
In such an a.ihmelic lunar catcndor alt rhe odd
.umbeEd mon$s conlain
30 days and lhe.vd nhb.ed nonibs conhin 29 days cach.
h re lcip yedr a day is added ro $e Meltih month. in gmeFl.
a srrictl, tune oalendar
ldvanc$ by I I days againj lhe solar cat.ndd. ThrefoF rhe $asons aod a orhcr
pncnomna
rhzr dcpcnd on Ihe eld cycle {to ml follow a slmcfiy lu,ar catddsr Ttc
monlb numbq 9 (R
nad&) in lhe Isl6mic
qtods
my f.ll in wi.l{. slmmd. aurmn
Thc Luni-Solar
@tfldaB
d b.sielly lufu bul ro kep r&k of$e *a.ons in
prrce of adding sin8le days in a lqp ye&
a whol monfi k addcd (inrqcshlion)
lo
followthe $ld! cyclc, The Hebrew dd the Hindn
qlendaG
fa into thG ctass(Rcideol.t
& De6howir2 2001
. Bushwic[ 1989,
ScEIt & Ditshir
1896. at_Bituni r 000. at_Btuni
l0l0).In
ce ofHindu calcnds (th.y
have bo$ $e $lar tud rhe luni-sotar calcndaB)
a
lunarmonrh
is imclcalatcdiwhcneve,irnrsinroEconprresotarmoilh.tncascotrhc
HcbFw
l!ni,$lr cole.dar d addniomt
honrh of l0 da)6 rs mrcEararcd
betorc rhc
usurl 12" nonlh oflbe yce.
The En ofihe dd.its of th6c calodd i, morc of$c
soc'al ahd reliSious nlrurc aod is nor in tine with tbeprcsnt*o,k.
Calend.ical
cab'narioB
for cacn calhdlr
ha 6eir oM $phkhadons_
bul
bcins phcnoncnoloSicat
rtE obsctualionat
lunr calend., is mosr chaltensins.
A tunnr
month bas lo beein wib the actuat sighling
of lbe new luns cresce d.d tne conditions
I6
ofits si8hling greatly vary not only longiludinally on rhc globc bd de[Md o. $e tarnude
ofplaces. ThB an obedarioMl lunar c.lendar may vsry along the se logirude. Apart
iron calenddcal aspects $c pobl.m
ofsighting v.ry yolne
cGscnt is on of lhe mosr
excitins fld challenging obseFations for both $c adareur md rhe pma$ioml
asionofre6 Besides, thc pcdicion
of fic vkibilily of a
paniculer
.erv cEsenr ar a
panicular placc is a long and inter.sling cohpuhrional exerci$ Thc sane was clliad
as early as rhe dedieul times by the grelr ostonomcs Al-Khwarizni, Al Batani. At
Farghani etc (Bruin
1977) Mocovcr. t|t prediclion foL nakd eye obseivarion ha lwo
noE cohplicated hsues under srutiny rh.laresr esearch. Onc oathese is biologicat.
lhc abililt ofhunan eye to conrfa$ $e dimly illunrinatcd ciesceht in rbe bnght rsilighl.
The olher aspcct h ol physicrl n4lue ofalfiosph.ric conditions ftar c.n b.dtr aoecr rhe
risibilit! and rc contdsr h this \o.k c
l'hdk
h morc on thc $lrcnoNical asp..rs of
lhe eadiesl siebdrg olthe new luna!.rr$enl dnd ahosphcric ondnion !.e onb plnlr
Opinions aro diided d tq thc oriSin of$c.llton olcomlins yer6 in an! tofrr
in rhe ARbian l,cninsula. Accordihg to At ttazsi il $anln as soon as $c cni rcnof
Prcphl Adan nuliplicrl and spRod aouid rhc rw d (Ro$nlhal l9i2. l_mqi t979) A
calehdar sE originated wncn rhe Himyarires adoptcd one sjtn m epo.h lhal marked rhe
b.ginni.B or the eigns ol Tubbn. Cenerally it is blicrcd thal lhc pnctice of 12 lunar
nontns lo a year cxisbd in
pre,lslahic
Ar.b c.lend.rs since rhe rime ofconsrruclion of
Kaba b) lhe prophd Abnham a.d conrinued in Islom (llyos. 1994). The namcs ol$c
months and thcii sequenc Mre thc snc as tho* used in lhc cuiicm tslamic lunar
calcndar Ibllowed by morc rhah on.lifrh of$e roralFopulation ofrhc world.
Fom historic pcspecrire
lhc inpon.nce ofrhe lunarcalcnda in lbe pE-lslamic
AEbia $s the pilsrimage
ro Kadba (Haj) rhar talls in $e monrh orzul-hajjah, rhc l2'"
nrnlh oflhe hlmic and prelslamk
lunai calendar, Althoush this event was a puelt
religious evenl. il was also inportlDt ior kadc and busincss wnb b$ ol
goods
exchanging bands. ll w6 this econonic rcrivil, $ar w6s badly anected as rhe lunarrear
ad!dced llxoush *&ns. PEcufnent ofcop and rhe ovailabilir) or.ac f.,ul anim...
l1
8@rly
vdied s6r lo s@n,
'fte
ten tha1 $e irbEl.tion s6 inl,ldud in de
Arabim Peninsula w$ this .cooonic drivity rarh.r than dy sronomical t.son.
''QalM" a nativ of Mecca is Fpuled to be the fiIsl petson assisned lo derrmine thc
daca for thc coming yem pilgrinage
and wheth.i $e inmalarion w6 drc or nol
(Hahim,
198?, Ahmed, l99l).
Sincc lhe early days of lh. inception of lund cakndd in the Arabim Pninsula
four nonths including lhe Zil Hljiah wE o6i&r.d scEd md \@ {!e pDhibited
dudnglhesc sacrcd non$s. The custon cari.d over to the post lslamic.ra in lhe lsladic
cultu. As with the Ronan
ql.ndd
thc i eEalalion ws abu*d i. ABbia io ordq lo
change rh. saqed nonfis inro noh{acred moorbs dd vicc-vc& Al thc eme rihe rhe
lunarcalendt!usd inMadi@rendined in itsoriginal lzmonthsayarford.
Muslihs follo{ed rhe calendar ot Mecca in the bceiNling. Rut afier the l,lophcr
Muhonmad migdred to Madin. alo.8 wnh his compdions. Mustims adoFcd lh.
cal.ndar usd in Madina. Aner $. conqu$tofMeccaby
propbel
Muhlmmad, Muslims
conlinued 1o ue rhe calcnde of Madim bul rhe catcndar ofMecca @ in pmllcl. Wi$
the lar pilgrimag
ro Meca of Propher Mubmnad in rhe lo,r ye&
aner miSr.rion ro
Modina (AD
612) fequenlly abused pEctice of inicrcalation \m abolished thbush a
QuEnic
injuiction. Th. pEcrie
ofnadin8 a lsd nonrh s.ith $e finl siebdne of nerv
clesccnt MooD was iurhenticated by
Qurtuic
injuncrion and tne
gayine
of l,rcpher
Muhmad, sith paniculd
empbdis on bSimine dd rhe cnding of lh nonth of
fasting md the monrh of lhe pilgdmase.
With adoption of puel!
lunar cat.nd& wirh a luar nonrh bcginninS $ith $e
fist siehdns ofrhe ncw IuMr crcscehr lhrcush
euMic
injuncrion dd lhe eyinSs or
Pophet Muh.mmad |he .rolution of Isl.mic lunar catedar b.gd As for my calendar
one rqutr.s a staning point
of rine
Gpoch)
or bceinnins of m en, tor couring yea6,
Oe pople
of MadiM ac hli.v.d ro hoK u*d d.poch s ene dn6 ! mooin or tm
aftcr Prcphet Muhdnad mignicd to Madina in AD 6t2 (Iys,
1994). However ! hore
widly acepGd lime ofomcial adoptjon of Ht6 s lhe bceinning ofrhc Ist@ic cR n
t8
AD 617 during $c caliph.t of Umd bin Khafiab. Whltcvcr h. thc 1in. of adoplion, lhe
lslMh cal.ndrr. or dc Hiji c.l.nd& s@
wi$ Fnday l6ri ruly 622 AD on Julitu
calends which Moding b didft{c luMr or krdrhicslddd is l" diy ofMuha]m
(1" nonth ofe klmic y.ar)
ofth. tsleic
'@
I (R.in8old & ftrshowii2, 2001). The
o,ficial dar. or adoprion oflhi!.h &d cal.rdd b l'' Muhtu Il AH (and HijB)
Simpl. 34heh.s or 4rolh odd appoxidlions b$cd on long Lm 3vs.gs h.d
b.n dcvi*d to
pcparc
long r.d cel.nd& in vid ol incrconv.uion ol lslmic drGs
&d tne d!t6 in oth.r lei-$lo ad el& olcndr d.r.s.
blanic legd syst h cgllcd Shdia
,
is lh. sou@ of lsldic tn+kcping ststn.
whil. le8.l pc.pls .rc efeglnd.d by seking sisbne fom $. *i.nlilic kno*l.dge.
Till th. rin. of sking of B.ddad by Hrl.su Xhu in AD 1258, Isluic law had
cvolv.d .ldr guidclires ao. elcndriol oNidcFlio.s
(llya 1994). The olcndric.l
sddelircs
ftlv.d undcr thc Islmic lN
qn
bc outlin d a follows:
i)
it
iit
l-.nsth of a lunar month is cnhe. 29 days or l0 days.
L.nA$ ol a lumr
tlar
is .ith.r 154 dlts or 155 dayr.
Tn rc can be . mdimuh of 4 cor*cutiE monrh. of l0 datr @h or 3
conscutive nomhs of29 &ys each.
E4h new nonth b.sins with fiBt sightns ot ncw lu@ cGccir ovd the
k$em hori@n .n.r ft. l@l ss.i,
v) Ailcmptr rhould bc nad. on 29u of ea.h honrh for sighring of ncw crcscnr.
lf il is nol scn on the 294 duc lo any len
(stmnohic.l
condirions or
w.thd connEints) thc noi$ should bc complckd a of l0 days.
l9
visul sighring epo.t must b. suppond lhrcugh a wnness rcpon.
The
p.rson
involvql in rcponing musl be eliable. adull, lruthful, sme
virh good
cyesielt !f it i!
preved dat the
Fen
pioviding wihess
puDo*ly nisled the
pe6on
ousl b.
punished.
!iii) Thelisual sighling Epon should nor coniict
vilh basic scientific knowledgc.
'lesling
ofcvidcne ot sighting on scienlific
srcunds
includc 0hcckine oflhu
shapc of crcscen! ils inclinalion.
Poshion
in sky. altitudc. imc ofoberyalion
dd sky condnions.
Sighting should be caried our in sh o.8ditd
way for dch moflh.
Accunula(ion of emB
@orriculally
in view ofconsideling ! toonth ro bc ol
io days due lo invisibilrty of ih. adcent of i,te 29'" ofoiscutire nonlht
bd ro be avoidcn *hodd thc ns c6c.nl is sighted oo 2Etr ofa nonth. li
such ascs con crions ec nadc b bcgituing of thar mo lr
As the klamic lav and lhe
Qudih
injunctions depend hcovily on tbe fiNl
sishling of new lunar crscent the eE ly hlanic slale
plrced speial enphsis on $e
Bsdch i. the lield of Asmhony. CoNcque ly nomous onlribution! $n mde in
$c developmcnt of $ine of fie @lid visibility of new crcsnt dd
pEdicrion
CONTRIBUTION OF 2OIH CENTURY ASTRONOMERS
Tne nod.h dcvclopmenl of lhe sciencc of erliesl noon_siehinS bc8iN vnh fic
obFMtio.al work oa Scbnid
vho Bordcd a ldge nmber of.cw and old cescmB
fon Arhens io th.lal{ h.lfof lhe l9'i c.ntury. On rne basis of rhis obsdarioml dalt
Fo$qinglm
([olhcinskm, l9l0) and Maunder (Mabd.r, l9ll) dweloped the
obscralion.l oirdia of ediest vhibility of ns lmd crescent. A similtr work is
20
reponed in rhe Explanation Io the ln.lloh Attranonical EPle,cfir $al is basd oi
Schoch (Sch@b, l9l0). In allrhe* worts for deimiriry lhe day ofrhe fi*r liribilir) ot
new cE$o! ARCV
(arc
ofvirion) b shoM to be a sMnd d.8Fe pohomial runcrion
of DAz (claive uinuth). The* edly florc !rc only empnical in natuF N rhe critcria
dc!.loped de bsed on lluing rhe dau so rh8t mo$ ofthe obs.oaiions arc conshlcnl
TlE* nelhods do not hke into cosideElion lhe vidth ofcE$enl Btuii (Bruii,
1977) co.sidd rh ihpodahce oacE*cnt widtn fld his Dod.l desqibes ARCV
(in
rems ofannud. of cr.scent above horizon
plus tn solar depRssion belov lhe horizln)
os a funcion ofthe crescenr widtn. The Nodel ofBruio. ho\rever, kkes $e {idlh !s a
funcion ofih RCV ond DAz md a fircd Ddnh-Mmn dislaftc
(in
lemsolfixcd * i'
dirnrl'ler ol fte lu.ar disc). Hc sas ale thc fi6t \no consid.rcd phJsical .stkcs
dsociakd *nh $c problen
like blightnds ofskt and thar oflhe M@n. Thus tu nrodcl
due lo Bruin is the lirsl drolelical nodelofr|t nodern timcs Using the nrodels tur thc
briShhess oalhe lull M@n as a fuhcrion of altilude
(Befrporad,
190,r) lnd $c s[t
brighhe$ duri.g lNililhi (Kooncn
ct al., 1952, Sidenbpl 1940) Bruin delclop lhc
visibililt cu^6 rlnrin! the aldudc olcrc*d sirh the slar dcpGsion. AlonS lhc$
ctrrvcs the bdehbss ofcrcscem (modellcd
on $e basis of lirll Moo.) is al leasl ds much
os tlhl ofrhe twiliShl sky. He aho delclopcd cuNes sholvnu rel{lDn berwccn ARCV
and sl.t depesion rhll ldd prorcd to bc crucial for lunhcr nodellihg ol canics'
Yallop has
edne
lbr funho improvemenr ond consides cece *idth as a
funclion ofARCV. DAZ and lhe acllal scmi-dianeter ol lhe Moon
(rhar depends on Lhc
Eanh-M@n disrucc) al $e time ofob6endion
(Yallop. 1998). \vilh de!lopinS a model
lor lhe besl time of
yisibiht
YaUop s nod.l al$ onsideF ARCV 6 a ihi.d d.gtce
polynomial tunction of $e actul cresc.nt oidrh ar the ben ime of visibihJ. Such
polynofrial is oblain.d by applying leasr square appbxination on a basic data sel This
blsic data sl *qs d.duced bt Yallop fom lhe limiling lbibilil, .uvs of bnrin b!
slctins ARCV for a
Sircn
sidtn from tlr ninin@ oh lhe componding limilin8
2\
visibility curve. So fd th. modl due to Y.llop b lhe morl oulhfltic and depndable
slronohil cri|na for cxper.d ali.sl visibilily ol new l$m ccenl. The modct due
10 Yallop isa smi-empirical model based on $e lheordcal considedions of Bruin and
.ftiteriononthebasisofabusicd.tadeduccdfonBrui. svisibilitycurvcs.
Tnc mosr extctuive r.atm6t of rhe
physicat dp<l3 eciared wit th.
pDblm
is due lo SchNld (schacftr, 1988(a). I988(b)) who has considercd tlt
Poblem
of
bidtnss contEl isoroudt. He ale rcali2ca
jnpoitance
ofthe physiolosicol aspecrs
like $e abilirt oahunan.yc ro eoe th. limili4 co.kast. Soh&reas nodel is !
pdrel!
lhoerical n\odcl. Recntlt Odeb
(2004) hls claimd to harc devloPed a nc* ctnenon
for the.arli.sr vnibihr oineq luffi cle$ent bur his cinqion isjust ano$o lom ol
Olh.r authoE have contributed on cloted nsues
(Ashbrcot,
lt7!a. I97lb.
Cald$ell a|]d t-anct.2000. I0loohi c. al.. l99lt. lltas. l98l!. l98lb. l9li'll, l93lb
1985. 1988. 199,1r. 1994b, M.N5l1r_. 1983, Schaefler, 1988r. 1988b, 1996- Sch!{ffcr er'
!l 1991, Suhan.2005,
Queshi&
Khan.2005.2007 elc) ln fih \ork. och ancior Md
nodciD halhc'hadcrl mod.l aor detmnrnB $e day ofltu fi6l siehing ofne* lunar
cEsce h cNploied A comparative study oi lhes nodch is canicd out and each
crncrion is rrlsfornrd in(o a one pdamcter visibilily crilcriotr like th.t duc lo Yall.p
Th resulrinS cllendaricdl imp licariohs .rc aho cxplorcd
lr hos been
poinlcd
our in lhe bLSinnine of $e chlpld thar the prublem ol
determinihg $e dat when the nes luar
(escnl
$onld bc \isible has its calcndarical
inplicarion. The earli$t siShtine of new luMr calcnde is ale a cballmging l.st lor bolh
maleuB and
Dlolessional
ashhoncB. In \ic$ olrhis rhc chafler hd niehli8hled:
Thc cfons ofrhe 6tro&meB iD lhc lncie.l and lhe n diul tlnes.
Paranere6 on which visibiliry of new lunar cescent depends
22
.
Th. d.pend.nc. ofth dlendsB on th. cyclic moiion ofth. Moon sld $e Suh.
.
txB c.l.ndar of $. Mulih! .spei.lly a lh.i. b.li.rts lticrty dphais. u
tltliarsidtingorrhetwloNcr$.a fois.niosaldcldilglun&ndrha
.
A! rccou ofrh eilons ofrhe rsrorcmd oflhe oodc6 rim.s |o rd.lr.ss the
prcbhm
ofderemining$e fiisl day ofsishdnsofnew Iund c'.eenr
Itr lh. b&ksound of tlE$ cfon! w tFrc
qplord
all lh. old ald thc modm
mrhodi Mthcm.dol dDdel or crirdion dEr r.quiG ro be $tisfi.d for 0E lirsr vGibility
ot ihc !w lu{ cEsdr, Duing lhi!
qploGtion
rn E$ltr of lh.$ nod.ls N
comFcd lnd nodifietios baw b..n 3uSgcrt d $,lEE fler
posibl..
Funhd ft. mo$
authentic of the hodeh hav ben uscd to .xolod fie obcrvationil lunar cal.hdar
fouowEd in Pakhhn. A.sed o. the rcsulF ofthese exDloHions a luturc obervrtioml
lus calcndd for Patislm is anDut d,
23
Chapter No, 2
ASTRONOMICAL ALGORITHMS &
TECHNIQUES
For lhe determlnatlon ol th
prsiso locallon ol the obJsts in th6 Solar
SFtem,
panbulany
the Sun .nd rh6 Moon, ih6 Frnch
planetary
theory VSOPaT,
(sretagnon
& Francou, 1994) and th. lunrr rhory ELP-2000
(Chapront-Tou#
.nd
Chapron!1943, 91) rr. well sulted. A number of sotlwaE hav6 ben developd
tor lho shulatlon of celstlal phenomona
based on the$ tho.16 and similar otner
works.In the cunanl studylhe same lhori.s havs b6.n u*d lo lollowthe pGitlons
otthesun and rhe Moon.
Moreoler, to conven the theorles Into computatlonal iechnlques,
malhematlcal lechnlques, tools and dlgo thms nave been dtloted. Moch ot the
computailon.l work is ba*d on the algorithms devoloped by Meus (Meus,199a)
but a subslantlal ahount or work on computatlonal aEonthms has been done
Indpendsnlly. For a ihorolgh und.Franding ol lhE compul.tlon.l toob the
problem
of llme ls explor6d rnd discused in d6tatl. ln this 6Ebrd the @nblbution
of a numbd of authors has beon sludled in as much detail as ls required (Aokl et.
al., 19aa. Sorkoskl, 1944, Clomen@ 194a, 1957, de ,ag6, and ,lappel (Eds.),
197l- Dl.k, 2ooo, E$. and Parry, 1995, E3*n et, al., 195a, Gurnot dnd
S6ldelmann, 1944, Markowiu er. Er. 1954, Mullor 6nd rappel, 1977, t9unk and
lrlacoonald, 1975, Nel$n et, al., 2001, Newcomb, 1495, Sadler (Ed.), 1960,
seldehann rnd Fukqshlmai 1992, Spencer, 1954, Stephenson and Moi$n, 1944,
1995, Sleph6n$n, 1997, Wlls, 1963, otc.).
2.I INTRODUCTION
For rhc derernination of lhc visibilily mnditions otNew lund Cre$hl (or
the
old.st lutur cresccn0 over a tocal hori2on, lhe 6Bt rask h ro deremine rhe Unive6al
Tine (uT)
and dai. ofrbe
scocenhic
cobjucrion of thc Moo. &d rhe sb or thc Binh
of New Mmn. In ils morion tuDnd rhe Eanh rhe Mmn tralcls doud 12 deg@s frcn
rvsr ro c6t cvery day sd iakes ovr rhe Sun in doud every 29.5 dars on thc avcm8c.
When de Moon is vcry clo* lo ve$ ot
(he
Sun it aprears betore the sunrie ed vhen il
N elst oilhe Sui it appcmsjusr
anq rhc sunset. The lunar crcscenr is vcly rarel) lkibtc
on rbedayofthe conjLncton.
Dqjon Linn(Danjon
1932. t9l6) has b.cn i.$rpreted as
a limn on Ihe hininuo clongalion
ofrhe visible lu@ cE*cnr Accordine
lo rhis lihir
the ruMr ccscnr
is nor visibb
if lhc elonSadon is te$ lhd ? deSEes (Do88er
&
Sch.efer 194. Schaefe! 1991,
yallop
1998). Thc hdimM elonSadon
ot $e Moon ar
lhe dtoe of$e
Eeocentdc conjuncrion
is same as the inctinarion
otrhe lunar orbjt fbn
rhe plo.
of ectipric (50 9). When rhe Moon lakes orr rh Sun ar ir ndimun
elongation
$c ninimun time il lals b molc foo bein8 / fmm rhe $n (on
the .6rem
side) ro be ?o again
{on
&e w6om side) is eoud th,ee quans
ofa day. Th6 it is
theorcdcally possible
lhrl rhe
qesent
is t6l sen on $e dly of conjunction
or is tsr
seen on the day ofconjunction.
TheoEricalty
n is aho possibte
rbar if$e crescenr n hsl
seno. the day ofconjuncrionad
rhen rhe new cEscenr 6 seen on ln. da, iller, orthc
crekenr
rs rasr srn on rbe day bto,e rhe conjurcrion
.nd !h?. rh. new c@dl n *en
on the day oflhe
conjunction.
In th6e cM rhe cre$e r.mDs
hv$ible for.onea-
half' day. Howevcr non of the$ lheoletical possibihia
are rcatird
in practice
too
freque.dy.
Mosrty rhe cEscent
Enains inlisible for
.two-sd.a-holt,
days at least,
These
condnions dcpehd
on tc obse(ets t@a on.
th. output ot ihesa ftort! b a .omplter
progr.m
for .natysts ot ftst
vblblllly ol luh.r crscent named Httatol wrttten In C.t.ngs.ge dt$u$ed 6t the end
25
O@ thc rim. of thc
g.cdric
biil of th. Ncw MFn is d.lmin d, dE rcxl
r.3l( ir b d.cdic dE locd circuhlt .c6 oflhc Su ud dE M@n tt dE tirc ofsu5.l
on lhc day of rh. conjwrid or r &, .ncr thc djulction
(or d lh. lirc of swi$ on
lh. dly ol conjncdon or thc dly b.foE). Fd this i'lk ooc mEt d.r.miE th. l@l
tim6 of thc ru$t a.d lhc noon3ct In tr. mmins in otdcr to b. vkiblc th. Su rhould
tag b.hind thc Moon in odd rh|lth. @s i3 visiblc .d in thc dcnine! thc M@n
sholld bc hgAitrg b.hind rh. Su. Clsiotly thc LAC of $c M@n h!5 Em.in d on
ih!{ndr cosidcElion for lhc adi.sr vbibility of$. w lua ct6..nl. SiM thc
rim6 of th. Babyloni.ns thtuu8h ni.tdl6 !96 .rd ill tlE 20d e uy it hs b.qr
coNid.Ed I deisiv. aerd. Blbyloni@ @Nidc!!d nininm LAG rcquiGd for tlF
visibihy or new lund ca*nt to b. 48 miNt6 wh.@ thc MBlidAFbs co.sid.td il
lo b. 42 to 48 minut s dcp.ndinS on th. E ih-M@n disl'ne. In Dod.m liis tlDogh
thc lisibihy condnioB hlvc b.cn eFncd nainly d@ lo .ll kinds ot lnifi.ill
pollurios dc ncw luM cGs6t hls bc.n rcpon d lo b. tishr.d vlEn ia LAC B
mwh ls ths 42 hinuts.
TIE ddcmin.tion ot $c l@l riGs or rh. suEr ..d $. n@nsr, though statd
!o b. s@nd t.st in *qu.na, i! dcp.nd.nt on rhc dct mimtion ol dt
PEci*
toldenkic @diMl* of th. Su ed thc M@n- h is rh.tfoE imFnliv. lhat b.foE rh.
&t frinatioi of rhc LAG orc nusr find th.
E.@
ric @rdiMl6 ed lh.n lhe
bpo@ntdc c@rdinarcs foi $c l@don on lh.
globc fom sh.E ob6cNalion it to bc
m&. of th.* bodic!. Th.* e dcrivcd fren th. two $.oti.s, dF VSOPET .rd th.
ELP-2000 (di*.us.d lakr in $. ch!pr.o. As both rh* thod.s &*db. lh.luM.nd
$. iol& c@dinatcs 6 .xplicit tin sid, mlkiig olt thc
prilc "lim. usm.nt' is
*nlid tor lh. appUcadon of tI6c fodul8.
'It.
"ritu"
co*idcrcd in thc* 0E@.s
ed rh. orh.r thcod6, is . rim ird.Dcnd.nr oflh. dillioB of thc E nl ed ir
g.tudlly
Lfr.d s
"Drnmial
Timc . How.r dc limC' speificd bt ou clclc b ba*d on thc
!sn8. norion of rhe Esnli .nd t. Sui 6d is lm.d .s thc
"Md
Sol& Tim." Th.
titu cosi&cd in ihc applidion of dE rh.oncs b ihc B.lyc.ftic DyMic.l Tin.
(tBD)
or dE TcGrrirl Tirc
(II) which ir 6sin d wirh th. C6.dl Th@ry of
RGl ivily
(Ch.po -To@a & Ch!!ro4 l9l, Ncl$n.t..1,2001, Guiml &
26
Seid.lm@, 1988). The TT is d.fined in FlatioD witb the "lnt matioDl Alonic Tine"
T"I=TAI+]2F.IE4
c.l.t)
AI=TT-UT
(2.t.2)
Btce TAI it dgul.td &cording ro atomic rimc, In TAI $c b6ic uoir of rime is thc SI
sond
{defined
by Bueu Inremarional des Poids.l M.su6, BIPM, in t96?, a
dudlion of9,192,611,770 periods
of rodiarions cooesponding ro lh. tmsition brween
uo htFrfinc levcls ofd.gbund slat oflneCesinm lll abm
G.t
tenerat.,2OOt)).
A day on rhk scale is 86400 SI seonds long
{Astonomicat
Atndrc, 200?). On rbe
other hand rhe clet dm." is thc Univ.Ml Tin (Ul
denned wirb rcf.r.nc ro nem
sun and Nocialed vi1h thc Crccnwicn Md Sid@t Tim. (GMST).
UT is detircd as
$e hour angle ofrhe Med Sun ar cEenwicb ptus
12i6. Due ro rhe ineuta ries in the
rctations of th Eanh ihcr N di$repancies b.reen the lwo rimes. rhe TT and rhc UT.
This dillcrcrce is ruferred ro as $c delht (At):
Th.rcaore wh.nevcr
w wanl b dd@irc th position
of $. SM and lhe M@.
lbr a panicular
lime on ou! clocks w have to fomutate rhe rine argudenr using rhese
cons'dcEiions othcnvi* fie clock dn. of the phcnomena
shaU nor be appropriat.
Finally. rhc lime arSunenl in drc rhcorics requi,es lhe delemimtioh otrh Jutim Dare of
the UT in question.
TIE Julim Dale is th. sys!h ofconrinuols limc sle lhar begins o.
Noon or crcen*i.h
Jduary t, y6
-4?t2 (cdlcd lhc cpoch oftne..r!lian dde,) ln rhis
r,m scare tlre moment described
by a date (CEeorie
or Julie) ond rine (UT) is
considercd as rhe
"nmb.r of dayJ,, d.nor.<t 6 JD, (consisting
of a whole number
indicali.g rhc nuober of days .tapsed sj.ce tbe ep@h of Juli& Dar dd a filclion
d.sribine the flacrio.s ofa day after lhe whole number of dayt since the ep@h of
Julie Daie. Using rhjs JD for &y Domol lh. 1 is tten .ddcd lo .c@unr fo, th.
icguldnies in the oradon of thc Edrrb. The theories use tinc arghehl I lhat is on lhe
$al. of".umber ofJulio centudcj ehpsd rinc rh. epoch r2OOO.O. Thus usine tbn
21
ine argunent md the explicii tin eries fomulas of the ELP ed lbe VSOP th.
c@rdicrcs of lhe M@n ad rhe Sun m calcrl.t d for fte s.me i6i'nl of rhe day or th.
d.y aAq @njudion- In s. @ spheric.l pol&
@ordimtes
a
th gtucsrdc
disr.nce, X"
-
th. ecliptic longitud. and
9.
the dcliplic ladtude, refeftd b as th. Ediprh Coordimles.
Tn* c@rdinals i. lh ft sqt dsirely ro obrain rh. ims of th. Su$.i &d dE
Mooisr (or rhos of $e sun.ie ad noosi*) for 1hc day in qu6rion.
TIE lune ca* (or rhc cE*enrs of Mrcury &d venls) k fomcd by $e
region of $e lbn suface tow,rds fie Sun tnar fa.lls belwn rhe two plancs
rhrcu8} the
e E of rh. Moon, one
perp.nd'.ulr
ro rhe tine ol vi.w of fie obFn.. dd thc o$.r
FrrEtrdicule
to rhe di@rjotr of rhe Sun. Thc nrio of rh. ea of lhis crcw md lhc
total dea of th Lund disc is called lhe.phs.. ofihc Moon, The phse
ot th Moon is
di@tty rlaLd ro rh. seperion bcrwen rne Sun and rhe M@n or .lorgation.
The Astronohical
Alm$ac pubtished
amually shtes lhar $e dew luna! crscenr
is
sencElly
nor visibtc who irs phe
is te$ lhan t% (Askomniqt
Almde, 2007).
-
This ha prcv.d
ro b. nisl@dine
in vicw ofihe fac| rhar the brightn$ oflhe csenr
can
sr.auy
vary rbr the ehe vatue ofthe
phas
owins lo the varyin8 dislanc. ofrhe
Mmr froh $. Eanh. The Elrri-Mmn
disunft Eics foo t5O $o@d kitomcrrs lo
400 lholsdd tilomer$.
Tnus when
dosl lo ihe Earlh the luntr 6cshl hay be
vGibl. wilh ns pnsc
much ls lhan r % and in cae of fanhd ir nsy not b vkible evdn
wilh ph& g@ler
thd l%. D@ ro rhis varying disr.rce rh. siz of rhe tuu dis i. fer
cha.ges. Closer the Moon ih disc dppees larger. Th. Muslims had nodccd rhh vdhdon
ii th sizc of rhe luie disc hund I OOO ye6
aeo. tn rbe Modm rimes il was nol before
Bruin lhar lhc imporrace of 1he actul visibt. widrh of lh. lutu cllsqr M @liz4
Uhinately n w6
yaltop
who ued the widlh of luo{ cr*cent in his ohe_psmeir
nodel of tu4 cre$.nr vjsibitity
etadng n b the ahnnd. of rh c@.nr on rh. local
orce rh
sc@orric
c@rdinar6
of thc sd md thc M@n e catcutar.d lh.
.fieIs oi Refracrion, Abcration
hd fic
pddta
@ @lculat.d for llc.@odinaies
of
2a
both rhe Sun and thc Moon. Thse corct d eclipiic coordi.ates of fie Sun and the M@n
@ lhen arNtomcd into Equtodal @dinal6 a, the RiSht A*nsion 4d 6, lhe
Delination. In order lo g.r th. tical Hodental coo.dimtsi Ahitude and Azimuth, of
ihe Su ed the Moon, rhe ob*frers rcft$rial cooidinale dd the t cal SidftalTime
(dcfind as lhe L@al Hou AnSle oflh. Equinox) aE rcquiEd. A simple alSorilhn lcrds
ro fie Greensich Mean Sidereal Time (GMST).r lhe Oi'Unilesal Tinre for any
given
dsle. AddinS lhe local longilude 1o rbis GMST
erv.s
1he r,cal Md Sidereal Tihe for
0i' Uhiv.sal Time for any
eiv.n
dale is oblained. finally to
gct
$ Local SidcealTine
for my nonent of the day day be obtaind keepids in mind the f6ler pace of $e
Oncc lhe tical SideEolTihe ofany moncnl is looM the Hour Anele oflhc any
obj*t is oblained. The local
Euatorial
coordiiarcs s, th. Hou Anele ed 6. the
declinalion,lead to the Altnudc (heiehr obove lh holizon) dd Azidu$. n@
poiilsol
tine @ imporrant lor lhis slldy. when m objecl is al lhe local meidian (i.e. TEnsi().
when rhc objecl rbes ind when an object srs.
Thc time oa tEnsil may be calcularcd using rhe Hour Angle to be eo, or rhe
co.siderinS rhe tical Sidereallime 1o b.lhe Righr Ascension offte objccr. The *timate
olthispointoflimc can b inpoled uing an ireraive pccs
(hal
inmlves Eadjustihg
the lime arsumena'lo be lhis approximatc tim and rccalcuhting the coordinates offie
objd at thisdme argumehr.
ConsiderinS Hour Angle t io be 9Oo or 6i" approxidare rihe of rhe rkins
(nearive
t, o. the se(ins (posnive
14 ae obraincd. R*rlculatins $e rimc dsunenrs
tor approxidale limes of thcsc eve s $c coodi.Eres ofrhe object de deremined again
ad the b.lter approximtion
of$e inct oflhs denrs ac ob!.ined. This giv.s the
risins a.d the setins orthe cenres ol$e objers (rhe sun and the Moon) thar can b
adjnsred |o
st
$e actual isins (the first apparance of the weslem limb of the objec,
.nd acrual s.tti.s (homen!
of dcappe&ance ofrh. cded linb of the objsrl.
29
Onc. lhe lincs of fting edor selting ofbodr fie Sun 6d rh Moon are oblained
on d work our att th. p.mete6 of fic import,nce for lhc atrsl (ot la0 visibilitv ot
rhe nv (or old) lutr crc$.nr.
2.2 DYNAMICS OF THE MOON AND THE EARTH
T!. dcvlopnnt of nodem dy.di4l lhoics for $e sole sv$em beg& wnn
$e discovry of Laws of Pleel,rf Motion by Jobannes Kepler in the 16('centurv At
aboul rhe sm.lin haac NMo. cme !p wilh his tt$ of Motion dd the Univeisal
Law of Cdvi|llion. Whar fouowd is a long histo.y ol developool ol nathemtiql
techniques lead i ng 10 the fo m! latioi o f Cd 6tial Dynam ics The e llois w.rc d ir4td to
describcrhdorionofplanctsandlheirsal.lliles,dteroidsand@nebinordcrtopledicl
then
positions in tuturc with accey of
SEater
4d
g@lr dsG Conuibntio.s of
Eulr, Laplace, Poison. Gauss, Olber, Cowll. Encke, Claittul. Hesn. D.launav. Hill
and Brown. besides daoy olher nahemalici.ns and astdnoneb. bare ben oi grat
si8nificancc. A nunbei ofcldsical md nodcn books de now available thal d.scribe thc
drails ofd.F conuibutions (Sna41953. Deby, 1992, Plunmer, 1966. Pollard 1966.
Woolard and Clnene 1966. Bouvct lnd Clmence, 196l elc.). Contibutions ae oho
availabl rhat give delails ofthe lund dynamics
(chaplont_Touze dd Chapront. l98l'
1991. 1988. Chaproni er. al. I998, Srandish I981. 1998 etc) Einsrein's theolv of
rldrivu suc(aded in dc$nbrns the molion olthe penhelion
The satllite to
planet nss !.tio in case of lhe Moon_E nll svstn s largsl
( 1.23 x l0-r
)
in compdi$n ro ey o1hr saEllite-ple.t
pait (lh. nexr ldecar beins lhar of
Triton-N.Drune l6s ntio
=
2
i lO
I
).
Thccforc rhe Eanh do.s not
prclid. lhe dominmt
efecrive fore aclins oh lhc Mooh.It is not only lhe Sun bul all msjo!pltnels and lar
of lh dtdoids lhat @nkibute 10 th. cffcctiv force ,cting on the Moon Thus d
cphncredF
prcpded *ilhout tdtinS into eout all lh.e contibudons b boud to be
emn@u' Mey of the epheheedes of $. Moon of.dlv dsvs, both b.lor' md aliet $e
lomJlauon of $e Neqonie ndhtuics.
weE bded on obieBed sd lompukd
averages of various Lnds r.laled 10 lhe dyndics of lhc Moon
30
Today it is tnoM with a
g@l
degK of @!6cy lhoi lhe avetagc avrodic
p.riod
(intepal ber\,s t$o coMurive ne* M@m) is 29.510589 davs (29 dars, 12 hom 44
ninul6 dd 2.9 sondt. The avBec uomalisd. morth
(intcn.l ber@n lwo
su(esive
pa$ages of rh Moon throush it!
perige is 27 5s4550 days (27 davs 13 hous
18 oinutes ed 32.1 $cond, ed 4 aw'age sidercal honth (inLdal b.twen re
succesiw
p6egs of rhe M@n tnroueh ! fixed st!r) is 2? 321662 days (27 davs ? houf
4l minures and I1.6 secondt. Thus on thc b6is ofa sidcEal no h thc Moon rravel3
abund 12.176158 degr.et
p.r.lay on the av.rage Relaiv. to lhe Su. lhc M@n traveh
12.190?49 dtgc6
per
day on lvmee. Howvo, rhe mininu Bt 6 b. 12 08 deges
Fr
day and $e ndimum t2.41 deeees per day. Tnis oll happeis beau$ the orbil oi
rhe Moon around tbe Ennh is a hiehly
"i!rcCular'
.lliPe whercs lho deviadons tre
cau$d by p.nuibatios du. lo the S!n, lhe
Planeb
and olhs $lf svsten objsls
Thc smi-major arh ollhc orbn ol M@n n on alcnge 384400 kn bul has a
snaU oscilldlion aound thb valn whose
period is hala lhe svnodic nonth Thc
.@enrricily of the orbn is 0,t49 bul vdics d much sj 0 l lT The inclinalion of the
luhr orbir from the ecliplic is 500 9' bul vdi6 up tol9 Elen the nod6
(poihts of
inFdecrion ollhe lunar orbil and the ecliptic) of lhe orbn !re noi fixed
'nd
go round ihc
rcliptic in 18.6
yeaB with an o$illalion.bour dE $cular notion lhal moun|s to as
nuch as I 6? dcsl6 Thc line ol apsd?! tle
eo
rcund thc echpiic complelrne on'
rouod in 8.85
yem and dciltations {iih udnude
of 12'413 destccs Ths all lhc
''elenentt' oi the orbn exhibn bo$ scular a ell as peiodic ldiarions lhis mkes rh'
deimiMdon of lund ephemEds a daunling task
The undeslandi!8 of lhe dynanics ol the Moon dd thal of th'
planets in $e
nodm *lup bsd vith lh doluliodv
e4loits oi Johees K'Pler $d lsc
N.s,ror Kcpt.r cnpnically dcdued his Lls of Pld.lary Molion on thc b6is ot o
extensile study of the obsralional
.lcta @llected
ovcr ce'nies of lhc
posilio' of
pldets. Thcsc cfl be sbtcd 6 follows:
3l
L
2.
Pl&erary otbiB d. clliptic with lhe Sun a1 one ol lh foci.
R.di6 vdtor of ! pldel (V@lor dnM liom the sun lo rhe
PldD
sw*ps equal &.a5 in equl lihe
jorensls.
Th. sqlle of rhe
Friod
of rcvolulion of a
Plder
eund rhe Su is
proponionalto lhe cube ofils dea. dblance ftom die Sun.
L
Nfion nol only
prcentd
his Law ofUnive6al Gralilaion but verified KePleas
of Pleetary Motion usi.8 lh. tnw ol G6vilation. According to NMon s Larv rhe
of atmcion beM.en two bodi6 wilh nas*s 2' ed ,, pl@d 6t a dista.ce /
F
=c!+i
(2.2.r')
The force is aflnclive and G is the
PmPonio.ahy
constant dllcd Univ.dl Cavilalioml
Consranr
(6.6?2x 10
'r-)*s
rrr).
i is enhs ditctcd ircn ,L to
-r
or rron
',rou|
Frem rhe ddc of
publicalion ot tte'Priripi.l
bv NeMon in 1687 a nudbet o'
astlononeB,
physicisrs and na$cnalicians conribulcd sisnilicontlv in $e dcvclophenr
of th. lndesl..dins of Lud sd Plmhry dy.amra.
Howele. at lh time of NeMon (and pftap3 lill lodav) the dvnanics of lhe Moon
pa*nred
sear
dilficuhy rhar forced Ne\\'lon lo darc thal ",',e Ltmr theo'v nale his
he.l ache dtut kept hih aeake so olen thut he vorld think o! it no norc
"
lDanbv
1992)
He had tlitficulry in describing lh. modon of
Fnge
(the poill in lod orbil cloesr ro
the &nh) and could explain it ro only withi. m accurev ot 8
percenl Clanaut
(1749)
appli.d ml)lical merhods ad succeded in explainilg
d molion of
pngee bv 6'ng
seohd o.der approximation. He
published his lraorP de Ia /,,e md a se! ofnumencal
tablcs ih 1752 ior computation of lhe
posnion of fie Moon. the Eost sisnificmr
contribudon frcm Euler appered in l 7?2 shcn he
tublishd
his srcond lL@ lh'ory
32
kplM\ ficory of luM hotior,
Publish.d
in 1802. cnploy.d rrmfo@ing th.
eqution ofmolions $ tlt.t the lruc longltudc
wa an independ.nt ldiable Hh wotk also
povid.d e dpl.n tion of lh. sdo a@1.61io. of the M@! ripl@'s mdhods w.E
cdied io a high degrce of accu!@y by sevetal malhedaicies One of then was
Dmoi*e.
who publthcd his th@ry dd r.bl6 in 182? that Gmaircd in *id' Ne until
Ha.Fn! sork dppeaed. P. A. Hasen's wolk ext nded for over fonv
veds
fon 1829
dd his r.bl4 w.re publkM in lE5?. ThGe labl6 rcmain.d in s for w.ll ov'r finv
yds.
Delaunay
publishcd his work ih 1860lhal M basd on disturbiry tunctions $ai
inludcd 120 tms. By sn.ltti.al m.4 h. Gmovd 0E teru of disorbins turulion on'
by one ahd
gEdually builds up th. $lution. Autho6 cl.im thar Delaunav s vorl( n thc
mo$
Frf{t
elulion of th.l@r
problm
v.t
found
{D&bv
1992)
Thc
posilion of $e M@n dodd th ElnI is desdbed bv spndical
pold
coordinatcs
(r,,190
p) wnn r bci.s th. heli@.ntric disr:nce or rhe
tltncr'
? $e
eliflic lonsitudc
and
I
lhe ecliFic laliode The most commonlt
Gd edv lo handl
lunai $bles dlrinB the nosr
Pan
of 20't c.n$ry
\rcG dDc lo BrcM
(Bmm 1 960) This
ll]M $.ory w3 inpo!.d
bv Eckefi &d
ws tnown 6 ILE, sho^ tot Inprored Lrnr
Epr,rdr,r.
Tnc lh.ory coGtruct d bv ChcPont
and ChaPon(_Toul
is knosn 6 ELP
(Chapo er. al,. 1983. 1988) shon tot Ephtina des
I air's Pukienhes
ln ELP
simplifi.d
tables have ben cxlEclqi from lhe lheorv lo rcplcsnt lh' luDa nolion in $e
fom of explicit line sries fomule. Th6e
tabl's @ b lsed to direcllv compute
$e
luntr coord'nabs.
ELP h Dol onlt morc
Peci*
md complele in conpdien
ro ILE it
ale
povides noe nodern
valEs oi l(M
pdmelels md olhr
Phvsical
coislsts'
For
6000
y.4 on eacb side of J2ooo o ELP
povids lund c@rdiMts that l4lv have eno$
.xc.eding
few arc secoo.ls Toeelher
with th' dvlopment of VSOP
(Vdialrons
Sacnl.ifs
des Olbires Pletitt bv Bctagllon ed Fdncou
(t9E8) lhe t!bl6 due ro
Chapront
er. al destib the motion ofall
major bodies
(xcept Pluio) ih tbe solar
sysrem. Both rh $ori6, ELP &d rhc vsoP w dcv'lopcd
d rhe Buean d's
ll
BdicaUy a nhcory of pldelary ed lund motion involvd inies ionolasysrcm
of di0eGnial eqladoi dat constin&s th. major
pad
of th. sfudy of elcstial n46mic'
Therc & i.
gddt
t$o.ppoachcs for slving such dyndical systctu, ealytol ud
nusical, Anallril nerhods m b6ed on solutio. by Iouder sens ed thc Poiso.\
Slies. Thc ELP-2000-85 (Chdprcnlr,al, 1988) is semidalttic sd has ben obla'ncd
frod a fil o f ELP-2000-82
(Cn!po!i
cr. al. I 983) to th. nlncrical inrcer.tion of lhe .lei
Propulsion Labomrory DE200/LE200
(Slstrdish l98l). P@$ion in this o@ry ha ben
$keh iion Lasrar
Gsklr,
1986).
For te an lylic
par!
ELP-2000 Fpets th nain
lEblm
fbm th.
penurbarions. Th. 6ain problem tak s into accout thc &tio. of thc E nn's ce E of
m6s aid lhe acion ofrhe Sun's orbir aound lhe Eorlh-Moon baycentr. such lhat Ihe
Sun\ odit is asuned to be Keplrid cllipse. This rcrulls inlo Fouri.r series w'lh
numdical c@fiicie s snd ar$mdb th.t m suns ol mulripls of fou fundade.tal
paBmeted D (diffeence of ihe ned longitudcs of the Sun ed $e M@n). / (mean
monaly of rh Moon), l(hem anohaly of $e Sun) lnd a (M@n s argumen( ol
h ude). Tlis main problem 6uhs inlo dne *.ies fomnld for Mmn\ longitudc.
ladtude and gocenrric disrscc @daining 2645 rcos in all. Apan flofr lh* *rics
acrons of all rh other significant objects in solar sysren dt consideed N
'Fnurbadons lo ihc mdin pbblen lhol include:
L tndiKr
pl&c(ary perturbarions rbar re induced by lne diff.tsoc.s blwecn
the lrue orbit of the Sun aound lhe Eanh-Moo. bdycenue and tssuned
Kepbnm Elliplhal orbil oflhc Sun *uned in the min
Pmblem.
2. Dirct
planerary penub.tioN
due lo etions of othr
plan$
on ibe M@n
lor borh the direct ad rhc indtct
planetlry penubalions lhe ELP-2000
co6id6 th orbib ofthe pldct givn by BGlagnon\ VSOP82 rh@.y.
L P.rurbations du. ln figues of $e Edh md thc Mon
(Moons, 1982).
34
4. R.larivislic p.nub.rions (Lsrnd. & Chlpronl-Tou?J 1982).
5- Penurb.tuG du. to tidd afccis (villim3.t. a! l97E).
6. Molion of the efccnce frde conside&d wilh spect to m inrrigl fime of
consideradon ol all lhese pelturbarioB esuhs inlo rime series fomlla for
geocentric
longitude, IatiMe .rd disra@ of 0E M@n at nds $e numh.r of lcm !o 15:37.
An alnatc ro this thericrl appro&h is !o rcpr*nl1hc coordinai.s explicilly
6 tinc ledes fomule. This epEs.rolion of tlie tinc seds is dcrloped by Chap6n!
Touzi ind Chapront (Chapront-Touu & Chaprcnq l9tl, pp. l0) und ha bcc. !*d in
fiis work. The mjor fomula used in rhh vork due !o $es authob de lkrcd beloNl
Tbe ge@entric longitude
'/h.xpesed
as:
'/=218.31665416+48126?.8813424'r-0,00011268'r:
+0.000001856tr'
0.0000000r534.r1+,5. +(s; +/
1si
+r'
xsi/1oo0o)/l0oo
(2.2.t)
whrc I = h in iulian centuies sinceJ2000.0
s,
=tv,sr,(dj')
+d|),,+ao
*r'
xro
I
+ao)'/r xr0' +d|,.rr xro
r)
(2.2.21
I
=
)':st(o;''
-a:"' '4
(2
2.r\
si
=
tv;,s,,(d;,o
+ dnD.r)
(2.2 4)
Tb vdB 6f tb.ootM v- r; ct, d!o8 eitb |b ot a'. G
Sivto
i! Chr.od-
Tout.d Ct q.od (Clg!d.To@a.nd
Ci{.Gi, l9l,
rp
a!-56}
Ib gcoc.nttc ldhde UL
riE b,:
t/-s,, +(s:/ +r'$ +i's;/10000)/100 Q26)
s,,
.5,"si,'(rj".
p:".,.p:!.rr
xron +/i",r xr0r +r'r
'r'
x ro
')
Q2.?',)
s:,
-'u.,&4fri.t
+
p{t.
tl e2.8)
.$
-tr:$4i:o
+r4D.,)
t229'
$.t%'sr'(sfl
+ dI'.,)
q.t!;&,(r;o +r'o.,1
(r25)
Q2.tO)
Th!
y.lG
of th c@trt ! t
-
!; .iq dotE eilh lho.c of
0!.t 8lt'.!
in Clqlot'
Toudsrd Ctar@r
(ct
Fld-ToEald
ftlnfi, 1991,
I?
5?{a).
rindly tl|c
geo.6tic dllt n6 it
dven
by:
x-315000.57rsr +sl +r.8i +y'.s;/10000 Q2.rD
s-
=t'"cdldj"'+djl
xron)
(2.2.t2)
(2.2.t))
s;=:4cd(d;'+r;,''/l
s;
=
t,;c,rt6"4'
+ r,4,
.4
(2.2.t4)
si= +d;o).r)
e.z.ts)
-fhc
!!hEs of the consr.nls rz, /; etc, dlong with lhose oa6s ae given
in Ch.prcnl-
'fouzi
and Chapronr
{Chapo.r-TouzC
and Chatronr. 1991.
pp
65-73),
i"-",,(u-''
Atlat0)s.
/0)s
and D{ors, ,', s,,,sl..U,su,si./.'r.r;.,". md r; @ in desrcB,
arr\,
y'r's,
d1'\, si,si,.'; and ,; ac in d.s@Jcenrury, ar'\,
y''?\.
irlrs, si.si.v;
lnd r; e in desEs/6tury2, ao's,
y'r\,
ana d's m in aegeevcenruD
r
and a"rs,
/'rs
aid d'h de in deecs/centud. R, s,? and Sh dc in kilomelres, 5i md
4
.t in
kiloderrs/cenru.y. siand
4
sr. in kilometftVcenruly:.
For Tbe detemimtion of plan.lary coodinstes lhe complele n-body
problcn is
requied to be slvd. A. ml,,lic solution of planerary dotion wa3 pre*nted by
8rct.Slon
(BElaglon,
| 982) of Burau d.s LonSiluds of Fnce lhat described only thc
.llipric @rdinates of the pldels.
Th. elution is populdly knosn d VSOP82
(Variations S.culai6 d6 Orbits Pldauirct. Latcr, BEtagnon and F6Nou of th. se
Bur6u hodificd VSOP82 inro VSOP87 (Bcl8non & FMcoq 1988) in 3uch a uy lJllt
th.i! eluio!
povid6
both thc Catcsim
(or
tst&suld) @rdimtes 6 wll a th.
sphcdcal
pola
coodiiates of $e pldels in a helimenlric syslei. Thcir slllion
V SOP8t descibes ln el enehls of thc osc ulat ing or inst aneous orbit in lems of:
t7
a
-
sdimjor uis of th. dbil
l,
=
m@ ld8itlrL ordF
ddt
l= ?,@$
p= sincr,i
Dsino
c=
si(Xi)coso
whec. is thc.@eotriciry ofthe orbn, r is ln.
oflh. orbit fmm rh. plD.
ofeliptic dd O is
olbit. .cholth. rcctarsul$c@rdioat (X L
t) is u.xplicir tunctionofiime ed is inlhe
Every lcd ot Ues $.i6 is in fic tod of:
bngnud. ofp.dhelion, i ir th. incliodon
the logilud. oflh e.lding nod. oa th.
a
or &c aph.ic.l
polar
coordimts
(2. I
forn of
p.dodic eds md Poison $ies.
(2.2.t6J
$,lEE a - 0, l, 2, l, 4, 5. I is tn. tire in lhoFnds of.,ulie
)s
fod J2000.0, i..
I"(ssii9+ I:cosp) or 1"..ios(, +c?)
f=
165250
e=ia,1,,
i
c=>d,N,
12.2.11,
= I to 8,
!
reprsent rh. m.m longnud.s of the plancc Mercury lo
=
9, l0 6d I Lc rcpllsfl th. Dclawy sgmen& of lh. Men D, F md
The hsl of
I
is the na longiMe of U. Mon
Bivd
$nh 6pt to lh.
tlay. In thc ah@te xpcsion,
B=
Za,^,"
+
P
S
- -,asinp,
l8
(2.2.r8)
,l
md M
dc
Sivci
in the lable 2 of (BdaBnon & Flmou l96E)
These data series @ .vailabl on CD's dd laFs For r.cta.gular c@rdiml6 of
rhe
phf,ls |he dlia llles VSOPS?A. VSOPSTC dd VSOP8TE dc @d sd for the
spherical
polarcoordinaEs VSOPSTBand VSOPSTDa!. used. A shonerleBionofrhese
data series isSilenby Meeus (M.eus, 1998)and lheff. tr u$d in this@r\ l. the*
hbles firsr olumn
gives.4s,
fie eco.d ,s dd the lhird
sives
Cs. The dats file hs 6
sedes fo, dh or rhe coodi.ates L (h helioccnlric Lonsnud.) and R (lne helioccntk
dislanc. ofthe Eanh) and 5 for fte c@rdi.ale B (lhe hclioc..lric Lafiudc)
Iiiclr s$ics lir L. ll .nd ll ne uscd as follo\s ro obhin thc heliccDkic polar
t't
=
LA;
co\B;
.
I jT t. r2.2 rol
i 0. l . 2. :1. 4. and 5 lor l- md I( and 0, l,2,3,4lor B Ihc suFrrscnpt tsund for I
(L). 2(lJ) and 3{R). x rus tolsh 0 lo dilfeonr incger lor di(feEfl coordinaGs and
their lssiatcd seri6- Fo. I - 0- /{i coftsponds ro lonsirudc scri.s. I = l
l/{iconsponds ro lari$de sris and I
=
3, /r,coiiesponds to dist .ce serica. ll.ch
coordin eislhcneuluatdas:
(2 2 20)
/. md , d. ir ndian nesuEs and X is in aslrohonical unils. These m as menrioned
crlier rhe c@.dinares of $c Eanh in heliocsnkic c@rdinare sysrcm wnce6 for {he
problem ofdckmrining posirion
oflh Sun inour sky w. ctually requiE rhe
Cmcentric
coodinales of lhe Sun instead. In case of rhe Eanh this uNformation is sinple:
=l:,
','' I
) "=lz'',')
r=ltcu
il'
l9
,is
=
I +l8O!
Fs=
-e
12.2.2t)
(2.1 l)
ond the hcli@entric dislanft ofthe E.nI is smc as th.
s@edtic
distanc' oflh S!n'
2.3 BIRTH OF NEW MOON
A3 menioned earlier the Moon in ilsjounev dound the Eanh llavels arcund 12
dcgrees cvery doy in our sky and $l.s ovcr tic Su in lround vcry 29 5 davs whc' rhe
Ccocntnc Lonsnude of the Sun e.l lhe M@n N se rhe nonent is tnoM s tnc
Tine ol Bidh of Ncs Moon Tbe dudion berven two succe$ive
Binhs of Nev M@ns
is called lhc Lun.lion Period Ho$ever dE Llnal'on
petiod is n
from 29.2 days lo 29 8 davs This is rh. cMn
bhind
'ons
irt tu'd mon$s of 29
d.ys ach or lhe con*culive luor monlh of lO davs cacn
For fi tine ofBinh ofNew
Moon one requiEs to find lhe noment when rhe
seocentric
lonsilud's olilt Moon and
rhc sun coiNide
Thus one needs to lracl lhc lo'Siludcs of eeh of thcn
rinc
Coisidcrins $e najor rcms oa lhe line scrics fomulac fo' lhe lonsiodes
of the Sun md
$c M@tr in th
planeurv rhcorv VSOP'2000-8?
and lhc l(nw th@rv ELP-2000'8?
$e
noment
when thc rwo lonsiludes
aG sMc can be evaluatd
An alsori$m
due b Meeus
(Mceus, l99E) for $e dclemiiation or $e rin' or Binh of Ns Mmn is as rollos:
On a!c8. lhe tnpic.l
Yd
(dudiion betw'en
t*o conseculive
passages ol lhe
Sun lhroush
equ ox) iscudcnrlv 16524219
davs
(from (l I l)) Thc avedge svnodrc
Monrh
(trre intedal bclwccn
r$o cons{u'r\c
t\e* Moonsr
toten o\er a rcn'ur} ii
29.530589dar(fon
(1.3.3)).
'Ixus
in oft topical
vear
rh're aG otr a\Esc
12 1682664
Synodic
mo h5 Thqeloe since lhe $ad
of lhe
vcd
2O0O i e J2O0O O the nunbei
of
synodic
monlhs elapsd oregrveh bvl
t
=
(f,'
-
2000)
x l2 3682664
and lhc time in lropical ceoruries el.Psed
since J2000 0 is
Siven
bti
(2 t.2)
t236.42664
An approximarc valu ofth.Iulid Dale ofthe Ncw M@n ir $cn
givn
by:
JDE
-
2451550.09166 +29.5JO58886t.t+0.00015437..r
-0.OOO00Ol5
j.r
+ 0.000000000?3' r!
(2.3.3)
$herc t i. d inteSer Thus @ording ro this fomula rhe for t = O |h Jutiil Dar. of$c
lid ces.nr ofycar 2OOO is 2451550.09766
lhar is J&ury 6.2000 ar I8n r4m, md
4l
*!.
I of dynlmical lime. For a horc accmle valu oa ihe Julia D.te of thc New Moon
lhe pdlrbation
tchs due lo lhe Sun md rhc planer
ar added, Thc pertuibafions
tenrs
due to thc sun d given
byl
x= -0 t07 2.SlN(M
)+ 0 I72J t
T
EISIN(M) +O.0l60A.SINOr
M
)+0
0lAj91stNe,F)
+0.007i9.E"'lN(M
-M)-O
0O5 1.t.ErSINtM +
V
+a
0a208'E^2istN
Q,M)
0 00| t t
'SlN(M
-2.F)-0.000t7.StN(M
+
2*F)+O OOO|6.E.SI^-(2+M, +
M)
-0 000J2.slN(3.M
)+
A OOO.| 2+E.StN(M+
2tF)+0,aoB8*E.SIN(M_2.F)
-a
00021'E.stN(2.
M'-!r'
o 0u | 7,stN4.]
0.00007.stN(M'+
2.io
+0
0a0u.slN(2.M
-2. F)
+O.00001'S!N(1.M)+0
\oaol.stNi,,t-+
M-2+F)
+0
0040j.SIN(2'M +
2.FrO 00O03.S|N(M +M.2.F)
+0.
0000J.StN (M
-M +
2.D -0. @OO2.S|N(M. -M).
D
-O.O0OO2.StN(r.
M, +
M)
+0.00002.s1N(1'M)
Q).4)
wherc
,r,1
=
rb. mce &omaly ofth. Sd al ihc JDE
=
2. I SiJ
+29
I A5 3567.k-0 ,OOO0 t I t -0
oaoooo I I I
(2.3.5)
M
=
thc mee anomly of de Moon d lhe JDE
=
2A 1.5613+ J85 8 1693528'k+O.Ot
07j82N I
+0
OAOA I :38. I
-0
0A0A0A0,8.
11
4l
F
"
M@'!.4ruqtof hind.
- ! 6'0.? ! aE+390.670t0264.1-0.00t 61 r 8. | - 0.0U00227. ?
+
0.0@w0
.f
Q.3.1)
(2.3.8)
(2.1.e)
g
- lncinde of lsnding md. of {!. luar orbn
- !24.7716-1.5637t588.t+0.0020672'1 + 0.OOOOO2 t 5r I
E
=
Eedtricity of $. oftit of Elni
=
1-0.002t 16.T-0.0000074. ?
Th.
pedurbltion
|.tus de io
pleas
e:
v
=
A00032t.StN(A I
)+A000165+sNLtr+a000
t6.trSIN(/r+0.0a01 26.stN(A1)
+
0. 0 00 t t.sr N (,4, +
a 0,f06 2
+s
t N (/tq +
a 00006. s t N ( t7
)
+
0. 00u t 6.3 ! N
(
/ E)
+
0. 00001 7.s t N (,t 9)
+
0. 0000 4 2.s N (/ t
q
+
a 0000 1. s t N (t t t
)
+0.0000t7rsIN(AI2)+o0o00J5.StN(Ar
i)+o W023.SlN(,| !4) (2
3 to)
A I -299- 2 7 + 0. t O74o8.k-O,OO9 I 7 t. ?
t2-25t.E8+A0t6J2t.N
,13-25 LE|+266J
IEA6.t
a4-t19,42+J64t2478.*
/5-U.66+ ! 8 206239.k
A6-t4171+53.303771.t
/7=207-14+2.153732.t
19-34_t2+27.26t2391t
A ! 0- 207. I I
+0.
| 2 1 824'k
/1 t I
=
29 t. 34+ l. 64a379.t
(2.3.1r)
12.t.t2)
(2.l.lr)
Q.3.t4)
(2.1.15)
(2.3.16)
(2.1.17)
(2.3.18)
(2.3.19)
Q3.20)
Q.3.2tt
42
A I 2= 1 6t. 7 2+24. I 98 I 54.k
A I 3= 2 39. 5 6
+
2 t. 5 t t099.t
at 1:33 t. t5+ 2.7925 I E.*
Tlus $c ,ulid Dlle of lh. Na M@n ie giv.n by
(2.3.22)
(2.3.23)
(2.3.24)
(2
r.2t
JD=JDE+X+Y
Thc dm deeribcd by this dat is lhe DlaMnical Timc and lhc coretions for Al mcr be
mad lo
get
$e Universal Time (discu*d
in 0Encxtarticle). For anr l@al coopuralion,
th. Ld.l Zonc lide and d!i. n6r b. calculated ftom |he UniveMl Tim. and dale
ohaincd abovc on rhe bdis oatbe lonsirudc ofany place
on rhe Eanh. Thc darc h $en
de day of conjuncrion fo! the place
and rho rime of conjuncdon (he bnrh orNcw M@n)
can b dy rinc fom 0- 10 23r" 59'" t9h on thd dav.
2.4 THE TIME ARGUMEI{T
ft w6 mentiohed earlicr thal rhedynahicsofatl soltr systcnr objec$ isdescibed
by lomula b6cd on 6adcs of Cl6sic.l Mcchdics and lhe Relarivisric Dyneics in
t.m3 or rid serics. In order b ersriv.ly ue rhcsc fomulas an apprcpriate ?rrs
argMerr cotrcsponding to rhe honeht of obseiving the lunar crescenr at my place
on
lhe surface of the E rth h6 io be valualcd. Such a lime a.sudent h6 ro b co.inuou
and mui halc a clearly dcUncd point
of i's beeimine (|he aro rine). called .ph.
various theorics and problems
uF difercnr .pochs depending on rhs co.rext for a
geneEl
consideFtion in pls.lary
ad luE dynmics thft ,re lwo ihporlanl epochs.
Th nr$ of lhese epochs is a oonefl in edote pdsl coftsponding to rhe Noon al
G@nwich on Janlary l. 4? l2 B.C.E. on th. Julid c{l.ndar (or Nolember 24, 4? I I on
Cdgode cal.ndtu) (Ringold
& D.Rhowila ?001), Fren $is pojnt of timc rh. rine
elapsed tiu my laler point oflime in number of days md a
possiblc
fierion ofa day h
4l
elled th. Julid Dare abb@ialed B JD. So the ,D @Gponding lo thc 5i" 30.i. on
Ocrober 5, 2004 ar Grcenwich is 245t284.2708t11t.. Thls rhe Jutim D!i. i3. mesE
of tih. clapsd sine thn pocl 6id is cxpEss.d in nmber of n@ eld d.y5_
The orhcr epoch of inpori,lcc lo rh lftnl work k fie noncnt of dme ell.d
J2000 0 a.d il Eprcseds lhe l2ln TDTon J.nuary l,2O0O i.. (Abononhal
Almahac,
2007). Tbe JD conesponding ro rhis hom.nt dl C@nwicb is 2451545 days. This is the
.poch or 2eo me for borh rhe Luq Th@iy ELP,2000 (Chopo.lTouz{
& Chaponr,
l9l) dd th pl&elary
th@ry VSOP,87
{Brc|,gnon
& Fmcou, 1988). In bo$ rhes
0leodcs lih. m@!red frcn J2000.0 bo foMrd od b6ct*ards. In ELP thir rimc is in
is coBidcrcd in rulian CentJies (i.c.16525
me.n sle days) md i! VSOP il is inJulie
Millemia (365250
mce solrdays).
BoththeseepocbsmbasedonrheinreRaloirimealted..toedn$hrdat, qhich
is defincd a fie int rval berween lw slccessile rhsits (r6sdge rhlough rhe locll
meddim) ofrhc fic ious body knoM as ft. mee Se. This ficlitious body novcs sirh
uifom sF.d alory lhc cel6ial cquabr .hd is consider.d in place of lh. acrul Sun $ar
oovcs vith non-unifom sped (dw
ro rhe .llipli orbn of tne Efin) abnS lne Ectipd.
The tmsit of $c aclual Sm over a local heridi& vdes up ro I I minurs over a
penod
of on lrcpical ye (Astmnooical
AlFanac, 2O()7), Thereby atl civil rim. reckoning
have beh a$ocialed with the hedn Sln lhot consisrl of 24 mean solar hous, The
beeinningofa civilday, i.e. zro hou* on civil clocks occu^ at nidniehl when the nour
dgle of rh. Mean Sun is rwIrc hou6 lccodin8 to the local or sisddd hcidia..
Th. tiDe describd by lh. cl@k showing d. mm $lf rinc is not wilhoul its
di*Ep.n i6. In fd it is lhe Ertn, $e gtob, ilsctf rhal is ou cl@t lnd $c n.m solat
tine B suppos.d to b. basd on ths a!ragc rate al which lhe Eadh n spinning a@und irs
dn. Howeverlhn considearion is only with rcspecl !o lh Med Sun. Du.lo the orbilal
noionoflh. Eanh beins in rhe sme direction as its dis ofmlolion (ton
qesl
lo EEst)
on ubl totaiion coDpldes in l6s thm ihis nee sold day. So the actuat nle of dial
rchtion is b.t r ralized by rhe No sw;sivc resirs of a sior. Dis in|cdal is lemed
a r Si&F.l Dry ud rh. timc masuld @rdi.s to thb $d. is rlrc Sid.Flt Timc_
Aglin du.lo lhc clliptird orbit ofr[. E lrh ttris
D.riod
i!.le nor uifom e w h!rc ro
@tuid*
"M.rn Sidccal Day" rnd !@diiSly M6 Sidaql Tirc. Oc md el& dly
cquls |.002?3?90915 !|16 .i&Gd dlys (or 24B 03i" 56.t553?* on m@ sid.Mt
tim.). Altcturcly oE md 3idcEd dly cquals 0.9?26956633 ns st.r d.ys
(or
2lb
56'r" 04.09053* on md sol$ rimc).
In
gcrcr.l
rh. o@ eld {n ir rhc rinc |.t n inro &@6r in bolh lb. civil tu.
ekoning a sll a tlE $tromnic.l. Wh.Ed lh. dylmiclt rh6d* denbc |h.
norions of th. objers ii solr srsr.m on th. bair of rhc coninuoBly nowins tinc
dc$dbcd a Dyimiol Tim.. T|| UniwBl Timc .d rlE DyiMiel Tim. E nor
@Biri. .nd rh. dilTelwc bdw6 dF tw is lot ! trom fumrioi of ritu dd @utd
bc lound only bt high pcirion
ob&dados of th. skics. Th. diffm. of thc lrc AT is
rlbull|.d i. Asnonomicrl Aln.t@ for th. t.tqopic G6 (AD 1620 ri lodar.). For rh.
cd prior lo lic rcl.spic .n rhc v!l@i ol dT G cdcll.r.d on thc blsis ot rnc
qlculatioB
of .cliter @ultrrion lnd 0E rin6 of th* d.nt. @rdert
jn
lh. tmwn
history. Th. val@s of AT e giEn
fq only |h. nan of.eh cd.nd& y.r
,nd $os for
olh.r dn6 ofFd ce b. incrlDlar.<l. VeioG .u0!oc havc
giwn
veio6 lehniqu.s fot
obt inins llF* slq (Di.k y
195, M.!!t, l99E, Motri$n & Scoh.Nr, 2004.
Mofti$n & W.d, 1975, Scph.@n & MoEien. 1984 ald 195. Sr.ph.nsn, 1997,
lsl.m .t d. 2001.
Wh.ncv.r a c.lcul.tion for e.wnl ir to bG
p. iomcd
s ed( oul.v.rging
b.sd on l@l civil dh. sd dac. ror iBlhe vhcs llE rim ed darc of rh. binn or
nd M@i is compucd rh. lqlr cone our ro b. in dynmictl rim. This dyMical
dmc should h. conv.ncd ro thc Univ@l tinc by adding rhc c!frnr wt* or & ud 0En
lo th. l@l civil lim. by addine lh. Equbit &n tirc (@BidcEd posiliv.
fo..6t
bnsnudB and rcg.dv. for Br lon8itud.s) for lh. l@tion of ob*rci Simil&ly if oie
wrs ro olculnc to ric
Dcition
of rh. M@n fo! {y l@rion of ob*rer, rh. ld.l zoi.
tin. hts to b. @nvcn d io uiwrsd tiD. by subr&ri.a thc aE tin. &d rh.n rhc
crent vduc or 41 should b. $bt .cr.d iom n ro gd tnc Dylmiql Tim.
How.r s noE @nhtlon l !'pNch ir ro @!qt lol <bre.rd ar rim ro
uiv.Eal dalc ed time which is ihcd cotrrcncd b rh. ,ulid .!ate dd fmUy th. .fi6r of
dt is taln inio ecoul. Tlc s. lpprorch b u*d in lhe fonowilg atgodrhn foi
c.lcul.tioo of the dn dgme l
Srep-l: l8el Local Doaroh
ercgorin Cal.nd@ LZ LMM, LDD
Sr.F2: INrtIBalTin. &7awTih. LHH, LMN, LSEC, ZON
S4 LryY=LIY, UMM-LMM UDD.LDD
UHH= LHH +
ZO N, U M I N = LMIN, LIs EC
=
I.S EC
ln
eedeEl
rhe only dif.rc.c. bclwen local hne tinc a.d dale ed lhe
Univcsal dme md d.t is th. diff.cn . bel@n hou6 rhat cq@h zon time
(considercd in inresal ho6 hcr). Duc b rhis ditf.rene th. t@al d.rc hd lbe
Univc6d dare mar difLr by onc &d tr.!& .djcthsf.
I[(UHH>=24) ...... 1rcft6. dar
( UDD-LDD+I
tf (UDD>dorqLMM))
//darr is nMber of days in a donrh @y
I
LDD=I:
'UMM-LMM+Ii
rf (uMM>
t2)
I
UMM-|:
UW-LYY+ 1:
t)]
upHH<o)
... ... d..t @ do,
{
UDD=LDD.!:
{
If(uDD-o)
(
UMM.LMM.I
If(UMM-1)
46
AYY-LW-l;
J
UDD-&tr(UtlM)
olr@ l[. UEircc.l d.rc dd tirc is lppllFi.Lly dju{.d @
pcad!
lo
c.lcula& rhe Julih Dar. for 0E d.lc {d rhc ritu. For rlis calcularion inirially if
ihc nondr is Jmqry o! fcbnoy, it i! co id.Ed morh .mbq 13 or 14.
Esp@tivly, ofthe ptwiou
trd
ad rh.
t@
i! sle d.crcNed by l.
UW-WY-l
Thc nmbd ofeftry yd (likc
,E
| 100, 1700 .rc) d[ ln. yd
UYY
ir Fquicd lo t@6t for !mh6 of mhd rap y@.
Stcp4: 1=INr(Wt00)
ln lml of 6e $tommic.l dlculariotu ! daL d and .na Fliday.
Octoba 15, 1582 is coaid.tld io b. I dlc of Grgodd caldd.r {d a darc toni
Thsdly, Octob* 4, l5E2 ..d prior to rhb datc i. coGiderd s a dale i! Jutie
calndd. Ilru ifa dsl. i! fton Crc8ode cal.dde ndh.. EquiEs m accout
ofnon-tlap
yed
tom.mong3i 0F nomal lcap yds due to th modified rule
ofliad y.rinthe
Grc8onlr
qal.nd$(y.$divisible
by 100 but rot diviribte
by 400 e @r L@!
yes).
d"@ledq
it casdtb'
I
a=2-/t+rMf(1/1)
.l*1I "@Ldo i.t IdlM"
(
B_0
J
47
Now orc n6ds ro c@t 6. nub.r of diys .laps.d si@ the Julid DaL
epoch
(Jeulry l, 4712) iill Ihc .nd of th.
PEviou
yc& .rd lhe trmbr of dltr
laled flom ln. n61 d.y of rh.
PEviou
yd till the cnd of lhe c|lml monlh
Meu @dider this sMbl ianing fom
ys
-4716 dD( adds addilional davs
thal @ balmed by subt@lion of lh. co6t ni 1524.5.
JD=\NTQ65.2t(UW+ 17 16)+ tl]/r(30.600t
(uMM+ 1))+ UDD+ B-l 524 5
+ (u
HH
+ (UMIN + USEq60)/60)/21
(2.4.r)
ln both th. lh.orics VSOP8? tnd ELP2000 lhe Poch is the J2000 0
@ftsponding ro rhe Julie Dsr.2451545 theEfot one tin lly
c.t5
the lin
JD 245t545 Ar
(242)
16525 1155760000
Notc rtEt in rhc l6t st@ lh. lid l.B on 0E lighl hfld side is the nmbd of
lulie entude elap*d sine 12000.0 ad th. s@sd l@ is for At which is @allv
siven
in mobd of.eonds od h.rc w. nccd to @nved n i o nmb.r of cntuies (lio
ELP &d Millemia for vsoP) due to which il hN lo be divided by the nunbq of s6onds
in a Juli$ cnrury
ifor
ELP md Julim Mill.inia fot VSOP).
lf and when ttie dynmical tim. of d cv.nt is *rom we need io @hv.n rl b
U.ivesal dd Lhen into Local Zon. tim.. Thc dylmical tihe is oblain d s the nmbet
of Julie cenluries sin@ J2000.0 e that rhc Julisn dare of tbe evmt cm b calculated 6:
48
1p - 15575s.(,
-
=-4-),
usrsts
ea.t,
t 3155?@@00J
TIlc int
Sr.l Ft
ofdF Juliu D.!. *ill b. onEtud io Cdddr Dd. .nd
t|| hclion l
Frt
ro th Unirwl Tim:
St
F2:
Z-INT(JD)
St d-3: F-JDZ
Fd &rB
Fior
ro ocrobcr 15, | 582
(JD
=
229161) rhc inl.Sq p.rr of.ID
is !.oircd ! il ii olhdtuc ldjulr.d for th. @diti@ of lhc GGgorid cdqd{
St.pa: ifz<229161 ( t-Z
)
Ert
t
a-ln((ZlE672l6.2tyt652 t.2t)
A-Z+I
+GINT(d/0
)
Stcp5: B-A+1521
sr.p6: C-INT((B-122. !
y36t.2t)
SGp?: D-INT(J65.25.C)
Stcps: E-IM((I-DyJ0.6001)
Stcp9: dar-EDLIItT(30.6001.8)+F
StcFf0: UDD-tNTldat) LDD-UDD
sr.Frr: ttE<l4 (
UMll-El
)
Els.
(
UMt'r-ElJ
)
a9
LMU-UMM
stcFr2:
alMM>2 {
UW-C-1716
}
Etr.
t
UW-C-17tt
)
LW-UW
steFf3: hout(=drylM(dqr))r21
Stepr4: UHR-tM(tbu)
LHR-UHR-ZON
If (LHR<o)
... ... d'o@. dar
(
UIR-UIR+2I:
LDD-UDDJ:
r!(LDD-0)
{
LMM-UMM-|; LDD-dasOMg:
It&t4M4')
(
Ltl:'l'|2;
. LW-UW-I;
}D
It(LHl>-2,t
... ... tt@t et)
{
LHR-LHR-21:
LDD-UDD+,,
4t6-DD>day1vut4
'|
LDD-|: LMM-UMM+I:
y(LMM>t2)
{
LW-UMM+I; L tN-l;
)))
ste!'rs: htn .=Aov-L|
9.60
sreFl6:
UMN-IM(nlnut.) LW-UL{N
steplT: tu.ond-(ntr.-LMIN),60
50
SGpf8:
USEC=lNr(taond)
LSEC-USEC
Sr.pr9l Outpd UW. UMM IJDD, UHR, tjMIN, USEC
A"d LW, LMM AD LHR, LMIN, LSEC
In thc Nd-M@n Algorilhn thc our pur is thc dynmi@t lin. &d this dgon$D
is p.niculaly
usfll in @nvcning Uis rinc lo U v.Mt od &y l@.t @G rin .
2.5 COORI}INATES
OF THE MOON
For rh. dckmination of lh. c@rdinrcs ot 1h. M@n .r ey
Sivcn
lc.l tim. .rd
dlt liB| scp is ro fomular th. rinc a4um.nt a dieNcd in diclc 2.4. So lh. pcc$
bcsins by s.l*ftg pl.c.
of ob6.rq (Ljnsirude
&d La ud.), te.l darc ard rim. rhrl
lcds to lhc rim. &Bum. t eco.dinS ro th. atgorjlhn dc$ib.d ,bovc, s:
Julon Do'. - ?{51545
N
16525 1155?60000
(r
5.t)
Using Uis rim. arsumcnr th. @Bhcrio! ot rhc dh. *n6 d.*ribing rh. twr
c@'dinar.s is do.c (chapo -Touza
ed Chaponr t99t) s dieled in aniclc 2.2
StF|| Fo..dipdc longirudcofth.
Moon us.2.2.2 ro2.2.5 ed suhdrut lh.ir
csulrsi.2.2,l.
Sr.F2r For cclipdc t.hu& of U. M@! E 2.2.? 10 2.2. t0 &d sub$nuE th.i
Bul{.in2.2.6,
St.Fl: For gec.nr.ic
dilllre of rhc M@n uc 2.2. l2 ro 2.2. | 5 ed subsritut
lh.nrcsulr.in2.2.1L
5t
DE to lh. nodotr of thc ob6*d. th. diual .nd lhe mual motior of thc Eatth.
poiilior
of E.y objer in th. sky is afrctcd by 0!.
phcmmn
of Abcmdon- Th.
followinS @cid.ntion is only for rhe Eaih'Moon
pls.t.ry Ab.dlion sd do.s lol
includ. the dimal nolion of thc ob6*er (W@lad & Cl.mcnce, I %6).
S1.t-4r CORREC'TION FOR ABERMTION
v-y4.000 t 9521-0.0&nl059.skQ 25
1177
198 9\)
12
5.2)
U- U-0.40001 754t31h(183 J
+48J202't)
R- R
+
0.0708.C6Q 2 5 + 177 I 96. 91r)
Fimlly a 1he lrue quinox of ft. d.y and dE mcm quinox of lhe dly de
difiedt dE ro thc phenom.non
ofNuiation the
F.is
cerdinab on nol be ob|dircd
without th nul'lion in lonS itudc
AV
and the nubtioh inobliquityAs.
St pS: CORRECTION FOR NUTATPN
(2.s.3)
(2_5.4)
a'r =l0r
't(y,
+ y:..)'si,{/,I" +/d'
'.
+/d'
'.r 'lo
r)
(2.s.t
Y=V+ L,t
12-5.6)
. -22.63928-0 0ll\+0.555'lo'
t.r
-0,0141'l0j
r
tl
(2.5.7)
^'
=lo
I
'I(.,
+,'
'.).
cdko) +
/,r'
.
'
+rdr
..).lo
1)
(2.5.8)
(2.5.9)
Tn v.lu. of
F
s,
!,'3
md G's Bd in lh.
qp63iont
ahovc tt!
gt!n in
thc T$1. 9 in Chlprcnr-Tooze 6d Chlpotrt
(Ch.pre -louz; &d Ch.pon!
l99l,pp.l9):
Oft. rh. @retion dE to .ubrion is dre onc my
so
ro 6trd da Eq@tori.l
c@dihal.s, the Rjght Asnsion d dd thc dcclin tion 6:
St.p6: EQUATOI.ULCOORDIANIES
"=r-'(
b. lalfl ifto @ounr so tb.t rhc
..iopoccnt.ic"
c@rdid., (coordin
ts relariw lo thc
posnion
ofth. ob*fr.r) nay be obl.iied_ In odd rcd5 rh !ffftrj oftE
..paraltd"
arc
to be t t.n inlo &count. Th Pdttd r i!
givcn
by:
c6(tpriio")Si4v)C6(U)
-.t4
Eps i t d) Si dlu
'l
(2.5.r0)
6
=
sn't
l3ih(Epsitm)Si"(v)cos(UJ
+ cB(Eptiron)sinei (2.5.
I I
)
Thc* re rh. nle cqubri.l c@'dinar6 of lh. Men wnh EfcEn.. b th. toe
cqulor of $e dare ahd the trua dyunical equioox of the dar_ Th$ m stiu lhe
L
s.oqtic
c@diMl* md lhc afr.cr of lhc
D6nion
of lh ob*rcr on rh. glob.
is
ycr
ro
12.s.tz)
wh@ 4 ir rhe
gcatdc
dist4. of dE Mer HowEr rhis q@nry paml*
d.Fnds
on rhe Hoq Ancle (ihe
since ibe object cosad thc l@al n.ridim) tor whicn w. ncd
thc lad sidc@l tin. LST.
St
FTl
Fqhtlate tiw dgM't tlor t UTlq !h. dat. ,tdet cwidqatio,.
5l
I.
=6r4t-50'.54841+E tot84,.s12s66I,+0'.093104.r,
-0,.0000062.rr
(2.5.1t
gits
th. Grcawich Mcan SidE5l Ti6. .t oir UT of rhe drte. Th.n lh
Ctqwich Si&@l Tio. for &e rirc ug@nt for ih. rimc of ob6qvation is:
T
-
To
+ (UHR + (UMLN +USEC/60y60)a0.997269j66JJ
(2.5.t4)
'Iijen
fic Hou anglc at ihis moncnt ofthe Moon is:
H=T a
srep.sl tllec^ofPatala,
(2.5
rt
(2
5.16)
<2.5
t1)
If p is th.
gocrntic
6dius ofrh. Esdh,
p,b
ihe
S.ocenkic
hrirudc
of irE ohsftr ih rh. dsh1 .s6io! a' ed rhc dEtiEtjon d, aft.r
co@lion for prhllar
& obr.ined $:
@sd
-
p@sp'sin
rcos l/
d'="".I
ccd-pcGg'sinr@3tt
Gind -psin9
sintr)cosaa
Fin lly ro otltain rh. Lad Hdianrrl C@diDtcs A2inuth.nd rt AlriMe E
haY lhc followi.g lissfomalio$:
SrcFg: Azimu$
(2.5.tE)
54
(2.5.19)
.Aliitu& r=sinpUnrlcdp'cosr'costl (2.5.20)
This complcGs ihe der@inarion of dlipric, qurqid .d Oe hondnIll
@rdid6 of rh. Mor
2.6 COORDINATES OF TI{E SUN
Foi rhe d.t.mimtion of 0E c@rdiDre of rh. Sun on. p@..& in runy rhe
se say a for lhc @rdi!!re of rhc Moon.
slcFl: Scldt ple oroh6dvd (Longiru&
ed tilirud.). lcal d ..dd rine rhat
lqds to rh. thc egment t &coiding ro thc algolirhm dceiib.d lbove, s:
Julian Dde )451545 Ll
1652t0 I | 55?600000
12.6.1)
(2.6.2)
Using lhis lire argment lh connrudion of d.
(m.
eriB &enbins rh.
c@rdinates of the Elnh s givd
by Br.raSnon & Fdcou (1988) thc h.lie.nrric
coodinales of lhc E nb de obtained lhar ft lder trusfoftcd into fte gre.tdc
c@rdimles ofth. Sun s follosl
SreFl: For heliohllic dlipric lonsitud. of lh. Flnll' in lirc wit[ (2.2.19)
&d
2.2.20 w h!rc:
"e"(,,
"."6"
2^,
2""
.r^,
)
t r,,l
(2.6.1)
55
t,-'i^,-"(t"*",
\
c2.6.4)
(2.6.5)
(r5.6)
c2.5.?)
(2.5.8)
Q.5.9)
(2.6.10)
(2.6.l|)
(2.6.r2)
(2.6.|])
Ttr. l!l!.3 or A'', B'r .d C s for {i! d$n r 6ior c
dB
b, Mc.!i
(Meu!, 1998, A!p.ndir-[], pp. 4lt.a2t). Finlly t!. lt lio..onic loBitd. of |h E lt
2t
L,-ZA,s\8,+c,.
I
L.
=ZA,@l\tr+crt
)
!,.:r,cdt
r
+cir
,
i,
-.
t0'
Fd Fliptic ldintdc ofrlF E nh;
lut
Bo-Z/,.d\8,+c,.
l
,r
=:/,dF"
+c"4
,,
.
X,{"
"o.(r"
+c,r
J
St
p2:
Bt-244a.+c"r
I
8.
=
t,l,6.F"
+c"'
J
Tb v.lu.t of A's, B't .rd C'! 6. l} {oi.t nds tt
giE bv Mo.u!
(M6n, l9S, A!0.odtr-Itr,
!P.
4lS-421). Fidlv lh. t lbc.otic ldlidt of th' E ib it
$.Fl:
l0'
For lElioc.dric .lisl&e of th. E|nb
&-X,i"6!p"+c,r J
zt2 t
xr
-
I,r,6lp"
+c"'J
19 l
x,
=
t,,r"
o.[8i + c,'
]
nt
13
=
t,r"co't
"
+c"'
J
t0,
h=>an(fr]\B,+c{
)
lo/
xr
=
t,."co4p"
+c"'
I
(2.6.15)
(2.6.r6)
(2.6.17)
(2.6.rt)
(26.r1)
(2.6.19)
(2.6rI))
Q.62t)
TIE vds of 4.. B's !d C" b. lb eorlr Ei6 &
tih
b, M6!
(Mc.q,
199E, Aprcndix-lu,
pp.
4l E-421). Fi!.lly tlE helio@tric di!l&c. of th. Elnh
ZL,r
"
=
''id,
A!" Bs lnd C! N all in hdiM for looSin|d! , a|(l ldltt|d. t B6 od Ct c in ttdieE
.d A! i! .*!doiql uitr tu Llio.ldtc diaec X.
51
The coftcctions for Abe@don
md Nuradon de done in dc sanc way as St
p4
and Slep-5 bfore. Fi@lly
te conveBion
to rhc equaronat
@ordinates dd then b
horizonlal coordiDr.s
is als done lhc sme way 6 ws done ror fte Moon.
2.? RISING AND
SETTINC
For the d.refti@tion
ofprecise
rihings of rhc setrnE or nsing of& obFcl one
requircs pEcis
c.lstial
coordinales
of $eF objech 6i lh insht of1he occunine
ofrhe
phehomem
However!
these insranh
dre the points
ofime
that we rcqlic ro find our so
rhar a process
oasuccessive
appoxinadon
is needcd
lo ahv
al lhee dhes.
Such an
iterarive plocess
is necssry
b4au$
rhe objccis under con$dsaion
(lbe
Sun Md the
Moon)
significantly
changc
thei position
relalive to the ixed celsriat
sDhere durihg m
i.terval around
ha a ddy.
The whols process
shns sm m esehare
ror the ritoc of
'ransn
ofthe objed (ove.lhe
locatneridian)
wbich lben reads
ro,nlial
esrinars
for de
holrmghs
ar th. appoxihare
line ofrhe
rising orselling
or thc objer
The aB in facr
the csimares
for rhe tocat sidereal
rinres
ofdc phenonena.
rrco these esfnales
of rtE
sdceal
rimcsoflhe
eveors lhe unilecat
hean slarrimeardlheh
lhe toql lihescan
be
cakuhted.
ths. fist approximarions
fo! lhe ransii
rbe nsihg ed rbe sedne
are
obtajned
usinglhc
cetestirtcoordjnars
ofthe
obj(r evaluard
ar Oh. Ur. ar any poinr
or
rhe glob
and ao! any
otrhe evenrs
under considecdon
lhis nomeir ((]i,
Ul oay be m
cail.r
or a tater nomnr.
This is the rson lhar
the mrfial catcularions
are onlv
rppo\imaro
cdlcutduon
fo.hcle
appo\,dar.
,t..,
"t
,h.
.,.",. ,h.
."i..;;:.
coordnats
of thc objecr
hNc to bc catcutaled
asain and wholc.atculalions
henLiond
above
!! repealed
for bekr esrimates,
The details of rhe catculalions
arc describ.d
in
(he
followinS p@sraphs.
, .
Forrhe
sh. rhccompnaaon.
&e simptes
conp@
rornore
tor lhe Moon.
the
,(o
nme or hNir
ot rhe Sun can
be hirra
)
coturdered
ar t2-,tocsl
rzonc, rime
wnecas
for the
Moon n dEily vdi*.
Th6
Unileisat Tihe
or loql
tuir is simply 12
Zl wheE
ZT (ene
ne) is posirive
for the east lons,udq
ed nesarivc
for Resr
58
lonSitudcs. At uivcrssl rime 12 - zT wilt b. a dn of 0E se darc in O@wich s Ih.
loql dae. Th. rime dgu. for $is rine ed date is rhen fomulatcd dd th
coordiMtes offie sunar.obaincd. wlm m objdr h in rmsil irs hour dgtc (HA) is
zo ed its dsh ecdion (RA)
is se s ln. Loc.l Sidqdt Tin.
(LSn
siNc:
If JD is rhe Julie ddc for $e dly ar d' UT 0En wnn ,
= eD
_
2451545y36525
mcaur.d in Julian centuri6 lh. cenwich Mqn Sidc,@l Tide I,
{CMST) b
siven
by:
4
=6141-50,.s4841+8640184'.812866.r+0'.093t0,t.r:
_0,.000006rr,r
(2.7.t)
Thch for the observer ar rhe pla.e
vilh
eeographic
lonerrude
, (negative
fo. west
lonenud.s
a<l posirive
for rhe con) rhe ccnwich sid.rea!
lme ot r,asit is:
As3Ming dar lhe obj*t hs r{A
-
a !r da rine of t@t Fa6n
e.7,I ) shos thal:
p.?
l)
d= LSTt
(2.7.4)
(2.7.5)
UTU
=Tlt.0Or?l?909175
csTrr=LsTtr_L
And lhe SideEat fme elaped siNe rhe OL UT of fie dar. is,
T,=CSTtr_To
This rim. is rh.n converrd
b lh. UT by:
59
(2.7
6)
FimUy the coordides ofthc Ss
The pbc.s
bcgins
Urs0. The holr angl
HA
@ Edcdar.d for UTE
qd
0r followins cdculadon
I,sT
= a,
csnr-LST-L,
n_GSTtr-To
uTr=T,'L0027379093?5
So ihat theE is a dilferne
of lss drs a *cond b.tween
one v.lue
ofuTr ed ib.ext
[or lhe locat sunrise
and sunset
$c base vatue
$ the
UTtr ahd inirial
apptoxmalDns
for the sunnse k
UTr
-
6h = UTn and lhat ot tnc suMt
is UTr +
6r -
UTst. Dcpendi.8
on rhe tocat longirude
L, UTs ed Ursl nay ti.I on
pr.viou
or rexr
day csp.clively
so lbar a necese,y
dare adjutmeir
mul b. dorc. runher
ddpe.ding
on
the local lairude
il is funher possible
thar these pbenomcna
sihply
donl occur.
(2.1.7)
{2.7,8)
(2.7.9J
(2.7.10)
(2.7
r)
de c@rdi@res
of rh. Sun for UT6 (or
stt'ne
or nsing
ovcr a l@al
horjzon k
stEE
I
is rh
eeghphic laritude
of rh. obsedcr lnd lhe au nd of d. poinr
of sky is
a$med to b. ero, How.ver
owirS to th phdohcnon
ofEri&tion
a ,r.r, rhe Su dd s
pld.l
ae wll
b.low th. hode.
std rhcy
@ aru.lly
seo sdrjng
or risin8.
The
t\@g
rFe.t of EFadioD
is rhar . srat E@iN
visibte de ir ft hs gone
j4
e Dinu!s
below hori^n. 'Ilis
allitudc is kmh
s srand.rd
drilud. dcnoEo
s 4, ed is @nsid@.I
6t)
lo bc -50 N sords on aveas. f6r rlc Su, 0Ei itulud.s ihc affet of dE Ef4clion
and thc sni dian.ter bo$. For a mor accwtc valuc the &rul s.mi dimet r SD,
rhould be calculal.d fmo dE didea of1h. Su ed suh.actcd tioh d..veagc afi*l
of Glhction, fte chag. in l.hpdl@ in ihe niddle laritDd.s my lary thjs by @ud
20 seconds of tinc ed tbe baromctric pres6res
nay caue a veiaion of dother 12
*con& of time. Ho{v.r 6 rhcse varia{otu cd nol LE d.temired a priori the avcEgc
afects m co.nd.ed in crlculalions.
Unog fte $..drd slrjM. ?01h. hou anqlc oflh.
object is then eloluared as:
Thus rh liBr dppro\,maion for lhe rhe ofrisng of$e obled h:
T,
=UTO -
E.
And $at ofrhe s. in8 isl
r-Ta+J6O.98564TTy'15
,1 or
I
e rlEr l@at lFu ogte
(21.t
4
12.1tJ)
12.7.\5)
4d ihc &imurh of th. obj..t is
T,
=Wtr+
Ho
Thes. e only !h. n6t app,oxinarion3
Esp.ctirely.
Fomularing
ihe lin a8unors
of lbe Su ha\e b be catculared
aglin. The
borh
t
&d
I
h6 ro be obained
as:
(2.7.t4\
for lh tines of swise ahd the sunsel
for .ch of fien Fpaan.l,
rh. c@rdinar.s
Grecrwich sid.El rinc orrcspondjns
ro
12.1.t6)
Si"At
=
Sinpstnq +C6e,Cot6,CotH,
Th. cordiG for rhe tuirg ! siring d:
(21.11)
ao
=E -
0-2n5.
t
-10134''
qb.G
r is dc pa&Id
of rb. Moon
eivd
byi
AT,
=
p
s $. g@eniric
dist ncc oflhe
(2.7
l8)
Adding these A?_, ifto rh. appropriarc I, givcs ibpDvcd valu.s
tunhq inpovd r:lucs
catcutal. $e @.dinaas of rhc Ss fd
&d rcpeat (2.6. r 2) ed (2.6.1
8) ro obrain lh. UT for d wau.
lor Ue Moon rhc i$uc is mt! complided s af.r of
panlta
h signiticor.
Th !ffrr ofrcfddjon
h ro dcc'le the anirh dist ne !o rhar the objed is visibl.
dei
if n is th@Edcat gonc
dom $. horizon
bln rhe aflccr of pa6
d b to inc@sc rhe zcnid
d6t fte e lhe obj.cr is wlt .hovc lhc horj@n dd n a!,p.4 ro Mvc et (or
rcl n*n
still), Thus for fie Moon the si&dard attjtude is
Civcn
by:
(2.1.te)
(2.7.20)
obsrvr
&d X, rhe
g@ce
ric dislece otrhe Moon, p
62
\2.7.21'
dd ., is th. pold mdids of the
E nL The resl of thc calculatiohs for rhe irlnsil, rising ed lhe stling of lhe Moon arc
th. se d 1hat for thc Sun.
r is th equrorirl ndiu5 of the Eard,
2.8 I{EW LUNAR CRESCENT VISIBILITY PARAMETERS
A nunber ofpdrameleB have been corsidered imponanl for deteminin8 *belber
the new cr$ent would bc lisible al a lcaiion oo the Eanh oi ool. Tbese weE briely
di*u$ed ad lblcd in thc beimins of chaper l. Once tr tiD. of th. Binn or a
paniculd Ncw M@i or th conjucrion hs ben delmined a numb.r of
p,@eGB
@
rquned to h dt mincd. Th* includ. (i) Tinc of Suroet T".
{ii)
Tinc of M6Mr T..
(iii)
LAcTn
-
Ti (i!) Bcs| Time orvisibiliry Tr,(!) Ase ofrh Moon ar Tb. AcE. (vi)
Arc of visior ARCV, (vii) Reladle Azimulh DAZ, (viii) Arc of Lishr
(Elonsatioi)
ARCL.
(ix) Ph@ ofcrs.nt P, md (x) width ofcrcsent w. In vhw of the di$u$ion
ofth. s&onomic.l alSorirhns ed rehniqud in tbis chaptd the* circmst nc6 de c-
co$iderEd ro .xploE compurdiom of vdbN psmre6 $al e inponmr ao. $e
lnolysis of l@al visibility oflh ncs lunr cr.$nt on $e day ofconjuhdion or d. doy
The fiBl of th.s paludd ii rh. coiju.tiotr of lhe M@. wnn ihe Sm or tn.
rime ofBinh ofNcv hootr. The alsdirlm for lh. conpuraion of
(his
tim. w6 pE*nl.d
in anicle 2.3. U3ing $is algoddm thc riic of
g@centic
binh of lhc Ns m@n is
obtaind. The algorilho tates yee
s input and giles lhe Julian datc oflhe tine of the
binn ofnew boon. Il is imporrmt ro nole $ar the i.pur
iiyai
is ior a whole iMbs, it
is o Eal nMb.r alculatd on the bdb of lhe expcled dale of th. New M@h. For
insran@ the Nry M@n in $e nodn ofApri!,2007 i. dp.ctd msd l7s d.y of thc
,e0
= 2047
+atJ0+t7)/J65
63
An |pDDxiE.r. valu. of "'*"
wirh e G@ of f.e d.,s m*! wll. If UE "yd" it r
vholc nmba $c algoriihn
si!4
lhc ,!lie D.rG to! $. Nd Men th.t @6 cl@n
ro thc b.gimine ofthc
!d".
otuc rhc ,ulid D.rc of$c binl ofrlE Nq M@n cl@n b lh. .xpdrcd d.y ha
b..i found tb. m. b inni.lly conwn.d lo lhc UniEEal rift dd darc ed
coneqE ly rhc le.l lih. and ddc. For ln.s convffirioE ftom Julis Dat. to rh.
le.l rim. ed drlc th. tehniqu6 of rhc .rricl. 2.4 6 u$d, Bcfoc thb im. lh. Ew
'lun.rion" h6 nor b.!un s no
qNnid
ofrlr
visibiliry ofrhc Bw l|!w cEghl on rh.
A6ins bcfoE this rin . B.foE this tin. only th.'bld cG*dl" ce b. lat wn b.foa
rh. sutuie on rhc dry of onjudion or a dly o! tvo b.foa-
Ar dr rimc ot@dudion dc M@n n.y b. &rwhcrc wi$in . strip ot widd loo
18 eud dG elipric, i-.. wirhin 50 9 of rhc Sun. ap.n fom |h. ecume of . slar
dlips $G
"@.nl'cxisl5
bul dE lo irs.xlrEh. clo*ncs ro lh.
slai!8
su ir co nor
b. s..n ed ha ndcr ben sn,
Thc ndr inpondr
p.md4
is $c l@.1 lim. of suel ed th. M@n $t Th.*
can be conput d for ey day of lhc
yd
Bins th r.chniq!.! of $c anicl. 2.7. Howvr
$ce rehniqEs
'lquiE
th. dctmin ion of th. c@diEtcs of both lh. Sln &d th.
M@n for D dFckd rihe of lrsi! dsing dd s.ltinS of dh of thd. Thc c@diDL3
of th. su !rc obl.incd usi.s dE VSOPE? fi6ry of Brdagnon ad fEncou
{or
a
sihplificd v6ion
sivcn
by MeE) &d bricfly
prc*ntcd in aniclc 2.2 Dd 2.6. Sihildly
rh.
D@iF
@rdidtcs of thc M@n c oh.in d aing th. ELP2000 of ChrFo -Tot
ed Ch.pont
pr*nrcd
in dticL 2.2 and 2.5. Th. .oddinal6 ofrh. Sun &d lh. M@n
lhis wr e th.
SMtric
sph.dcd pold c@dinrl.s
(dis1@ P. alatial lonsilud. r
dd d c.l.nial l! rud. n. And @n cdon for .bdnlion thc sc e lMtfomd lo
th. g.on.rric .q@torial @tdidlcs, dght s.cioi o &d &cliDlion 6. Firlly th.
roFcc'tric dSlu e.sion ed d.cliMdon !r! oh.incd itld.s irto cosi&tstion thc
d[dl! of
pdallq. Using lhe local siddnat timc tb. @rdinas e then trdsfomcd inlo
Ioc.i hori@ntd @ordinalcs dr. ahitud. ud &imuth,
Once $e tine of leal sunsct
(T)
and th.t of Moon sr (I.) d obt in.d lhe
o@ctcr LAG = Tn
-
Tr is elculatd. Unlc$ lh. LAC is posnive for the New Moon
dd ncSrdv. for old Mmn th cFsent cd ncv.. b sen.
Using rnc .cliptic @rdimLs oa lh. $n ad rh. Men E alculared for th. T6 thc
egutodal @rdimrs of rhe two bodics
(d.,4) dd (d,,t,) e c.lolat d usins
(Me$,1998):
s t h\^
)c
os\r
) -
Tdnl
P)sth(E)
Suppoe
(..,,r.,r.)ed
t,.j,,r.)
d ftc
p@ie dislanes, aliflic lo!8it!d.
sd th. lalirudc of rhe M@n and 6c Su, Esp.ctivcly. af@d ro the ft4 .qtinox of
rhc dD. or sunst at any lMtio. on $c Elnh with tftstiat coordinaies(1.r) on rh.
day, or day aftcr. lhe binh ofNew Msn (al$ oll.d the Csenlric Coijliction oi th.
Moon).Thefi'slsteDinthedelemimtionofih.visibililyoflhnevlunarcresce,on
thc day of conjuncrion or the day affer, is io dcternihe lh actual dy.anical ihe (TD o!
TT) T", oflhc coojuction. Ncxl one requires considcrins the local rines ofsening ofth.
Sun &d tb. Moon. Le! Tt dd Tn
(Coordimi.d
Univdsal Tine TUC) b th. tihes of lh.
l@.1 sunsel dd the nooi.eq vi|h Tj
<
T..
(2.8
)
o.8.3)
cas6)
st(d)
=
si,,(l)co(.J + codB)st()st(r)
wl@d, fi. nd emid is in 0r s.
qudtul6 t, ed
',
the obliquily orrh.
dlipri. is d$ adjugd for lh. d, . ed thc b.9 rine Th. tsal Hou Atgl. H is th.n
oblaincd tion rhc difreren@ ofth. l@l Sidftal Tiru
(Zsl) 4d th. rishl 6c.nsion
Tnis finally
gjves
lhe l@d nonzontal c@dinal6 amulh
(,1) $d the allilud. (ir) bv:
65
ranlAt
=
(2.8.4)
c6(Ir)s,,{t) rz,(d)co{l)
(2.8.t
And adjusi.g for lhc rciacdon 6d $e heigh of $e obFNd's l@aiio. above *. Id'l
rbc topoentic @oilinares
(,r,,r")ed (,i,,7t,) of the Moon dd fte Sun. esFclivtrv
In alnost all lhc nodels for cdlicst m@mid
ins $c ancidl d w'll ts ibe nod'm'
ln. dir@. of eim hs (DAZ
=
lA,-A-1.
@lled El.tive @'ihuth) ard thn of
aldrudB
(ARCV - ,"
-
t.. cdl..l m of lision) d shoM in rhe lisr I,
'r
the iimc or
loc.l 3uEl T, sd/or al lhe b$l Tb
Play
a vilil ole:
As ihe dgulu sePar.tions invol!d b.iwen $. Sutr md lh. lunar cesenl at
$6. dnes @ sdaU,
wi6ou1 dEh mt th. e of lighr (ARCL) h
giEn
bv:
(2.8.6)
si,(r)
=
sr,(c)si'(6) + c4(d)ca(t)c,r(fl)
Wh.@ for larSct ugl6 or moF ffi.rc Gults th. d of lieltr should b. eldl.Ld
ARCL = cdr(co(r-)co{rr,)cd(tra -
s,'(r.)si(4))
(2 E ?)
66
Fi&28!
A@d tun lhc Ft.tiv .rlmuh tbc !D of villon and th. e of lighr Uc cdlqir
for dli6r
ytuibrliry
of t|ld
qqc@t
rlqoits io irL ie c@li<lddio t.qbcr of
othd
p!@der.
One swh
pmcr{ is thc A8. of th. M@!
(ACE)
d!6n.d as thc tiEe
Gl4a.d .iG th. h4 cor{l|!cdo. til lt. lim of ob...Idtm Anothq idDoiird fr.io. i.
thc Wi&h of CF$.dt
(VD
fin d.!.nd! on rhc dida@ of fie Moor
'IrE
gtel
aoom@ Al-gltllti of Brsldd hod rdi4d lt iopott c of @'@l {idth I
thou$nd
r.s.go
(BdiD
lt7) At l[. dili.c oftlc MM nom Ot c|tih wi6 nm
eud O34 nillid 16 !o Nutd 0.4 mlllid b! th. leni{i!rcEr of th lunlt die
{rh. Am 15 I! oinu..lo 16.5 e ninn .. Tbut if{F Moot! is clo.d lo F.flh.l
ih. tim. of ohdarior th! cn .!nl *ould b wid6t &d thu brightn wid0r of lh.
s!.c.d i3 din dy
FDpo.tidtl
lo lt Pte
(P)
ofih.ltloon
thd i! t tmlid of rtc
ARCL:
lr-cg?aRcLn
P-
2
Ad tholhc c!!!6r width is givm bt:
(2.E.8)
"='"[
(289)
Sinc. ihc acienl dd thc nedieval dnes {E ACE, thc time elapscd siie fie
birlh oI New Moon lill thc sunsi of lh. d.y in quesdon, w4
eo@lly
coNidecd a
signindt p&Metr. Howev!, in ihe tinc of MuslinvABb $lronomrs
jl
had already
b.en c.lied tal 0E ACE is nor a nD&hc al padndcr, stll thc pardet* is
inporlrnl 1o calculat. This is bccaue oflhe fact that depending on rhe aordinats of the
Mooo dd lhc seaens at lime a very
"young'
cEsanl ce b. ee.. Amongsl bo$ rbe
anatu s vcll a rhe prcfcssioBl Grronom.u $@ is aluyr a conFlilion for havinS
$e ord lo s the
"youneesr"
crcsr eiihd wilh oFical aid or wilhout i1.
Amongst the early nodls ofnew cc*.!t vnibility asltunomeB sed $c !.larion
betren rh. rcldrive altitudc (ARCV
=
alriMc of rhc Mmn
-
ahilude of lhl Sun) dd rhe
rclrriv. uimurh
rDA-/ -
e'murh of Lh. Su
-
uimdh of de M@n' Th.
rso
parmeleG arc slill consideFd inporl&l as if DAZ =
0. the crcscenl is venically abole
$e point of 3uEel dd und.r such a cncM$dce the youg.st a @ll as lhc thimesl
crc$qt cd bc ecn. Wirh lugd DAZ wles only oldtr md thc thictd ccs @ be
How lhick or lhin is lh cEsenl al any lime cs b ddemined once lhe
s.pmriotr
(clonsaiion) btwn rhc su ed $c Mmn hd bccn dchi'cd usi.g (2 8 ?)
sith nhr horizontal coordin.les or rh quatorial aordintle! This elongation or Atc or
LiSht (ARCL) hads to lh. Phde (P fiaction of the illuninatcd lund disc facing fie
obsdr) of lb. Mftn using
(2.8-E).
Ho*ev.a the lhicloN or $e widlh (w) or rhe
c..rral
pon ol the creot des not only dcFnd on thc
phe of the M@!,
't
also
depclds on rhc Elnh'Moon disrece, rh. sMc cm be ohaitcd usins
(2 8 9) Dte besr
inc of lbc crcsdt visibihy sqggned by Yauop is criical fot siShting lhc crcsn1
u'dd mdgjml conditions &d ce be @mpurd sine (2 E l) sisndne i5 crirical when
68
THE SOFTWARf, HILAI-OI.CPP
In this worl( a softwde k develop.d for the odysh of rhe fisr visibiliry of new
lue crc*dt dEr is simil& io mturc 6 rh. M@'calc by M@ur (Msru,
2001) dd
Accurare Times by odeh (odcb, 2006) but rhar can b. lscd ro compae aI rhe
compur.rional and thc ecie.l dd Doden visibiliry nodls. T1| lisdng of the poelm
Hilalo|.cpp is giyco
i! ApFndix 4. Tn progm
fnrca d brifly de*dbed b.to*:
Th. prog@
LinAnal ucs ih&e dala filcs, rwo for input ed one for oulplt. The
two inpul dala il6 e
(he
files For.ad.rv thal conrains rhe padrcrE
4,
,, and., (s
described inanicle2,6 lbove
).
The
pdmetcs
oflhis dala file de adtu8d in rabtes2.l
(A) lo 2.1 (F) in appcndix 2.
'Ih.
ol]],er itpnt tie is tlc .tp2MA& rhat conlaiE the
paluercs
as de$rib.d in rhc anicle 2.5 above. The pdmeles
of rhis dara file d
dds.d inbbles Ll (A) 10 1.3 (D) in appendix L
Thc third fiI. u*d by lhe prcgrd
is
*..t
lhal is optional dd is n*d only vhen
fie Esults of fi. cobput2rions in Oc preetm m EquiEd to be sbEd. Tl!. vcGion of
lh progr.n
Hilalol givn in appendix 4 hs the lile nanc scrrrgaA, rhar sbres lhe
onpulalional Esulrs of a sinelc .x@urior of $e prcgrm. fte i.fomations stoBt in
o. No., rhc obsenarion nhber thar n
scncally
digned by Odch (odeh,
2004).
Date. datc of obwatioo,
Long., th. longitudc of 0E
ple
ftom whE rh. clesnr is ob6eN.d
Latil., th. ladMe oflhc ple
Eld., the .lcvarion of rh. place
above s! levcl,
T.mp., cnimred rcmFdturc of$e riDe of obswarion,
Hmid.. .stibaied relative humidny oflh.
plac.
at rhe rine of obs.Nadon
S@.i, lhe l6al tinc of sNet
69
9. JD of Conjunct, rh Julie Dat of the binh of.q M@n or the lsr
10. As., lhc a8c ofrhc Moon.r rh besr tim. e@ding 10 Yallop (Yallop, 1998),
ll. L{C, the diffrcncc berNcn th Moo. *r dd rh sunsel. it minucr,
I 2 ARCL, dc ot light or elonsetion of lhe M@n fion th. su at the b.st tme, in
ll, ARCV, the eladve altitudc of fie crc*ol .t the b.st 1ioe, it d.crees
1,4. D,AZ the rclaiile @ibulh ai the best time, in degrc.s,
15. Widtb, the cenlral widlh of lhc Fsrnt al bcs1 rime, in dc minues.
16. q-val. rh. visibihy ptue1q dcfined by YalloP (Yallop, 1998) lo h.
discssd in drail in chapl.r 4.
17, Phi+della, fie dglc thal lhc.cliPlic dalcs with lh venical on th. wslem
hoii2on, in d.sE.s.
I E. Mlalit. I,loo. s 4liptic latiiude in d.8e'
19. Mlongi! Moon's.cliptrc lon8itudc. in d.gtus-
20. Slongil., Sun\ *liptic longitud., in dccres
21. M-SD, dgule s.minid.tcr of th. M@|L in @ oinut s.
22. As-Fac! e of sep@lioh fsctor dfined in l.ler chap1e6, in dcgrc6
21. R-En, cslimatd Rip.n $ Fucrion vatue dclind h chapler I
?4, R-A!er, averas Ripeness funcrion valu dellned in chapl{ 3
25. R-actual, acbal Rip.ns Fsction
vtlue dcnled in chapls 3
26 DR+s! $e diflecnc of R-rclualand R-Enimaled
27. DRnc! thc difrccne of R-a.tu4l ed RnErage
28. MoonS M.g, Moon\ mogniiude al the besl lne of Yallop,
29. Lio-Mae(lin), lh. LiDiting Mt8nitud. of the stv ned |ne cs6t s
defioed by Schaff.r
(Schaefd, 1988b) aloDs wnh ih Yallop's besl dne in
udveEal dne dis.ts.d in cha .r 4.
30. SI'(DME8),
tbe univ.ssl tine wh.n the conrrdt ofthe stv bdelhes dd
rh. Mmn\ bljehBt
just
tum in favou of thc Moon dd 0E ditrGnc' of dE
70
I_
32.
A3 thc .xcution oflhe
proghh
b.gins
nonlh, y.&,
longirude, Iaritude od cl.vation
esrinated ttmperaturc ahd estimrd r.larilc
iniliared by rh. lunction tzrdd,r.rtnd callcd by
m.gnitude of the Moon dd $c linning m.gnitutle of rhe sky ai thal monen!
B6(Dmag), fic divdsd rimc *h.o U. @ntrasl of rhe sry bnSh,ES ed
th. Moon\ bdghret is b6r in favou of rhe Moon ald thc diflcn@ of $e
ha9irude of rhe M@D ed thc lim'ring m.gn'nrd. ofih. sly al rhar monen
Lsr(Dmae), ihe univdal tme whn rh conrmst orrhe sky bnshhess ed
tbc Moon\ biehd is lal io &vou of th. Moon ad rbc difcrcn@ of $e
nagoirude ofthe Moon ad rhc liniring magnitude of$e sly ar th.r momenr.
ir prompts for ob*Nadon nMb.r, dale,
abole sea lvel of th phcc
and $e
humidiiy of lhe
place.
This plompr is
the tufuri,on nt i n n u t i
"..
Ticn rh. prcg@
c,lls for $e tundi@ math .h4tg.. This tunc on n6r
ddmins lh. Julia Date of dE dDc of n.esr @njwdon or rhe bini of ncw M@n
crlling thc fucrion /t ]@_D@r. Th. tu dion r'r_r@_r@r is bdcd on .tgorithn due
ioMeeus(1998)discqsedinadicl2.3abovc(fomu162.3.1.ro2.3.25).'Iletuncrion
rorr, cna,a. $en calh the tu.ctior renir&rr lhal dekmines the tihcs of lhc sunsel
dd the Moon set tttroud fiD.rioB tun-q.t 6d mon_se.Ih tunciions rzu_r.r sd
tutu_sa t. b6ed on lh alsorithn dhcus$d in aaicle 2.7 abov.. Dr functio.
rdttirgt.le calculars rhe b6r rimc for casent visibitiiy aeording io @ndnion du
to Yallop (1998) di*ussd h a larq cha .r Tnis is followd by @hpul!fion of the
Julie Dat 6d dB Exlcndd Juli@ dat corcsponding ro rhe best rim. 6ing rh
tunctiolirri.ndrl. rhat t bs*d on rl| algorirhn pEdred above in anicl. 2.4. This
Iesds ro fomulation orlhe rime {sMn1GIs dipused in adiclc 2.1) fo' rhc Elp2ooi)
md VSOPS? lheories for the c.lculation of coordimres of lhe Moon and ihc Su
respectively. Th.e coordinates e calcul.r.d according b the algorithDs in anictes 2.5
dd 2.6 iopl.m.n&d in fucdoB a@r_.ou.t ed t\. su"_.erd Bpeilely. B.fore
7l
rh*.@rdin ls @ c.bdat.d th. etrc1oftuhio. dd the sidd.d tihc coftspondins
10 zdo hou uiversal tide, for the dat consideed. are calculted using the tuncdois
,ttttid ad srl_tiw, E#iv.ly, The infomatioi/d.tA thu fe
Scn
nted is displayed
od *'.n usins rhc t$aiqs ouinlo, rtbpt
t
scootd (.@fitn^.s of 1he su.) ed
dbrldr_n rord
(coodinatcs
of tbe Moon).
Finally, fhc tunction nainrcutir. crLtl^r.s md dbplaF on $en aU rhe
visibiliiy parmetcrs dircused in
pFiou.rricle (2.8) &d lisred ss l0 to 16 dd 2l
abov. in lnc clm anicle. O$d pffi.r.c (l7lo 20 dd 22 1o 12) re @mpui.d in
orher functions (r? to 20 in tunction r@r_cMtt a\d 22 to 32 tt liM'si\ brl
displayd alo.g with these
pdmet.rs.
All thc
Ddmd.s
lisbd as I lo 32 d wiren lo
the outp dda file J.r"8ear in nmloulrro4, (pamrs
I to 29) ed tim._nnse
(p@ncle6
30 to 32), Tle tundion /ltr,r,,? is ih reproducrion ot Scba.fer's pog,aD
(Shs.fer,
1998, Bogd, 2004) lor delediiirg th liniting hagnitude of dy
point
of
The Esl of the functions used in lhc
pregrm
aE lisLd dd briety dcscibed
/.ar.r..l
chects lhe1hd the y.e
u$d is lcap yed (ac@rdi.8
ro crcsorid
rule) or rcr? lfrhe yd
is lap lhc tuncdon rerums I orhfli$ O.
.orwt_r'ru convens an eelc inro dcgres, arc minutes do arc *cond3.
.,,rzt_rtu convens lime in hours into hoE, ninuIs &d s*onds.
hodlw
Btms rh. @jnd.r .ff4 dividing th inpur b, 160. 6is fucdon
h 6ed ohain 6e mst. in the tuB 0 deercs b 360 degE6.
pamt
calculat s rh. afr*tl ot
psrlts
in i8hl acEion ad decu.adon
to
cct
th. ropcdFic ddr as1fuion 6d d.ctinarion and is bas.d
on step 8 of alsori$n in anicte 2.5.
itr._r.. rhrcud ,rr.-do,
,nd d"c_sc thrcugh d.._r,,: Ttcs. tundions altows
chdging tine (al
ld.b ofhourr ninure ad ssnds) and dare
(at
lev.ls ofdale dd honrh).
72
In fer sihin lhc tuldion di.i@{tt. lhc
prcgr&n
Hil.lo! ha
^
do-|9kL l@p
rhar remiDrd *tEtr rhe iddrifid za,r rcccivB V'
(pl*in8 dld le,) fion thc Br.
If my oths key is prcsed lh.
pregm
rmdN in wait ndq PEsing
Panicdd
k
ls
a
is obvioN in the er.l{ar. cohbilsriotr vdio{s&lions e iniii.ld likc inc@ing or
deoeasiry tim dd datc, chegilg tmpdal@ or hlmidity o. wiling to th output nb
r.rngafir. bitiad.g any ofthFc.ctioro Gp..G th. *ftution ofall lhe conpulalions
wilb new timc, dale,lcmp.dture or huDidily. In cd. ofpre$ingP all lh data is winen
ro fie out file s.r'"a4.t in one lin a.d
prc$ins
4
Mit s only rhe $lected !alu$ oI
tine and conesponding value of thc diffelcnce of doo.\ magnilude and $e liniling sky
masnitude. Tlese fatues of thc
progm
Hihlol
(varyin8 dne, dale and !@lhcr
conditio6) nEle tbe
progrm
norc dynoiq .s compdd lo Mooncalc of M&ru
iMdd,
2001
)
ad A@uai. TiF. of Odeh
(Od.h, 2006).
In view of lhc
prcbls
of d.rminiig th. dlr of the fi6l sier ing of new llld
c@.nt in this cnaFd w cxploEd.ll thc Mjor 6pet of conp arional cForls. Th*
IE sm!.ndylicd dyn.Dic.l lhddcs VSOP87 and ELP2000 d'at dryib. th.
motion ofplseB loud thc Su sd oflh. M@n reund the Eanh. The* e m.
mosl rent dd nost accunt. avlilabl. looh for the delmi.ation ot
ephendb oflhc Sun dd th. Mootr.
Ite ateonlhm lhat lelds lo lbe dct min.lion oftb. dynmical lime ofde lud
@njucdor or lh. binh ot ncw Moon.
Tn pmblms
ssociarcd wi|b th. dynamical &d uivEal lim ed related
isues. Wiihout having a @mpl.l. kno* bow of lhse isues apprclrjalc tbe
argmcnt for the d.lminadon of lud ed dE $l& cmrdimres co not be
1)
TL dl irpde dgsitor
tu d. ddroni4 m. tr..r,r.l od locd roc
dn . o{ th. @ rd 6. md* lllth! s* d6itr of ti.
dD.r lb
pcr@i
!rd&d tflt t
Fb&o
of di- dShdrS o{ rtr
le or*dt ci rdt!. da-!.d.
lrib I tdrwh ||I&tbt
r
of d| 6..c tt{itr d .|6mi.l G.hiS..
erl .ltdl6or | .orio!..
F!!im
ir
redd
b &r .U t ,.w lull
Tto 1b ct# &ir_.r
.ll tt cqdrilrl ,trrit r@id.d eith it.
plobLa
ofib. d.olloilirS tl. dry of6rr
jihli!8
ofew lurt.!..c.d
71
Chapter No. 3
ANCIENT, MEDIryAL & EARLY
2OTH CENTURY MODEU;
For calendarlcar purposes
.s we as an Interes0n8 and chalte.ging
aslbnonlc.l p,obleh,
jn
rhe hbrory ofmanktnd there have ben constsrenr efiorts
ro delermano when and whererhe nek tunarcro@nt wll be lrst seen, t]e,esutrs
of these ealons have boen numeroG 6nd have been based on dtlle.ent technlques
6nd tools.lhose results can be temed as
't
odets/Crireria tor the oadtest vtltbi|lry
or nw runar cfescenr,. Most ot the earty modets are de ved dtioc y
trom the
obsoations
of the new tunar crescent and are enDnjc.tin natlre. Some are based
on thorellcalconslderations.
MGI tmpon.nt of these eftons hctud6:
)
The Aabyroni.n rule of thumb
.when
the age ot the .ew Moon is 24
hooB only then the crescent can be seen,. fte redlscovery of the
more mrrhematrc.lly
lnvolv6d crfte on ot Etong. on +
LAG
>
21.
lhal w6senunciatedw
beforechisrian or.
(Fatooht
et at, 1999).
Tho cdena deveroped In ihe medtevat periods
by Mus ms/Adbs
ba*d on obsenarion,
sph6ri6t vtgonomtry and lhe ephemerid of
lhs Moon and the Sun (8rutn,
1977). This happen.d as earty .s rhe
The exploration or Foth ngham (1910),
Maunda (1911)
and orheF
ln the fi6l quarter
ot the twontl6th @ntury. These effort! were moG
ot slallstil in natur based on th obseda ons mos y
in Room by
llr)
75
In rhb ch.pter we stan wtth a b,t.f dtscGston on retativety Ecent G
di<ov.ryofthe Babllorlan cdrorla for tho 66t 6t vbtbltty ol new tunar crcscenl. A
sel or obsenatlonal d.ta solectld from rhe r*6nt tlteratore ts lsed to examtnerhe
ments orlhe Sabylonlan cnbrbn.Thts ts folowed by 3ome sphencat trigo.omeuc
conslderations ihat are llgnlllcant tor th condilloN on whtch the vlsibitiry or the
invisiblllty of th6 nw lunar'o6cont haydepend.
On lhe basls of lhe t,igonom.tdc cofttdhtion the Lunar Ripene$ funclion
altrlhuled ro rheArabs rs.xplored
and a tvodlfled Lunar Ripeness raw is suggested
and examrned in vlew ot th ,.ordod oEerva{ons h rhe dara sel men oned
above. Thi3 Is dono uslng iho curient k.owtedgs, loots 6nd rechniques and the
.6uts of rhls erprorarlon ar6 present6d.
a[ codputational wolk ts done Gtng the
In the end ot the ch6pter the
gfrpktc.t
modeL due io moden asldnomeG
olrhe early 20s century ar. retsttd and compartson ot ihe same is done wilh the
Babyronlan and the medievat mod6ts.
BABYLONIAN
CRITERIA
No lrisonobery or spheriqt rrigonomelly existed till rhe halheharical
developnenb in,\rabia in lhe 9u dd rhc lorh cenlu.y AD; the probteh w6 o.ly
descnbed i. rems ofcertain obseNable paranercs
shown in rhc Fieure No Ll I in lhe
dcienr and lbe early Chrhlian e6.lfdny visibitiry $ireion was deduced musl have been
basd on the observations and nedsulemenrs ot rhes observable qumtities.
The figure
snows lhe sesiern bolizon a dnc when the sun S h6 gon r deerees bebw norizon
(the sole deprc$ion) and rhe crcsenr at M isjusr visible. AB is rhe equaror lhat nakes
an agle q,
$e geogBphical
latitude oflhc ptace, wirh rhe nomat ro the horizon. SM n
rhe sepeadon bteen lhe Sun tud $e tvl@n comhonly knoM s
.@
of lishl. and
16
abbelialed s ARCL but shoM 6 aL in th. figue. SD is the difidce b.isFn the
alrirudes of the su dd rhc Moon lnow
q
"dc
of dcs@nr" dnoid 6 ao
(ako
call.d
.e
of vision dd abbrevi.tcd s ARCV). Not that the aidnrde of lh. Esenl abovc
hodan is,l $ lnal a, = r
+
,l As rh.
ooitr(
A is al lh. se altnude 6lhc cFsenl dd
B at lh. sme depBion d th. su, A8 is .quabnal $pdti@ b.teen the Sun 4d rhc
Moon called
"arc
of *pdrion ' ad is .qnivd6t b rhe Moon*r
-
SuNr tig shoM in
the fisld d as The fig@ cd bc u*d to h.aua fi 4.s ofdesenl ed liehl for a
Sivcn
lalitude
I
once an accurare enough .phemetdes shows the dc of sepdalion and
wheE to loot for the dimly illminaled cBcent againsl lhe briehl evening twiliSht.
lig No.3.1.1 Angule Pamcters as@ialed wilh sighling ofnew lunar crescenl
l, modem tines the earliesi Ffee.cc of ey syslemalic study of the earliesi
sigbring of nev lud cEs@nr is thrt du. rolhc.inShm
(Fothainghd. l9l0). He refe6
ro l2s enlury Jryish phildopher
Mcinoni<16. Asordine to lorhcringhm. the work
.ppearcd in the TEti$ by Mlimonid.s (Moshc bcn Md@n) o\ \\. SahcliJi.otion oI
th. Ntu Mo@
0",islre''.'rotalt:
Scfq z.hnim
-
Hilhot Kiddush H'Hodcsh, I l?8 fial
77
wA diislaled by S. Oddz 6 Crlr of Moituntd.s, Boot Thr4, treatite Eigtu,
SmdiJicdtion ol the Nee M@a Yelc Judaic. Seris, volh. XI, Yatc Univesity
pE$,
No Hav6 CT, 1956). Maimodidcs mrk w studi.d by von Lifl.ow in
SiEunghberichk da Wiehu Altd.nie,
Math-Natrre, Cl6e,lxvi, (1872), pp.459-480,
ln his *ort Maimonides nak6 rh. snalLsl visible phe
ofthc M@n depqdenr on trc
variables, as claimed by Forh.in8hd. Th.se veiables bave ben temd ss rr? rr
etonAorion otthe Moon a\d tle aplbre.t ahgle of tision - F6\.noghe slarcs rhal if
by hgk ofrision Mai1onides m.es the diffeEncc of the Sun md the Moon in rc.irh
dirlaccs then th. nle of Mainoid6 .nd his om rule for hinimlm visibt. pb4
of
Moon ae ndly the enc Howevcr he f!fther says lhat Maimonides rute
sivcs
slidrly
lower oininun alliludes that could be duc tc, b.(.r ob$fring condirio.s in Jeruslem
lh& in Atbos. Unfodu.alely Fohednghah .dmik that hc could not sumcienrly
undedand Maimodis' dithmdiol nelhod dd has not
giecn
a dchited @ounl of rb.
same (Foihciinsham, l9l0).
Lder, Bruin(Bruin. 1977)gives a moe debiled eounrof any medievalatenpr
ol solving fie probln of findin8 sronomial onditiotu for thc fi6t visibility of
crscnl. De$ribinglhe Isl.mic astonomical procedurcs Btuin says $a1Al-Khurizini
gives
mathenadcal rules and rablcs lor pedicling thc new cre$e.t where6 AlBamni
peeds a conplerc soludon. He aho nenlions lh lato accounl ofMo$s ber Madoon
lnd clains rhst ibn Mamoon larsely follos Al Balloi. One oflhe nost inponanl dp.cl
ofBruin's accounr ofrhc eflods oftbe bedicval era is rhar Anbs^rulins orthis ea had
olEady rcalizd rhe sienitlcece of cE$cnr widrh. This inpoiant aFcl enaincd
hissins frem all th. najor cooiribudons of lw.ntietn century bcloE Bruin. Bed on this
dscription ed thc modein loowl.dge in ihis work lhe sme h6 been explocd dor.
.xlecively od is pEsnt d latu id the chaPler.
lilcatue that app.ared duing 2od c.nrury lhe
gencral rule of
Babylods for first visibilily ofnew lunecrescnlis:
78
at the titu of lual su6.t shottd be g.ater than 2't hows
the su6el ohd the no6et thDuld be
g.ot* than 12 tim
(l.l.l)
l2 rim. deBes is cquivslenr ro
;$
ofo hour or48 ninu$
(Brura I9??.llv4 le944
lto$ev4,
il wd Fat@hi, Stephe$on
and At'darghdlli
who havc
'xPlorol
lh
cflon5 of lhc Blbylonians
dlsiv.lv &d have epond rnal eording to lhe histotiel
Eords of re* c.Mnl siSlftings ol
PG
Christie m lhe cderion attibured
h
Babylonis is d ovr simplificalioi
(Fabohi.t al 1999) Ac@tding
lo $en $udv
oi
209 recoids of
Posi{ve
new crsceol 3ig} ing extdctd fom Babvloni&s
Astronon'car
di&ies. the Babylonitus had succceded in ioduladng
a lrulv mathem'lical
lunar lheory
$hich ihey 6ed to
pEdicl !&ious
par@ele$ of lumr notion Unfortumtelv
wrlhoul
presnline my iheorerical
dlaih of Babvlonian
eE lh'v appear 10 be
"ilicdl
aboul
Bluin\
slgscsion
thar Babvlonia
criterion
was whar is mentioncd
above
(l l l)'
lnstEd.1hey
clain that Babvlonian ctilerion
wEs as Follo*s:
Tnc ies cEsce.r is een it
'' Elongutio,
(ARCL)
+
nooe|st6't
laE tine
(Uc)
(3.12)
Even, rhis cdrerion is apon d on b6sis of the sueestios
ol Ncusebaud
(Neue'ba@r'
1955) &d nol 6 a rcsult of ov d'$rip$on
of a madehalcal
lh'orv
Ttev have
nehtioned
two svstns of sol& moliors on
*bich th lt@ rhsrv ol Babvlonids
las
based, but hoq lh new rul they hav. attdbded
to the Babvlonims
wD drived al $ nol
giv6, They have
gone on lo
plesd .lifleant
valucs fo!
th' @nslul on lhe
'kh
h8d
;ideof(3.1.2)
Thse
lalEs Engc fton 5 DiniDum
of2loro
a maximM ol23" lnlhe
p!ent work we adofl fte followins as a bener critcrion
alfiibutcd
lo de Babvlo'ians
as
'
slss.sted
by Fatoohi el .l:
79
(r.
I r)
80
The Mon ar divi.s this
qitcda
6 d.sc'ib.d by th*. aurhos is thar (D ihc m of lisht
d6dibes how bnghr is th. cFac.nl &d (ii) ihe moon*i*utuel lag de*db. hov lons the
ctcse @uld coaii abovc horian.n r th $n sl. MoE is rhe vql@ ofqch ofdrqc
paluelea
moE is the po$ibilily
ofsishdng offie ce*cni. Howver, drcr. h6 to b.5
conbined ni.imun ofthe two dd the sigh{ne Eords wcre the only heans to verify lhc
crilerion or diving al the
(itrion.
Using $is condition Fatoohi a al hsv Fponed thc
aslhs of lhcir @mpu|,alioB for 39 rw cEsnt 3ighings rhal in lud. bolh lhc
Bab)lonirn cEscenr
qighr
ing Rordc tud thes'ghtine Ecords Eponed in $e 2Odcenrury
liredtule. Th. aulhos have rcponcd ihat oul l99 cdcs the Babyloni.n c lerion was
succestul in 98.7% of fic
posilive
siehliog
{cE$e.r
claioed to h.v. b.en sn) c45
but fsiled i. 45.7'lo c66 of the nesalive siShine
GF$.rt
no( *o) ces
In rccnt lins a number of orsdialios haYe smnged for coll.cdon of r.*ent
sighting or non{ighline @ords. Th*e inclu& Isldic Ctffint Oberyalion Prcjdl lh
So h African aslononical Obsaatory and rheii websiFs Sinild rccords are reponcd
ro aid colhdd at lhe wbsile
@!sS.h!i!s.eol1
Morevet, lhc ldrgest data el
yd availabl. in lhe pubhh.d paFG is lhal by Odh (OdGh 2004) we hav' *lecred 463
of lhes dords ofdening cEsnts el.dcd for tE compdison ofrhe nodels studied in
Usins
(l.l.l) applid lo the dar. 9l cletd for this wlk the
'6!lts
u
pEs ed in the lable no. Ll.l. ln this lable ollv lhose rccords are
prcscnled when thc
crescent wa reponed to hare ben seen wilh or snhoul ev optical aid ad ARCV
+
LAG is les lha 22 degr6 Th. rabL is end on ARCV
+
LAc It shows lhal thcrc ft
? claims of oplillt unaid.d sighinss of new ce$enl tol salisfving $e Babvlonian
cileion
gi!.n by (l,l,l). The complG dola sel is
P!sentd
in the Appe'di\-ll
Thc
table i. App.nditll is en d on visibilily colum N in d$ending older, so thal all
oflically @id.d
visibility ces of crc$cnt
sighing in ordtr of ARCV
+ LAG (in
dcSt*t app.d al lhe top of the llbl The table in Aptndia'll sho* S No ihc
obseffation No.
(odeh,
2OO4), dare ofobsryatio!,
latitude ed lonsitude of rhe location
of ob6dtr, visibihy N' for uaided visibilitv'
'B' for visibilitv thrcugl binmld, T
8l
for visibilny thftud rel.$ope. IlE vis'bility @lul6 @.mPty if rhe cjt*nt M not
Fen and co.tains V' in an apprcpriatc colLlm if the c!.sc.nl is sen. The esl of lhe
coluens oflhe nbl @n!in age ofMoon, LAC, ARCL, ARCV md DAZ. Th lasl file
@lmns arc ior the five models coroid.rcd in this chapler, The colllm h.dded A is for
This tabl shows $al out of 196 daims ofopdcally unaided sighlihSs oftbe nes
cresccnl there @ only ? cbes nol saisfyjn! lhc Babylonid critmon. HoEler, oul of
267 cdes vhen 6e cc*cnt wd nor e.n wilho any opftal aid ARCV + LAC is
gleate! thdn or 6qul to 22 deg@s i. l07.ses. Thus for pdniw siehli.8s rh. critno.
is foutrd lob successlul in 96.4% c.ses dd !frongsl lhe hegalive sigbdn$ ii su@ssful
in 59.92% css The sucess of model in desciibihg
posilile sighlings alonc is tul a
cal success ofa nodel. Thc model is not suned seu if n is nol able to dc$tibe the
negalilc sishfng 6 wcll as ir d@s the
p$ilive siShtings.
SOME SPHERICAL TRIGONOMfTRIC CONSIDERATIONS
Thh hd be.n m.ntioned e&lio rhal ior rhe
ploblcm
ofsiglting of new lund
crescenl $e orienlation ofthe ecliplic plays md inportant lole (article 1.2). Thecfoc, il
is inportant b rrisil lhe ne|hods thai lead lo lhe ddelhimion oflhe mgle lhal the
*lipric nlkes wilh the horircn al the tinc of snel on the *$em hotian
(il is
panicularly significer in view oflhe fact that the new c!e*.nt appeds close lo n). This
angle lalies as agaiNi rhe lixed celesrial equalor lhe orientation ofthe ecliPtic slowly
laries lhroueh the year. lis fislE no 3 2,I on lhe nexl pag. shovs lhe wcsrcm pan of
$e cclcnial spheE wilh impodanl
points &d angles m d de$nM below:
w' the west cardinal point,
t,
rh vml cquinox, inleclion of.cliptic dd cqulor.
P, the Nonh c.l.sti.l
pol.
82
Z
qv
- r
rb ouiq'iry of6..dinic,
z 8}'r1 - 900
+
9, 9
bdte lb.lditd. od6.
d...'
Z ZSr -
9
+
4
lb dSb ofrb.cliP(ic
xdft 6. v..dc.l,
rs-d-G5tlirst
d.clhnioofrn tu,
PZ - 90'-
o,
St -
?e 6. lonSili. ofd! $'!
FrsNo 32l
FMn 1! 6su! 3.2.1 in lhc tPhdic.l
ttrtgL SPZ
'pplvi'g
1.l{ of ctsiE of
3phicrt ti8oiodt
tt.rdA non &. !id. PZ oe
gBs:
tlne=cort.o.PSz
'ft. g@d |!l ioo b..e..o d..lidlor
5 .d lonSind' I i3:
.int -
doP co.. +.o.P.i!'rin
r
(Jr.r)
83
(3.2.2)
(3.2.1)
@s(PSz +@+ A)=rer.@r,1.
usins
(3.2.2)
!d (3.2.3):
FDm ridcle sh, st nir8 !r Pr:
6d (32.t)
tosethd *irh (1.2.1)
leds lo:
(3.2.5)
sd
(l.2.6)
thd
sivc:
(3.2.4)
0.2.5)
(1.2.6)
Ju"'
This show that
e
+ A or the .ngl. thlr ihc elipti. nEt s wirh thc v.nicsl is 5.e!
dcp.rdcnt 6 n d.peo& on the lorgitud. ofthc su only for a fix.d
place
{or
latirude
9).
ln th. Esr of rh di$usion in rtis snicl. rhc anglc 900 - q +
A is dnord s
V.
In dE
ncxl .!ticl. etr@ cv.r
?
+
A is L*d it h olol&Ld on ibe t 6is of
(3.2.7).
In @ the dslinaion of th. Moon is $u1h of th.t of lhc Su in NonhqD
H.nisphft (md
north of the Su in th. rcuth@ hemisph*) it is possibl.
thsr d.n
.ncr conjuction th. tr.w llM cKar $i! b.f@ lhe slNr in which w ir ir simply
84
impossibtc io 3a thc cr.!ent, TLse circmshnc.s aF shom in the 68ure 3.2.2 on the
iD
iii)
Cl, lh. cclsli.l .q@lor,
1
i! th. vdal eqlinor.
TS is the diuFal path
of th. Sm thar is
just
*riirg al s.
DE b thc diumal
palh
of the Moon th.l st before thc sUNl 3t E.
Ds
=
6M
-
6s,
letpendi.ula.
to the clesial equlo. is lh dif.rence of lhe
decliMtion 6M of ihe M@n &d the deli.ation 6s of rhc sun. Declinalion of
the Moon t south of lh sun md rhe upper limn of Ds is 50 9'. lhe inclihalion
oflund orbit to lhc trliplic.
v) zcvs
=
9Oo -
4
is the agle bctween $e c.l.srial equ.tor lnd $e horihn
NS whee
C
teprenls lhe lotitude oflh
Pl&.
TheztSD
= C
vi) DM =
dM
-
qs,
lhe dilreEnce of risht a$cnsio. dM ofMoon and rhc rishr
eension os oflhc Sun. For higher lairudcs DE nav b. htgc allowing laigc
vllues ol ncepliE LAG aftr co.junction
vii) sF
=
pM
- 9s
:
0M
is p,Fndicultr ro fi. E lifljc
is $e difiercnce bctw*n
lhe c.l6ial taliluds of the Men and lhc Ss As for DS Sf never xcads
rhelinilof5'9'.
viii) FE (E' .ol showo in rhc fisure 6 it almost coincides
wilh E) h
ptrallel lo the
ix)
lislhe
Vemal Equinox ed Z)6t =
horizon. Dep.ndniS on laliude
C
and
v
h !h. angle of lhe Ecliptic
with $e
lh se@n,
'Y
naY
lary ftum zeto
(vhctr ecliptic is alons the botizo') lo 90 deB6
(when cliptic is
pc+endicula! to lhe holzon) l! cas' when
v
is small DE thal has b be
paEllel lo the 4liplic is nuch ltrsei
tha' DE
(ftol is
paEllcl io lh cqualo!)
and hdc. E sd E aE mrch s.panted
Tlle detmi'arion
of$is
oSle md
its sienifidc.
shall be di$sed in the n'xt drcL
x) I'lt figurc shos rh SM is
jN|
about o sel in a
pl&e oI sdall b ndiud
laftude
d ,
$e M@n havins ddlinarion
eulh of il' sun ha al@dv *l
(dd
wd set at
poinl E) $ th.l lh LAG =
TiG of Mdnct
Tim of suNer
is
E'
fig. 1.2.2: G@tn r.y ofP@riv. Ag. .rtd N.gaiE L.g
A@rding lo rlE luN elqdr b.!.d @ IIE binh of Nd M@ b.bc tlE ssa
tha nd lun|r mn$ b.gio .l dr tirc of o.!a 6 $ii vrt Ming- How6, for tll.
lu@ c.lsds b.!d d rn viltbilitr of $. n4 s@4 w hN mfli &e.ol
b.gii on thb cming B n b 3inply ioF{bl. lo $ tlE w luu c|!g in this
cinhtee. Fd
plE witt lrSc ldind.. d|r dbw for llre v.l6 of DE |,d h.@
DM ln. tri&gl6 uidd 6!&l6.riB o rbt tr rtrdl .dd.!xl ..otl b. tBt.d s
ryhdicrt
r.iugl6. tlc! d
y
@ll lo tr|.diun hdnd6 @
qEidqld
e th|r th.
tdugl. EDS i! r 3rdl dgh rlgld oilElc o *y wih dt.!gl. tt D t..Ia E .d S
tu 9oo !r!d rlE a.sl. d S b.rsa D !d E i!
?.
$. ldind. oftlE
pL& Th@foE:
SD
Af
(328)
86
sioiLdyrt rrtdSL AEFS b dlo.ndl r!d. t codrt.ld|plEdilati|lgbqi6
tilr,.=
(3.2.e)
Pcpl$iry SD by 5M
-
E!, SF by
PM - !!
lid .llrdrudi8 ES illn
(3.2.8)
,nd
(3.2.9)
w
tN -ts-$N -6d,H
Ag.in in ISDE tm t!rc:
02.r0)
.DE
-r=S,
(3.2.U)
DA-@,
-6,161
(l.2.ll)-
ln b frrr! !23 $,ldd It dlr d.
Dlc
ntDglc
Ft
sDE of6.
Flvior6
68rta
rEql'itld.ortun.8 dvcLAOi.i.i.EDM<aEhr:
DM -
(d{-!.)
DM
-(au-asr<Qu
-,s)r$a
Pig.3.2.3
87
4.2.t2,
usirg
(3.2.l0)
il tlr4 lat s into:
(aM
-as)<tPu -
Ps).inttsinv
(r.2.8)
ThN whcmvd ih. Ncw M@n is bod
jsl
bcfoG le.l su!54 ln. LAc .hould bc
tu8lliv. if condidon (3.2.
| 2) o.
(3.2.1l)
is s.lkfi.d if thc ce.d i3 $ulh of th. Sw.
ln rh. hod.m s.tup oE csjud olcul. rh. Elarivc ,ltirudc ARCV offic M@n
d th. tim of S!Mr. lf ARCV is nc8.tiv. rh. LAG ha ro bc rceaiivc. Still lhc
conditioN
(3.2.12)
d
(1.2.13)
show lh. d.Fn&nce of thc ph.mmenon on dE (i)
.q@to'ial Mdidle. of lh. Su $d th. Moon,
(ii) thc hnudc
e
of lhc
ple, (iii)
thc
aliptic hlitud.s ot th. Su. srd ih. M@n .nd
(iv) lh. egl.
v
or.cliplic with $.
hoden. Thc Tlble 1.2. I sho*s smc of lhc n
gltis
LAG ces during the ye6 2000 to
2010 AD tor Kech'. Paki$d (lariud. 24.85 d.g6. lonenudc 6?.05 d.e@t.
Ne8{iv. LAG ces on thc da, olconjun tiotr Frlly oeu tom smdl !o n di6
llritld.s bul @ sis.ili@l a. cld dividine linc b.l$q conju.dioMl luN
qlcn&6
ed th. obacMiioMl lune cd. t!3. for hirl| htitud.
pl*ca
rcearirc LAG 6cn anc.
conjuictioi dly @cu moE fqu.ntly. The coluntu of 0E r.blc in scqucncc fom bn
ro dsht e d.*dH b.low:
tsrl dllc of coijuiction.
tncd Timc of Conjmtion,
Zorc (PST) tihe of locd su!a,
As. of M@tr .t le.l suet in ho6,
Elongadon or Moon rroo tlF 56 in dcrFs,
Delimtion of M@n in dceE$,
Delidlio! of Su itr &88,
Righr AsEion of M@n i. dcgG,
Rieh AsEid of Su in dcgr6,
EE
Laliild. ofMoon in d8rc6,
Angle of E liptic wilh Horizon in d8rees,
LAG, Moonkt {u6el in oinut s.
rable No 3.2.1 :
posirive
Ase Nesaiifr&B-;s-i66l2oliT;R;;iifr;;
3.3 LUNAR RIPENESS
LAW & ITS MODIFTCATION
Befor |h. rin$ of
ptolefry
lh.rc ws no knoyn sy$enalrc
descriprion ofthe
dynamics of thc
planeb
and rhe Moon, Theretoe
pblemy,s
explor.tion
Che
epicycle
based description
ofthe pltret4y
noiion) sens to be rhe tirst sciious. scientific 6d
ststemlic aucmpl to d$nbe 1he dymics oteld systed obl*is.
Muslim 6ed lhis
tyiem b cxploc lhe condidoE
for 1hc fid visibility of ns lutrd crsce .
plolemic
thory hal d.*rib.d
th plderary
nodon Eins rhe epicyctcs tcory rhal could Dddict
the pl4ehry,
lunar .nd sol& ephenns
to a g@d
soush d.er. of accuacy. Tne
Muslins had put
ro use lhis iheory
weu ond had developed sotr dnd lu.ar tables. The
pos ion of$e Sun ws predictable
!o a g@d
dce@ ofprccisio. and @nsequendy rhe
aele
!r
lhat ih. *lidic hal6 with
ihc hoizon ar the line ofsue( ould b calculard
Bing rne sphe.ical
uigoroheFy that Muslim naomddn
hav dv.loDed
thn*1v6.
As decribd
by Bruin ( 1974 sing lhc &8lc of ectiplic ,y wid! the hoiizon al lhe tine of
su*! the lalitude of th place
of obseFarion,
egle of sepsauoo
brseen Moon dd
a9
Sm
p.r.[d
lo lqldo.
(difrcqE of ddr dgii L!..dioB), tlE !sl. of d@!n
(dife|i@ of a|lnuda o. ARCU !d ri tid[ ofsc.'n the M4lin aslorcEcrs
$@ aU. to develop ! hisltly rdi.ble
qilcion
for tlE visibilry or invisibihv ofrh6 @
Figua
(l.1.
I
)
bclow enicl ir r r.otuttu rin offg@ 4t ofBtui.
( le77) shovs
tl|st dF sD IEs
jur
!.r sin of r/t{. Thc liie \nX
D85rg
tb.o{8! $ts drllal
poilt
W, is th e{uror irclined d o dsL
g (tlE
ldihd. of lhe
ple)
fim tlE @rnd to rhe
horiar AS k th. dimd
pdn
ofth. Sun !h!t is
p66llel
lo thc.qualor is shom as
broko 1i... TIt diurnrl BIh ofd. Md MZ is tls sboM wnh 3 3imilt trot.linc
Ddralll
Io ih. .qudor. TIE lin. HS ir tL E lipaic lh.t drd e .ngl. A wfi th diurol
path
of 6e Su d $..qulor ThBtL FiiiFb D!l6.td..8L
q +
d witl the Mnrl.
MS t th. s.r.r.dd b.'ra rlF Mdn !d ttr Su
(e of liSln).
Fig No l.l. | : Trigmrdic ddiFin of @rdni@ of w luE d6ern
\:\.
MT i3 p.rDodoio
to i[. ..lirdc rII8 ar.h l}a TS - 1
-
16. b 6.
'Etl
tinsb MIII, rn -
fu
d ft. erb a H b..r!.r Eclbrb
(IIT9 jd
&. Ho.te|.l
olM)
- 9d
-
(r + AI Tb
-
rilrb tm{ b lisb.raLd d T
yE
tq!.d3L i M
!cvl.{HddT-9+A.Itrb.ioplyk
&b6crdtio:
ra-Er +rS-t,6lp+D+L
4. (3.3.1)
|hir Fldih n .e. .r .$|d@
O)
of B.uh
O9ZD.
Irtia8b HgB b rlcd s .
ph.
codr+ a)
{d ti.lgL ABS lad! lor
(3J:)
(3.33)
(33.4)
(3.3.t
'Il&
'slr
(3.3,5)
i! dimalot Aom eb &uii
O9,D
t&
tih
in hi! .qurid
(a)
|b h cbiD. nr b..o obi!.d by ld4
lhe
tigoffiy. Ittt smc 6ru. i,
t'.d.d ||3toglpt ric.l !i!@.tty, turiotbADs
8it&.1
f|(!o .phqi6l trt|tEL tlTMr
9l
sin rr'r
_
rh&
sn(e+a) @s(e+a)
erhlr (3.1.t)
rs
=
sili(sin
r!.r..(e
+ 6r+,L
-,rr 0.l_6)
I. sphoical iridglc ABS:
stnaD .
stn 4r @eP
and in spherial lridgle HCS:
(1.1.7)
sinfls=-l]1gll
l].l.8l
co(@ +
a)
(3.3.9)
!.
)
:9:.q
+a)
!
;
t::!
!
glj
".(
(:
[.
:l
-t
laegles Hs dd ss @ snall cqua$ons (3.3.6)
lnd
(1.3.9) yhld
alnost sme lesutB s
thos by (1.3.1) ad (1.1.4).
If the valuc of
9
b lege. then Hs dd as ae nol shalland
th spherical trisonoderric rsults (3.3.5) and (3.3.9)
should be ned for doF Muale
11'e sienificdce of (3.3-6)
is thlt if th. cphcmedes of both rh Su and the
Moor m tnoM @uErdy (aj
th.y c rcw) ud rhe &gl. 900 (p +
A) =
v
of etipri.
{irh ihe honan lculalcd fom (1.2.7) rh. !.lE of HS @ bG aal@ted for rbc tire of
sUM for dt day of lhe yw !trd psrti.uldly for rh. dlt or rt y .Rc UE bnh ot ncq
92
Moon. wlee6,
oncc rhc hinimm
&stc of sepaDrion !s (.quivd.nt
ro LAc) fo, $e
visibility of @w l@d ct.st is tnoM for thc day the @rcspondine
agle HS sinS
(1.1.9) cs als b. .vatua&d. Horev.r,
rhc ue of (j,j.6) is ind.p.nd.nt
ofany visibility
condition
ed is fixcd for rhe day ir d.pcnds only on rhe posirions
oflhe Sun and lhe
M@n for fie rim. ofobsenato.
&d the locaiio. ofrhe obF ei. On the o$( hahd rhe
u$ or (3.1.9)
dep.nds
on trE vjsibifty @ndiiioG,
@cly lhe mininu del. of
s@ml'on
tu,
thar.&
b. kmh only on lb. bdis ofa t
gc
nunbd of oboMrions tor
At rhe rim of Muslih Gtrononcts
rhe .phenerdes
of $ Moo. oay nol hale
ben so aeudely tnown
s ir is today,
but rhe Eligiou tecnn.ss oflhe seing $e new
lund crs@t nusr hlve tcad ro moc rcchre valu6 or,s. Bruin (t9?7)
hs i.dicared
that Muslim arbnoheG rveE welt awe of rbe f&! lhar d8Lnce oalhe Eanh ild rh
Moon and hence rhe width ofcrescent
for sde uc oflighr varies. Though exploiations
ofdr ancienr considcred lhis variarion ro behdve tibearly we now know thal it inlolves
lne lflgononefic func on.
In lnis worL $is prcbleb
is h&dlcd
by considering rne actual eni_d.inler
of
th. Mooh dd lhc fer $at MnslinvABbs
ob*tued thal ar shone r .lisrances the crcscenr
wasseenwhehtheLACo!arcofseparationaswaslOdelccsor40minulesoftimcand
al lae! dishcca
thc cErcent ks seen Nhen rhe m ot seplFrion dJ B t2 d8res or
48 ninules of timc.
-r1li5
teads b a siople Eladon blwn
/s md lhe aduat semi-
^--
D
22
Using rhis etalioo thc @ of *pdlion necded for ce$enr
*p@tion felor is .alcutated in ihe sonwar.
Hilalol.
ol
r0)
9l
As mc ioned abov. dE Mulin sao&Ders have alaldy dduad from
obrpatios lhar for very thin but visibl. cE$ent mirimm ss @ 12 lime degds (48
minureO dd for d {ider but bmly vbible cresent mininm as w6 only l0line
degl6 (40 minulcr. This nininm as ie acturlly dep.ndcnr on the width of $e crc*ent
rhar @ be dedvcd 6ins (2.E.E)
dd (2.8.9).nd rhe Elarive atitud. (ARc9 thar cd be
obtained using (2.8.5) for th. sun ed the Moon. Th. issue shall b. dieussed in noe
d.tail larer. Usins
0.3.10)
rh.t shows 6s beins dependent o. the lisull dimers (in arc
minulet of lh. M@n in our sky one ce compute lhc Lun Ripi.s Fudio. A(,i9)
as henrioned by Btuin (Brui., 197?) or tha! is
siven
by
(3.3.6). Aaodihslo Bruin rhe
rul. ddrd by M6lims w6 thal if thc lalue of HS calculatd using (3.1.9) equals or
exccds lhar @lcolared by (1.!.6)
rhe c..s would be visibl. orhcNi* nor. In thn
work this rule has ben named M6lin Lunar tupness Law or sifrply Lumr Ripenss
According ro Bruin (19?7)
$e valu6 ol HS de.ored a R().,
9)
obkin.d fron
(3 3.6) seE pGsenled
in rhc $+ lled Lunat Ripenss Tables sDd fisr visibility ofne!
Lunr cmcent ws walulcd by Mulin BltonomcB usiog rne sboE rul. In lhis work
HS a3 deived tom (3.3.6)
h dnokds,l4 and:
Fo, a fixed
pl&e (e constal0 it is noted lhat forsDallvalues ofl,, sin
ly
is also smatl
&d lko n ahosl sme as rv ,j. Bui when the *liplic is wll inclihel io$&ds lhe
hoien (q +
A is large bu lcas rhan 9oo) 1r'4, nay becode noE rhan 1! ri(iflv >
0
snd ecliptic is roweds nonh) or renain le$ rh& 1,
-
.ls (ir pr, <
0 and etipric is
iowdds nonh). Ho@er,{da is endely independenl of Oe se@. aod depnds only on
rhc rcladve coordinates of rhc sun md rhc Mood. As rhe major componen in (3.1.t l) is
lhc diferenc. ol longnudes of rhe su and lhc Mooh ,taa h closely linked to ihc ACE of
^d.,
-
sin
r[sin/,
r.nre+^t+lM ts (l.r.r l)
Mftovd. ir
9M
. o, x&"
*
l,{
- k.
Bur whcn boil
0M
6d
I
+
A hav. the s4e
sign
0.3.1l)
shows th
&4
*ould b. mor. thd l,
- &
and if
pM
dd
e
+
^
have
differcnl signs
&e
would bc l.$ the ,L
-
.ts. Bul thcF v&iatioos u nor sMnal
The vahes for HS ohained fom
(3,3,9)
dc denolcd s X,b and:
^,,=.'""(
(l
I 12)
For a fi&d
place (9 consrd.t) R,, dcPcnds on ae spa6tio. a, (rhe equabrial t'Ac
ber@n the sun ed the Moon).nd thc s.en 6I
+
A is *son dependeot fiat shall b
shoM larer. Using
(he
looh sod le hniqu.s di*ussd in.hapter 2 ie, fo! $e dav or lh.
day alier conjunction aor s placc of ob*ryarion ii .valuaEd. Ille ninihud valueofas is
@lculaled 6ing rne lrchnique d.srib.d al lh. .nd ol
Ptviou
.nicl $ lhat ,tB is
dedu.ed. If lt- is calculat d using h csdml.d value ol a, rh.n w call il X."
(m
Erimared valk ot Lunar Ripencit funclion), Il ir is .al.ulated uin8 an avedge vrlue
10.5 degres of a, thcn *. c.ll il I-
(d .vcaec wluc ol Lud tuFns nrtudo.)
Ac@drnely A&" = i- - X,a,6d Alt-, = i^
- 1&) Thc sinplst fom ofrhe Ll|E
i3i
:)
$i"
a;t+,ry
-rsj'o
'"'(
(3.1.r)
Tlus Lunar Ripeness Law that piolidc a solution of the probleh oldelemining
rhe first day of visibility of nw lunar cre*enl h based on the Angle lhat the Ecliptic
nat6 wilh the bodzonlal or $e angle
0
+
a ihal it dak.s wilh the venical. on the dav or
the day after conjunciion once lh. coordinatcs of the Sun dd the Moon at the tim of
suns for &y leation.rc calcuhted. (3,3.1l) allo*s onc lo calculale,e,4 ed sine 6
applopnab value oi4 d
sivenby(3.3.10),
in
(3
3 12) the valu. ofx"i ce be tound ltr
95
viw of $udying ihe behaliour of lhe Rip.nes iunction oler a yea! for any
pl&c
calculding Ie, for cvcry day of the yd is not useful. This is bc@w of thc &ct lhat
yar ro ye dd da,
(o
day vdiarions in lalitude oflhe Moo. dd hence nd, ats not
depndent on the rime of ye.!. However, *ith posiblc lalues of4, one cd calculate
el.v val@ of l* for @h day ofa
yd
&d study ns veialioG scenally as sell d
$irh chdging lalilude of
pl.cc.
As possiblc values of,, vary from l0 degcca lo 12
degc.s an appopdate value for the day oi day after conjunctioh is obtained only on the
bdis of the ule disraice o. sminimd.r of the Moon. Still tor a compdie. values of
lS6. foi dill@lt ladrudes, se calculaled lor both $e cxrene valucs ,, = loo dd a, -
120 and the curves,t,r aeainsr the longitude oflhe Suo (fiom March 2l) aft ploned in
FiSuGs (3
3 2) lo (3.1.5) These cws snow inleFsting featres lbat cs b sunmdized
i) from fi8.1.1.2 il is clar rhar forg = O0 i... for a
placc
on $eequabr&i! is
sinusoid.l wirh mdina.t March 21, Septcmber 2l dd hinima at Ju.e 21.
D4ember 21. Snalle! v.lues of iG nems shaller lalues ]?d4 or !larivly
rounger
cEsent m.y b rn. L&gr values of x
i"
dcans largq valus iia
orrelaliv.ly oldcr crcscenl may b. seen. Thw close to equalor older cEsceht
nay be visible near equi.oxes and Elatilely younger
crescnl .ea! ehrlcs.
If $c Moon is nc{
jls
apogc lhen il is noving faner and apFaB rhicker in
sky Blatively younger
cescents bcone ripe for visibilny. Funher rhe
paencc
of two maxim and two binima ihdicates four stong innecdon
points.
There arc rwo regions ot lpMd concaviry (douod
solsdcet dd rs
of downwdd concaviiy
{&ound
cquinoxs)
As rhc larirude of rhe place
in rc66 (one move ro rhe nonh ofequabt $e
muinum ol1." at $e venal equjnox loseu nDline ir eard lo k d a
youngcr
cescenr bul the ndimum of lhc veml equinox ris.s e $al it
becones norc difiiculr to ec a
yodge!
crc$ed (69. 3.3.3). On thc o$er
hmd fte ninimM of lhe s|!md ehric mo6 rowuds sdng (v.mal
equinox) ad that of rhe wintd rchric. movs rowds autumn (aurunnal
eqlinox) md in ei$er c& d.crcae funner making ir esier ro *e a
younger
96
15
13
12
10
I
cwc ahaFs clos. ro ll alhlnn l
m6d thc solsti.6 flltt ns.
F g. No. Ll.2 X* forg=00
Kg. ffi
.
.
.r.
rl,
.,.-
;
I
210 9o 180
Fi8 No.l l l rt'L forg= l0o
BcyoDd tropic of .alF two of the infl@don
Poids
re simPlv
gone
&d $e
hsimu al lhc aotmnal quinor ds tunner malir,g n FoE difficuh lo s
iiD
91
iv)
.
yomg.r
ct!.c.
(f8;
3J.1). Tb nioidsn oftL
qttc
Ed,. tt !t ttl
.quinox mrli!8 it .did io r.c
yomg.r @3@l! n tr ro ml .qu$ox
rG frltd iF!.ic i. dr ldtr& &. D!!io@ bcoc tt}.' rd !i8le
lrd dt. ril!i|!@ t cF &cr!.'nry tuvi!8 &n ftr biSba ld'ndd il i5
g6.r.lty
.si6 ro @
younScr
cr!.c.nt3 cl@ to vlrnll equimx .ltd diffrct lr
clqe b aull|nn l cquilor.
'17
t6
13
1o
to
Fis. No. l.l.4r X"i for g
- 25'
1}. siuDtidr r!\/{r!6 .dirlly i! fivou ofam|'llll cquiM ft. lb
-ttld!
For the Arctic Circle .nd to it3 lorth
(latitu<tc|
Sn
cr ih& 63.5 &8t a!) il k
liDplt ml
polribL to s rh. s9 loM
q.!..oi
cloa. ro .utmt .quinox 6
th. vrl'r of&i t @06 gt lddra 9d. Tb vdE G snll.! 50 ofx*
cl@ to tqDd .quid indielc riqlt &.t cr!.c.nts
y@gq
tle 6
c@!d!d !o thor. clde 10 lutunn l cquiaox N bc !.d
9E
a0
50
20
Fi&No. 1.1.5. i^fore=61
50
Howevr
lhe narcr i! lrot $ sinplc
beca6'
tuc olc of latitude of rhe cKdt'
i-., whctht thc cc$eni is !o!ih or north of ihc Sun
plavs e impona role lhai
dercmin6
rhe v.luc ofrtdo
lhal is lronglv btnude
dcFndst
Now
lh' stDns nuimum
at lhe v.oit .qrinox
for hi8h.r
lttitud6 indicat's
thtt e old'r M@n rov rc1b'
vbibl'
b s the AGE offt.
Mo@ iNrrsd $ do6 iG elo'sdi@
ad brighlress
ThtebE
n
is posibL ftat invisibilitv
$g86l.d bv $' Rrpcnas
tun.lid
valucs m'v b' nisleding
Thh inly l.!d lo ltlollN
for sdalld
LAG
vd6 drd
sm lqrlEof
x'L h rlnt
$!d( th. RiD.G$
tulcrion
vtl@s for dE ob!'dltioml
dab avlilablc in lilettrurt
e
.dculacd
sd
pr6.ntcd in ApFndirlt
Out oflhis dx' s't th' c!56 whd thc cscenl
s Eporr.dly
sd bui .rc nor h lg.mdt
*nn dE L|M RipGs
ltw rE also s||os
in nblc
rc. 3J.1.
TtG obae liontl dah k $lccLd
AoF lh4 tPo :d bv Od'h
(Odeh'
;0{a) fron
*hich c.*s
or cvdi!8
'6cnr
obs'naiioN
re cosidercd
onlv Ttblc
3.1.1 shows
o. No.
(th. oberysti@
nunb'r
(Od'h' 20Oa))' dtt' of obseNttion
ldnud
,ftt longin/.
of ih. t@dron
of obaa$s' M@n\
!8e and LAG' snele v
of ecliPlic
sitt'
rrorLo,
t"lio,a" or Uo.,,
toogirudes oI the Moon ed th' 3d' Rd
giv'n bv
(13 12)
*ill !6
siv@
bv
(3.310), Re
sivn
bv
(3 3 12) *ith
's
= 10 5 d'8r*s' Ri'
sircn
bv
O.3.I
l) and a&. =
Rdq
-
&"
I
'Ihe
table in Appn.tix'U shos S. No
,
the obseNation
No
(Odh 2004)' date or
obseNalio.,
latiiude dd longilude of the locaiion ol obserur,
visibilitv 'N'
for lbaided
lisibility,'B' fot visibiliiy lhouel binGuld''T
for visibihv
thbush lelescope
The
visibility coluds d empty if the.res.ent
wd nol
s*n sd conlaitu
iV'
in an
.ppropriltc
colmn ifth
qsftnt
is sen The rcsl ollhe
coluons oflhe t8ble contarn
age ofMoon ,
LAG. ARCL, ARCV dd DAZ The ld
file columns de fot the live
models consideted
in this chrpter The colu. headed A is for the Babvlonid
model'
and A for the Lunar Ripeness model The colnmn headed B cod'ins AR"
The lobl i! ,Appendixll shows lhat oul of 196 cdcs in shicb $e crese
has
ben reponed to hove been een wilhoul oplicdl aid thee tle onlv 14 cases hat do not
obey thc LuMr Ripencss La* stalcd above The debils or rhcs obscrydlions
de tinther
exploEd below *ltn a Modi6ed L@r Ripeness
Law is sugeestd
The nodificalion
is
needcd
in ordet 10 sepdarc tbc caes of dked eve visibilitv and rhe caes when optical is
used for clescent
visibilitv
A tot.l number of l2
posiliv obsedations
ih tbis dala hav b'en wnh the helP of
bin@ules ed klcscopes
when $e cr.$enl ws nor
visible vilhout oplical aid dnd the
Luai Ripe.ess Law is .ot elisfied
'nth
is logicallv
valid as the Lua' Ripencss Law
was deduced onlt
for mlcd eve ob*tvatiotr
Tlis bas
he'n the dolivadon
durine thN
$ ork lo ood i fy th Lunft Rip.ne ss Law ro e ocompass
the otricallv
aided obse d'tions
The columN ofihe table contain Ob$flario'
Ssial Nunber
as led bv Odeh
(2004), Date of ob*tvation
titilude oi lhe
Place
Longitud
ol the
Place
Visibililv
colunN N
(lor unaided
visibilirv), B (wirh bimculd)
and T (wirh iele*ope)'
The*
visibilily colums d. mptv io! invisible cresent
md co ain v for lisible Rst of lhe
colws
contalns Ase of ctesce.t in hou6
fo' the best ime
(Y6llop' 1998)' Lae in
nin(es, S.padtion
btwcn the Su ed tbe M@n
At of LiShl
(ARCL)' the angle
v
=
900 -
(9 +
d), that thc clipiic mai<es wih ile hotizon on the wsted
holizon for the dav
of c'lculrtioi/obsedation, OM
th latitude ol $e Moon' l'M rh longtude
of rhe M@n Is
100
the lonsirnde orthe sd, Arc{f-*pdtion fa.tor,
Sitd
by
(3.3.10), Esdnat d Ripencss
Iuclion, ,{.r olcularcd eqution
(3.4.2), Ar6of-epdalion ractor, Aversge Ripen.ss
Fwrion X., calcllared Ning avcds.
tu =
10.5 d.gEs dd lh quarion
(1.4.2), Aclul
RiDene$ Fucrio. ,Rdy calculated sins equtioh
(3.4.I
),
AP-" the difiencc of AveEge
RiFn s Fwrion & th. Acrul one. Th. ribL l.l. I des nor show thc visibility @luons
s tbis table @mprises of css wher ihe cesftnt Ms rPodedly seen withont oflical
The ncxl I27 c6es dc grcuprd
6 coup-B. Therc de la (llolo) mked cye
viibility cdes, 25 (19.?%)binoculd
visibihy cesdd l6 ( 12.6%) rlesopic visibiliry
cses for values of AFw lying betwen -1.58
dd 0.0. Oul oflhe 14 natred cye lisibiliry
ca* in thn range, threc lery low AR{yfvalue cdcs have comon chancterisdcs. Th.*
e No. 286. 2 dd 2?2 witb AR.!i valu. -3-5, -3.4? md -2.88
All lh* c4s m ner
autumnal.equiiox (Sepr.20.
Oct.2l &d Ocl. t epecdvety), r$enl hs oldc. age
(39.1 l, 39.24 dd 4l .91 hous Elpectiv.ly) md hav consqueitly larger
phe.
The lsbl is soned on the values ofd&y. On the basis of a clo* dalrsn of the
results of conparing ARNi ihe dilleences of Av.lage Ripeness Funclion valus End lhe
Actual Ri!..ess Fuclion v.lucs we ob*de dEt:
The Tablc shows ft.t lh.E are only 14
pGitive sidrrines out ofa rolal nmber of
196 positive siShlings that are nor according lo lhe Lunar Ripe.ess t { (ARo,
= Rn",
The a!. no
posilire
siSndne wirh A&q
< -1.58 wirh or wirhour oprical aid the
Ens in wnich l8 aft.npb have ben nention.d in the lne6ud. We considr it as
Coup-A for thc Modificd Muslin Lund Ripencas Las lhal we slal. ih ihis erlq 6:
''tt th. tlill..e,ce ofAv.rase Np.ts Fanctior R-, omt the Actuot Rip.h6s
Fu"cion Rro
F
/Re) is l.ss nnh -J.6 it is ihDossibl. to see nE n.N luat .rcsc.nl
tor
att ldtitula uith or Nilhott optical aid'.
l0t
All lhe* conditions
falolr rhe lisibility
and it wds ncntDncd
above in view of
(1.41)
that aor oldcr a8e cresccnb (/.M
ls
tae)
sh! er arc or scparation
may be
auowed. Thisexplainsrhe
very sm.ll LAG (29.s,
33.62 and 32 07 respecrivly)
in rhese
cas. Modovr, in all $.s cases lhe arc ofvbion is snau (ARcv
6.85, 6.8 dd 7.34
deg!es rcspectively)
buftelorile
uihulhs rc taree (DAZ
=
18.4,2O.j
and 18.l dgrees
r$perilely)
aioh the sun and tosr widlhs (51,65
ed 5r dc seconds
respccrilely). Atl
lbese lacloB suppolt thc ctaims
of lisibitjry
md weE
anlrcrpatcd above whcn il sas
suggesred
rhat smalter
L,{C valnes
oa!, be alosed in such cases. All dF clains de
fon latirudejusr
moE rhm 30 des*s. The shath, values ot Rj"y in conpdison
to R.,,
h lnes cscs is due ro larsc lalues
ofa +
A (noe
th& 54 deee$),lhe
&gle oalhe
eclipric with venical
ed large
nesaivc vatu$ of tarnude
of Mooo LM (tes than
_
4.5degrcs)
lhar rcduces Rla to hate n nuch shalter lnu /w
_
1.. Alt rhe* rhr
obsen.rion
de rncgR.nedqrrh
rhe Babytonru cr.rerion
Therc is no fudhq c6e ofcesenr visibitity
tjl.
dong$
otherposilile
cases wilh -1.6 <
AR."r <
O, two de
varue
of dRq < -1,6. Fbh
very young
ccenr'
Thee
t02
m obddation no.274 (ARm
= -1.19
)
drd 416(A&tr- -l_06) i{i$ age 14.8 sd t5.9
houE rcsredvely. Despile being lery yorS
having FLlively l&aer LAGS (39.j md
17.7 ninulcs sperively) in both c&s rhe Moon ws very close ro the Eanh rcsuhine
in ldse visua.l dimcler bur lh cltsnl widrhs wcrc sb.ll (10_?
&d ll.9 e. s@ndr
only). with $all the rclalivc eimurhs (4.6
a l.8 dese, the crcsent eas atnost
ve'liMlly abov. the su rhat bring it in ihe ided cordnion foi visibiliry bul lh snau
elative altitudes (8.5
ed 9.1 deele) nake rhe$ claims highly oplini$ic. Borh th6e
obse^ario6ec
in d$dgreementwirh
Lh BdbyloniM
qirenon.
Out of th 14 positive
obseru.tioi wnh A&r
<
O, ihte werc very f.ini cEscenrs
i.e. obsrarion n@be6
389 (d&.
= {.94), 341 (AR^,
=
-0.87)
ed a55
c0
62) The*
crscent werc low in ottitude (?.2,
?.8 and 8.j deg,es respdively)
ed hrd sna
erongarion (10.9.
13.3 dd 9 deg@s
Esp.cively), This hakes these ct6i6s lo be higbly
opr'n'strc os well.
Two otthcsc
{389
and 455) are sko in djeereocot
viri Babylonian
cnlenon {heec
341 is a mdSiMl6e
in Babylonian
qirerion
(with
ARCV +
LAC
=
Howvr, for all $ee I I 9 c6es when $e crescnt wd daoed
ro hdve been sen
wirh naked eye,lhe
conmo.
ieatule w6 relarivty hi8h l&uoes
{generalty
g@&r
thq
S0 degrres on ilher
side of rhe quator)
except fo! obFNatbn
no. 416. Th cbim 4l6 n
tioh latitud
6.5 degres
nonh Apan fmm rhh lonely
c6e it appe&s
lhat fo, A&r <
O n
is ihpossible
to see lh cE*entatpt&es
witlllatiruds
less fian 30 desEes (borhNodh
Inlhe l19caksofsroup
B,lhe frequency
for optica y
aiddyisibiliry (botb
wnn
binocula
and retescopcs)
ihceses
ed one ce cdily gnerau
lhal whcn
Atqr, ties
between -3,58
and O.O theE is s hjgh
rDssibility
of crescenr
visibilhy wilh soe oprical
sid for bod lh high latifude as wel s low l.rilude
obefres.
I hereby
jn
this wort the
s4ondpd
of rhe Modilied
t\4ujlih
Lus RiFne$
LaB $$Rds
t0l
''if h. nns tizt b.nv.r -3,t otd 0.0 th.
posibili9
oJ rhibilit! ollittt crcnetl
*ith and *itio optical did ln re6s vnh ihcE6iig tolu6 o!.4R-. fot hlEh.r
latitqda, gq*o
!
gedt.r
thon 30 d.erc$ notth a4d souk ard ZR*. b.l"g h th.
ronq. -3.5 b A0 h. postibility
ol nak.tt erz visinlw ako irceqe llowvq, in t'.
tong. oI th.G wluzs oJ r'RnIor tMllo lotitad6 th.
"oh.d
.tz vitibilitr h dlMt
Nxt is the Oroup-C $at mnrains 76 cases wilh AFrv in rhe dnB.0.0 ro L6, In
lhB
goup
rh.r. e 12 naked cye visibihy.as.s (15.8ol.),26
binocuta (14.7%) and 15
&l6copic visibilily cs4 (19.?%)
e lhar vGibility with both naled cye and with opdcal
rid b.com$ ooe probablc.
UnfonuMtty rhe dala is h.avily inclined lowads the high
htnude clesanda clrdenarcation
for u.aided visibilit, for snalter laritudc ob*Fe6
cd nor be made. Srill, the thid pan
oftbe [,todilied Muslim Lund Ripeness Law is
''fth.
wtu6 oJ/R@
tk 6ztwa 0.0 an.t r.6 ttt. pEribitiiu
of,i,n i, oJJint
cftsceat teith and tuithout
oplicdt k ,trong
fo,
higlrq latitud.d,.
The Croup-D containine
a ro|at nlmber of
unaided vhibilitr
oflunar cscs forr'i!' > 1.6,Il is
^il r'B@
>t.6
ttt. posnbitu,
oJ ,bibititr
siorg
lot
boh towt aMt hiEha totitd.r".
221 c6es has 170 cases ofoprically
of
li61
c6c.nt fitttott opti.dt b
2,
Finally, the 3umnarized
Moditied Muslim r_umr
Ripencs l-awr:
ZR-< -3.5 ihpNibL to tee th. n.v luaar c.6c."tlo, a tdrru!., ,ith o,
-3.5
<
/R@ <
A0 ihposibt.
to ee the neN crcsce"t with ot *,tthout oplicnt oit!
Jo,
tnt .r latitutl$. For hiehe, t,titnds therc b n high pnsibiti,r
ol
gibititt
otli6t cE .nt dth oyial
104
t 0.0
<
.1R,.
<
1.6 p8tbiti,tr
o! ,hltw o!
Ji6t
M@nt btrh ond withoul
optt ol h staq
!o,
tigt.r tdlituds. Lo.a!|rA N6t tuith opticd! a ! a".!
th.a try nelnE lt Nlth haL.d e!. h6 a
eood
.ranc. o! opticdlr u"tided
ne,> 1.6 th. pNtlbnrr
oJ' tbi!i!, oifust cnse wtuhout optcat t st ona
Jor
bo& Iow.r and highu tatttud.t,,
Another way oI lootjng
inio ih delaih of Lue Ripene$ hodel is lo look inro
the plots
ofaverage
ripehess fmcrion
md rhe acod ,ipenes
tuncion for borh vhibh
&d
invisiblc crcsei$
for single talirude,
U.forluarcly,
rhe dru avaitable dd considercd in
lhis work h Esrficlcd
in rhc F6e lhat scieltifically
re@rded ob*dalions
fo, a sinetc
hnud
a nor found lery frqucnrly
xcept tor Athens (ladrude
38 dc8,as .orrh) ed
Cape Tou (laritude
13.9 degr4s so!rh).
!n
panicula,
for sn,Ir tatitudes. plac6
cto*
IoequarorobseruatiouarelolvcryfFquenuyav.ilable.Anunbrofplaccsecsetecred
herc od tbeir d.h pto(cd
for Alerage
Ripenes
Fundion
&,, and the Acllal Ripen*
Fuiclion R6y for borh rhe Eponedty
inlisibte dd the vilibtc
oe*mr!
Thesc
jnctudc
plees
with
laritudes
L8N, 33 95, 6.5N dd 38N (FiguB
3.3.6 1o 1.1.9).
Figure 3.j.6
for tadtude
3 L8N snows tbe bsl slc
sieh,incs
ou, of 6 (83.37")
in asrcen
wnh $" ,_J:'iff:ln:"11,'#:J:
obscdat'ons
(6
our of6) e in agrccmnl
wilh
the ta* toi this larilud.
Nexr is Cap.
'rown-(hnnde
ll.9
S) wirh
succcss percenhgc
65% (ll posrlire
siehings
in sgenenr
od, ol 20, the needrvc
obseryauons
fo, Cap Toq are In agrehenr sirh
la\ tor
9lJ% c66.
This 6 ao owed
by ,40r.6 (ladrlde
39N) w,rh
2 oul of3
{66.7910)
posirivc
eghlingsad
II o of l8 (61.l%)
neSariv
sighdnes
a8rce snh fic lav. Ior laritude 6.5
deg!.es,
I our of2 (50%) posilive
sightings
od 4 oul of6 (66 ?y.)
asE. wirh
rhe tan.
I05
I
4
15
't0
0
loo
zlo
^
actual
RF br in\isibte . e.lrrr nr Or ri"tOre
400
3b
Fia No. 3 3.6: Rjp.@r
Fundion for r-ditute 3 L8 dg.c Nonrr
---r;-+:
;b.,RF6.'"".b,.
.acrld R
Fig. No I 1.7: RiplB Fudid
for C.p. Tow4 Sqth Anic!, Lgnbde r3.9
itlr*
t06
f
20
1a
l6
10
-111+.-Ig'1.rl'1
t r.tl'::.gE::.
f
Fig. No l.l.8: Ripdess
Fudi@ for Lrtibde 6.j d|:gG Non\
20n
J.E""'g:f*,","..,v"ltr"
300 /too
iU,ar nr b. rnti"itrc
]
Fig. No 3.1.9: Ripdcas luDrid for Arhdq lrriMe t8 d@ Non[
Loogitudc
21 7 d.grca Easr
t01
All thes. figu6 show ! lend for lhe Aveog. RiFns Funcrion lhal is indicaL<l
bt rh6&thal consitt ralions tud deEocr.at.d in figGs 3.3,6 b 3.3.9, c..ealy ihc
invisible
ce$enr hav. Actu.l Ripne$ Fucrion vdu6 b.low lh. AwnC. Ripoess
"Cwe md lh. visibte cBcens have v!l@s rhal @ abov. rhc cle. Devi.tions
oa
both foms ac prc*nt
ald e discu$ed
,bove. A rhorcricalty visiblc
cG$en$ (aclual
Ripn6s Funclion valu.
noE rb& the avcRg) is reponcd invisibt.
$ar gendlty
.ounts s 'Positive
E@lied
lh.oErically
i.visibte
qscm
(acr@l
Ripc.ess
Function
valuc
les 1ha lhc ave@g)
Eponed
to be se.n, a..Negalive
Edof,. The posirive
ero^
dponed
halc no atiecr on the modet
as rh.se cm6 nay occurdue
ro mdy uncontroued
fado6 ( like seather
cond id ons and obseNer,s
abi I ity to scn*
lhe conr 160, Thc negative
cmB nay eirher by hiShty
oprimislic
bur inconect
clains or they nsy rndicsre
hcr of
authcnticity
ofthe nodet
both di$lsed
abole ih derajlfor
$e LunarRipenes
Law
,a,n ovd atl
@hprrisoi
of the Lud Ripness
taw wih thc Babytoni&
oitcrion
shows
lhat lhc Babylonie
crjrelion
huch noe succcssfut.
.ltE
succcs percenr,g
for
pcllNe
cs$ fq lh ipenqs
law h 92.8% aeaitrsr 96.490
or Babytohid qiroion.
Ior
the negatve
si8]]iings
lhc .iFne$
las succ*dr
in 57.?ro css
,ainn
59.9% for the
3,4 EMPIRICAL
MODELS
OF EARIY
2o.rr CENTURY
After lookine
i o Ine deraits
of tc success
&d lne co.srE,nrs
of rhe tupcness
Modd oftheMslinsa
ctoser
look in|o rhe figw3.3.1
ad tne
eatysis of th obseryed
oara rn comparison
to itc Lu.&
RiFnss
Las,
d impond
dpct is rcv.ated.
The
following
figee3.4
t whicb
an exlhsion
of fie 3.t,1,
in addrrDn
to Moon bing nonh
of
$c rcfiptic.
als
shows rhe M@n
b be sourh ofectipric.
In lhis 6e though
sign
of
latillrde. pM
oflhe
M@n tats c@
ofwhcrher
rhe tmgih
HT is to be added
or subrracted
nom
ln
-
,6 in equario. (3.1.
r t) or (3.3.6)
bur tuother qwsron
becones
rlever
rn rhe
cae shoh
in rhe
tisuE for sane as tbe Moon is huch tunner away
ror lhe Sun when
Moo. is south of $e Sun (in
nonhem
hemisphec),
rhe cese
n6 ldes
m of tishr
108
rd t mwh thidd fd !.d FlriFM@ dir.E. So n n
DosibL
thlr $e d6acrr eirh
m.lld
&
md @.r.qudtly strdla .o mr b. vi3ibt . Ilis i! p@j$ly
thc ce for rhe
obgMtaom m. 286,2.rd 272, lna @.ctn s ct.itried ro b. sl eirh nrld eyc
but the Lury RiFnB te i.di.d6
rh. otsuriB P@ imf.sibt. (My
lo, A&,
vlluet wh@ the Blbylonia. dilsio. atlos fi.n. So lb.
quGrion
lriss, for
pt.as
with hign6 bdlud.q etipric mch inclin.d rorsds hdia Dd dE
qegn
binA o.
hori@n !id. oI ilE eliptic ah@ld w giv. do.! .Uolle for !c? Shoutd rhe
p.I!
ol
tlE Rip.B Fundion {q be low th.. $c, e &cotding io 6glB 3.1.2 to 1.3 5 clos.
to tlE rltmr.l .quimr? TrF luF ii ddd,
lcr.rt
jn
lh. dilosio. of thc
@nsloinrs ofrhc Lu@ &F|3s tuturion wtEn ir i5 poi.t
d od rhr for rcry low AR",
v.ru.3 rh. d*qn of bw LAc hn okt agc.td hjc DAz i, E ofl.d ro ben sd. thjs
nay b. th. po$ibl
l6$n for rt. nrort n sirob@! tik. MDidd
!.d Fothdiigh|n
tu
qploriig
.el.ri@ b.tqq ARCV
.d DAz for the ft51 vhibitity of tu@ cresn
o,^.
--.
ig
Fig No 3 4.t: Spncriql
Trigonomfiic
ih..iFion of 6ndiiid,
of nq lu@ de*nt
t09
In cae ofMoon nonh ofediflh:
DAZ !
ES
=
EJ
J
JS lassine
I
es
-elr
@te
and
'n
c4c ofM@n soulhof(tipric:
o,lz
- o5
-
p1g
, 115
=
o,
"in,
*6s
-
6n
cos p
-
-[(DAZ)
{r.4.r)
(1.4.2)
(J4.3)
DAZ
siven by (l.a.l)
js
much
sfraller
$& rhar
eivcn
by (1.4.2)
for th. r.son
tar in
(3.4.1)
rhe difirEicc
of dqliiatioD
of rh Sun
qd
rhe
M@n (\
_
6M) is sna er |han
rr{ in (3.4.2).
wnh
k4er aRcL (SM')
for
M, (3.4.2)
as compared
|o M (1.4.r)
&ry
j,
rar8.r
bul
&[ or Rd. is sdc. Ahhongh
A&,i (Ra,
- &ryJ
r sme tdr the two ca$s bur
crc$cd
al M. is older, rhick..
and
brighrei
mucb soaler
rhan for M. Esutts into
dill.Enr
ofarcs
oftishr (ARCL)
or older
cE$eit with
large! ph6e.
Thus in case of in
case ofM it hst be difijcult
to ke the crescqr
s conp&.o
ro rne c6eofM..
Whenler
as is v.niet
(perpodicuttr
to rhc horiz!)
DAZ vanishs
tud
optihue-
aidnioo
of I Oo (when
Moon
is ctosesr
!o rhe
t dnh) b l2v (,hen
lhe M@i is
f.nhd
frcn
rh Ea.rh)
ccu_
As and whei
tu
i; nor vniet
lhe ol. DaZ cohs
inro
play
lnd
Oe oplimum
condiroN
for as ca b retded.
For hucn ls8er
valus
of DAZ
4d older
dd wjder
cescnr
may
b. visibte
wirh s@ er vahca
of ARCV or aD. So rhe
oodels inlolvine
ARCV-DAZ
rclarions
comc into play.
h these
hodel
ARCV
is a
runcrron
ofDAZ
so as should
aho be a fuction
ofDAZj
4,.
=
4.. cosa
ad ARcy
= ftDAz)=aL
Il0
This n@s rhar for coBtaor LAC (e
a)
ARCV decE|s
com|anr
9,
t.AG ed ARcv
e di@tty
lotDnionat
ro ech
ktnude
L
lrgc DAZ dd taige ARCL m@s mallr ARCV
LAC.
Duing Elarivety
ucnI
lioes rhe dploorions
of rhe @tist visibiliry
oa nd
rutu crsc.nt or rh lat visibjtity
of rhe old cFscnr b.gd wnh lhe obstuations
oad
in Alhens and iG viciniry
by Schnidt
md othes.
fteoretical
exploradon
was iniriared
rurc du
ro @leldtui@t
E6otu
ll)e ey paniculd
sbononiqt
qusdon
(Foth*inshm
1903).
h lhc beginning
of th. trcnlietb
ceirury n was
eatized rhat ncrhods
of verifying
dates, panicltarly
tum,
dotes, wcrc
nor avrjtable
md pspje
were @ncehed
6bout
the
6r6noorc.t
ondniom
thar govn
dE nsted rc visibilny
of $e rs lun.r .,esccnr
(FodE
nsllah,
t90l).
To evatuare
anonohicrl
condirions
for rhc ktiesl risibitny
of
::::::
*'*!'
"-"
"
*.ber
ofsrudies
,ppeaEd.
.rhe
slrk
ofr. K. Forhe,iishd
(1910)
hinsell4d
that
ofE.
W. Mau.dq (l9ll)
is of vjtal
importance.
aou
rhcsc
onu'bur'ons
*eE
bed
on fie nald
er. obcenarions
ot new luna
cr*enr
nade by
Augusl
Momeseo,
JutiN
schhidt
sd Friedricb
schn
@nriburo^
ee .,p,.r*,
i"
"'*
";;
;;;;:;Til:,#:lTJ:,i:;;
^,
.
lonn
n.ghao
claim
ro havc sueg.sEd
(in his
d,crc aprHed
in rh roumat
of
Philqophx
1 90)
lhat in ord.r to catcularc
thc rrue date ol phasis
on ough
ro have a
lable
of te requisne
depre$ion
of the Sun betow
honzon at fic
6oonkt,
or of lhe
aurtude
ol the
M@n at ttE $tuer
for difre
o8uld
dishnces
of the
M@r fom rhe
sun.
He h6 .l$ adnitted
abou
his hl'en*
.
Monhsn
in ,his rcead.
Motre.-;;;rJ,'*
T,,'1:::;:;llTf
moo.
hade
h the laGr
half of thc nine&flti
century
by Jutic
Schnjd|
Iriedrjch
Schmidr
and Morn*n
himslr
n hblcs
menlioned
e;liq
euld
be @nslrEred
on the
bdh of such
obFrystios
dut were povided
in Monm*n,
s chromtogie
lt8a3),
W_
lll
69{0. Fo(brilgb.(l (t910)
hs &!.rd,!od lt !. oh.{trdo.! giviq
cilit drB of
ot66htio!
od ir! r!$lnc
Fsvit
d Dy tioi.iaod ll. !E!Xind.,nd
thaidltrh
of t! M@ Ebiis
ro lh. Stl! r drc lim of Ms.r (or !ui!.)
crrqld.d by
Fo$dDgh.n
tin!.lt
Tt4 ob6.'vdo$.r.
,!lrrr!8ed
i! rh. T$tc No.
3.a.2 { h
sb. rddidool .rlc-rr@..
Tb culs &! .ts
Fs&d
oo o ARCV-DAZ
chti in
Fi8@ No 3.4.2. Fo{t.iishn
(t9t0)
.t$ Gidna
I ddrrEy
r.u. lhar is
r.prottuc.d
a Tibt.3.4.1
b.lo%
rhd
sivB
rt nisinM
lltiidc for lh. !.nibt.
@*a|l
fot rr|ridl!
valu.s
ofrcldirc .?hn'h.
H. .!o it"EtoFd
. mlrhoni.d
Gt rion lo dc'qitc
rtc k,E:
Mioioue
Atrtr*
- 12..0
_
0r.0OrZ,
(3.a.a)
]T1,:.*
y*
***
ni5 cod.
d.fn* a r.sioD
or sry lroud
rh6 poiot
of
$Ds
a $ow!
u n6
tgu 3.a.2
b.!oe. If, .l 6. d4
of su!.!
rL
crBc..l i! .boE
d! cu.rc
ir ltould
tc viliuc
orh.eirc
iot T[. cruE
h crinlit
to. Fo6qingh.n,s
T.bL No. 3.t.
t: Fortsiryhrn,.""-r,rffi
Fit. No.
3.al Fortdbgh!$!
clrl!
lt2
T.ble No. 1.4.2 Forh.dng[d\ Rutc
d66
- A@-on ii-
'
3'
1,1 lo&!
&
ia
I|l
w. d.firc a
pa@et
. !r
,
.,visibihy
pamerd,,
accordiDg ro Forheringhao
sl
rt
=
(aRcv
-
t2 + 0.00s21) | tO
(1.4.s)
rn lhc T!bl. No. 3.4.2 rhe tsl colhn @nrajd ihe v!l@ of ,. fo, mh
oD.eryaxon
Epond
by Forherineh@
ed rhq rh.lablc is $n d in rh. inccasiag
ordcr
ofyl . ln !i.w of{1.4.4)
iflnc lund attitlde is lcss rba. 12,-0-0..OO8Zr
lhe
qcscent
should
nol bc visible_
Alrmatct,
in vjw of(1.4.5)
if rhe value or ,ts is rcSalive the
ccsnl
shoutd nor be visible,
Thc vdB
of Elarivc altiiude
of the Moon dd irs Gtaliv
ainuths
aE rho* calcul.&d
by Fothqinghah.
Ir is e.s y
nobd thal out of 20
obsetuations
ao. which lhe varueof,r
is negatilc two obseryario$
ar posilivc:
One. on
Oci 27, 1859 (obseru.don
no.2)
od tbe 0lh0 on tlE nohmg
ot scpr.
14, t87t
roDsnar'oo no.4t).
Hosrver
he hin*lfdnilslhat
his marheh.dcl
elarion (3.4.4)
js
nor $ Etiabtca
tE sumary
labte.bla.
Thc eo is exhibile{r
i.lhe FiC@No.1.4.j.
All ir'c esl ofdE posnjvc
ob$dadons
e aborc FotheringtEn
3 vnibitiry
cw..
hsread ofEtying
on lh.
..bueb,.
rylDxihale natbeharical
nay consider
the
su6My
tabte
dala
and ltr a quadratc
cune
approxrhation.
Following
rhis we
oblliEd
lhe tolosins
@.a@n
ARCV
dd DAZ
jor
rhe shmarJ
rabt. r.4.r
d,h:
/RCv
= -0 0ot2g
Da z' +o.o7442aDAZ
+|.86429
(3.4.6)
ed dennc
e dlkrure
visrbitiry
pamercr ya
ba*d
or
apProx'&afior
d folto$:
I
L\ = URcl/ +a.00929D,42,
'.O.O14429DAZ _|t.s642g)I
|) (j.4_7)
Seond
d88
L@r squd
lt4
Tabl.No.1.4.3
5
fhis nbdi6c.tio! i! rn oL by Fo$dnBltn it lpplid to dE obseutio4
repsrd by Forh.ingh.n .rd e$lrs e
pc5I.d in Tlble m. I 4 I TIE dat! of the
lnbL n d$
pr*ftd
in FiA No I4.1 !t ir 4ily sa th3t rh l@t sq@e ntins ro a
s@nd dgE
polynohisl
h.5 id inprovcd $ylhin8 6ttF tN nore positive
ob*N.don have lilln into th mg ofn
g{ive vd!$ of vd Th* ee Nmbred 6?
(ofo.t 27, 1878) a$d l7 (F.b 20, l87l).
Dunng th sme.6 Mdundg (l9ll) @Nidrcd &olhr b6io data s.i
given in
the hbl. .o 3 4 4 b nr $e obwnioml drl..
20 30
hvl3bL cro.c.nt3 . villbL cr.8cnb . Forh6rinoham tute
Fig. No 343 Fothringhan s Rule
l16
25
F-d;:
Fi8 No 144
A last sque
qu.d6dc poltDnnl 6ncd b $jt d.L
iGld!
[E fi)llowing cl.rion:
at-v
DAz'1
PAzl
+ tt
(r.4 s,
lm 20
Usiig lbls
polynoni.t ed $e @nditid $d the
(,B@tt
would be visiblc if:
ARC1'>
!4: V1+r (34e)
a.d lppli.d i to dd. usd by rdtsirghd $e @h3 obrlid 4c
prc&tn
d in t$lc m
3 4.4 !dfig.no 3 44 In lh. tabb
t
t lh.
'visibility
p.mrcl dcfin.d asl
, ,
=f
no",
-l
DAzl
-P4.,\\
,fl!0o20))
(3 4 r0)
II?
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
-10
.
hisible Crecents . Visibt Crsconts
fig. No 1.4.5
Th. rrbl. 1.45 3how U[r !E @ft! br.d on Medd,s
oaM &. such
inprevcd Md rhs. b dly * obqvdid
j..
m 4j d le?l t4, tS7l, thd dqin6
eon rhc @rdidoa (3.4
9) IE irbt.
j
4.4 and dr fg!rc
ooln sr|N rh|r ood.t du ro
M.udq
is nu.h inpotld
s ohprld
lo rh. Dodet
(!l.
b ho Ein*hrn.
rin.lly in rhis vort
bolh the @ddq .trl. Forhdi|ghe
.tr rh.r due |o M&i<t, &
appljed ro thc Ft..i.d 463 obs.rio$
nm
'!br
nr6d),e (Od.b
2OO4)
nE @lb
e p'lsrd
i! ffBod
m. I 4 6 (Fo.tEngn
n,r mdct)
&d 1.4 ? (Mr!id6t
mod.t)
arld oc rpFndix-tr (Colu@
C .d D, r6pdjidy).
Th. fiCW m. 3.4.6
Dd dE r.bte i, r'p.ndir-n (@bm
C) lhow Lt l rhq. !E a
larae
tumbd (90
our of t96 po.nirc
3igtni.g) of obb ,on! wh.n
rh. dcaar B
reloned
vbibte fi.r dwin. AM
FortEi.eho,s
trFdet rd Lc betow rt. linir
mvij.rt
by th tul (3 4.4)
d@ to Fdtdi,Bh.r
Thi. a|g.q!
tb.r rrh. ll@s
of the dte is
highly
relr.icted
to ih d!r. m which Fothdingnm
wdr.d
on and .equind
siou
ll8
E- 6i
6i
intTii:i
'E
na
s
n3
E
ll9
:i::
alF{s_?{";+E:'-.-l
{-:
'l
Fia. No l4 7
On lh orher han4
figure 3 4 ? ,nd rh. tdlte i. 6ppe.dix tl
od ol 196 pGniv!
nShd.Ss
o,ly lO o6@tirotu
d*i.1e |ion
Ihur M.unders
etton
is mrch b.rid
lho dd of Forb.gnant
t20
lh. floft e nol s su@esstul
s lh. Babylonia cdlcnon ed Lud RiFnc$ Law
coBider.d in the prelioN
two articls
6 fd s lb. nMbq ofdeviorion fon the law in
the ob*tued
@seni d @ren.d.
Anolher
eforr ofgEar significance
rnar h found in tir.6tuE
is based on rh wft
of Schoch ( I93O) and h known
d lndie
Melhod give.
in the Exp tnlnion ro The trdian
Astronohi.at
Ephenetis
, t^ ttlh
nlhod dr ba5ic dala u!d rs givs
hee il lablc no
3_4.6,
A leasr
square quadralic
polynoniat
fincd
b rhis dala yields
lhc fo owing Etaionj
A nC t
=
l0 t74l
-
u
Ot 3l)DAZI
_
O.@aj
DAZI
(1.4
r r)
UsinS lhBpotynomiaI
od rhc condirion
dur rhecre*enr
$outd
be \6rble
ii
/ RC v >1e
it4i
- o.ot
lTDAzl_
o.@st
DAZ.
(t.4.12)
@d applied
il to dara
*l
Pc*nled in fis. no.1.j.8.
For 6is figuE
,// Bed G
Ihrs
hrl( $e Esutrr
ohained
aE
''visibilily
peamelef
defined
sl
\ =(ARCV
_
lt}.3:,43
_
O.o137DAzl _
o.!n97
D,12..))
(3.4.1:l)
,,,,,.i."
""
-O
19 our 196 porir.\e
sishrinss
Dar devidrc
rbn
l,ll. condi
on
TIs rill rhe hrer
hatfofrhc
2Od
c.otury
rh. Indiao
n.rh@
ws consid.red
to be rhe besr.
Horck
in viw
of rhe
analysis
of Babylonian
cnlcrion
and the Lund
Ripen
s Law
exploFd
6d prsenred
in this voik.
dot w.d rhe Indim
mehod
rs s sle6sful
in |.ms
l2l
of
Fsnivo
3igidier dwidirB froo rbd.l. Dring rlE nodsa tis6 rh. Belylonim
cniqioo dd Ripenss tuaction h.! no( ben exploEd s rho@8fly 4 is done in rhe
wott This cxploorion hs lqd ro a sianili@1flnding rhai rh. eient md rh nnievat
nE<tls for rn orlien visibility of @ tuD ff*rr e s u$tuI s loe of d
3.5
{-.
ilr
.;'.':i.
.,
r lgrlq-;':t!
*:;19;!t
*j:.t
l
Fig. 3 4.3
COMPARJSON
AND DISCUSSION
TIE wort
F6qn.d
i. rhi, .h!rr6 6 b. sDtuis.d
e & os:
For
o obe*rioid
lur
c.L.d!r h is inpondr
b rel,& uur rhe @ndnion
"binh
of @ MM
o difri@
b.fd. tqt $dc- i, d .t .|| . rclirbl.
ondition for visibi|ny
of B tuE @$.,n
Thij i! p.niotdy
impolt nr in
es wnen tbe M@.
@ s.t b.fore $ma *n .na @juldion Thus
a lunr
@lerdd bred o.onjudid
ofM@ *ith rh. sr b.forc trE b..t $nst dd
e obseitio@t
tue c.lcid.,
rh.t ..qui6.dut
sighdne of rh. ew cltenr
nav lo De slnirtty
dif@nr.
t22
Tne ddc oa aliflic wirh lnc horizon plats
d impondt
olc for th condirioE of
edli.st visibility ofn.w tun( cese.i. For norlhd h.misrhcre
if. conjunctio.
falls nes aururual equinox
this ssle is snall for borh hiddle md high.r
latitudes md fircfoE
cBeol is eidlcr cloe to rhe horian or .vcn blow lhe
hori&o .r rhe lin ofsu*!.
Th.EfoG old.r @scenG may *ape si8hli.g.
Th
acicnt Bobllonie
crildion
for the elid visibitit,
or new tunar
ccscenr
h6 the hienc$ suee$ pcencge
(96.4rr'o)
monesr alt rhc nodets
consid.Ed
in
lhis cbaprr
for posiljve
sighdigs
coGidered
in lhjs tr!,k.
Ho$!ver,
$c su@e$
perccnlage
fof neSalive
lidri.gs
is nol good
enouSh (59.9%).
Th$ the o!e6[
succ.ss pe
rcen rzge ot lhe Babylonie
c rir.rion
is 75.4%.
The
ideas retated
b lh. Luar
Ripeness
tuncrion
thal deletoped
dlrin8
$e
nedi.val
ca ae
lhobughly
invcsligared.
Wirh
ftoucm
rahnques
of
ohpulltioB
rhis
hs Esultcd
i o a useful
ne6od
for det mrnrng lhe day
ofrhe
fi6t sighdlg
of
@w lumrc&$enr.
The
onl/ probteh
thar sdaced
againsr
lhis
nethod i3 lhc sightings
that deviared
from
rhe nodl
i. hisher tatlludes.
Thee are
older
c,*ents
a.d brighler
crcscentr
h,v
lowq
Rip.ness
11"' ly:.
rh
s@ess per.nlas.
of Lunar
RiFnB
rarv
for posnive
siel incs
G 9.8% (bcrb
rhan
alt hod.ls
coNidcEd
excepl Babylonitu
cril.rion)
bul rhal fo
regadve
sightings
n only
57.?% (wose
lhan
all ofter
crneria
consideEd
in this
.hapte.).
The o!.hlt
succe$ p.,cenbg
is 72.l./o.
Theadw.rage
ofnelhods
lhar
sre bakd
on Etarion
beNeen
ac ofvision
&d
!hdve
.zinulhs
ed thal
dc moE
lhomu8hly
invesric"ted
durjng
Eod.rn.6
is
a6o exptored.
Il is fomd lh,
rhe Indie Dcrhod
b.sed
on dr b.sic
dala of Scho.h
is rhe
besl aDones!
lhe ARCV_DAZ
ba*d
Dedods
amon3st
the npidel
Dodels
ofte e&ly 20,r
cenrur',
rh rndid
De$od
be.l
uccss peEenlaec
tor posnrve
srghrings
{eo.l"b)
rollw.d
b) rhe
Mlmdets
herhod r84?%r
and rh.
me$od due
ro Maundcr
t23
(54.lYo).
Howv.r, in t m of
Forhdinghm\
crilfion
is rlE
chaptet wnh
94.7% fotlMd by
/67.8r/'.
th. su.6e pc@nla8e
{o. eSatve sighdnes
bcn (@ons$
slt m.thods consid@d in th.
Momdeas (82%)
ed thn rhe Indid ednod
The .uth@ ciry or succ.s
of .ach is m.6uEd
in rems of nhb.r
of cGscnr
siShtirgs wirhour
oprical aid
(posi,jve
sigtrings)
rhal ae In aEreehent
qnh
$ecnl.non.
Some aurhorc
have sre$ed
on lesdng
cdt.ria
on rhc basis oI nunbcr of 6es whcn rh.
cnlqon prcdicts
sighrins
ed dlc
qe*ent
i, nor s@n (nee.rv.
sghrncs) (Far@hi
e1 sl,
1999)
6 wctl.
Howvq
odlcB
hav indicated
rhar cban
inoe.s
wirh
insca*
in moe .,"","J;;
;;::,;:T:::"::i1",#;
1988a).
-IheEfoE
our eftpbdis
is on .xploring
@nditions
uder ehich
cE$enr
cm
be
scn
od not
on whcrh.r
il is &rE y
stu or noi e rhat lDNo.s
may be 3tlchcd
for
Judeing ft-eliabiliry
ofthe
cl.jG
of siShtin8e
A3 menrioned
cadier
thee c& be a
ro ngadve
sightings.
rfa
c terion pedicb
sighilg
snd
mc
@rccnr
E not 6crldly
*en d@s
nol sl dll ncm lhat 1h. $irerion
is not rcliabic.
TIE
:::lq
condi,roro
8@,ry
str6, vis,brny.!cn
,f
'nc
sry,{
no, ovft$r
as sh,rr br *.n
rn rhc nxt chapG.
B.tole
authcndcn,
of a cdledon is ,
:jTt
":t,
::_
* *;
;
;;;;".;"
*:lj::
:"ffj;j:T
Frwcn
the dimtt
illmimied
Ihin
cecot
ad lhe bignrnes
ot IM&h
sky,
The oveEll success pcrced.ge
of rhe In<tian mcthod is 79.5%, oflhc Maundeas
merho! is 81.lqodd
rhat ot FohrinShm\
method a 7@.
t24
Chapter No. 4
PHYSICAL
MODEIS
& THEIR EVOLUTION
AI thblclh rhe twen rh .entury
and Inro $e ienry ftrst century a tot o,
wotk h.s been done on vanous aspects ot the
probtefr
of vtstli ty ot new tqnaf
ce$.t.
thse
other t$u65 In.tud6 (t)
tonth o, tunar
cr6sc6hi
{Danjon
1932.
1936, yas
19a3b, 1garta,
McNa y,
schaeisr, 199ft, McN.xy,
19a3, sotran, 2005,
Qu6hl & khan, 2006,
.rc,) (ia)
the mintmun
o, timtthg
tonga(on
of n6w vistbr.
lunar
cfescenr (Danjon,
1932,
ras
19a3b
6tc,), (thr
$asohat varaa ons In the
anbt vjstblliry
oi .ew luna,.r.scenr
(llyas,
19A5,
Crrdwel & !any, 2OOO erc.).
On ot rhe mosr stgntfi.ant
or these and
olher sffons B rhe hrroduction
of rhe
-|rrohattomt
Lmr
D6te Ltne"
or |LDL (contras0na
rh. |nr.ma
onat date ltno
(solar))
by lltas (ltyas!
19A6b).
Thoogh the td6a h.s nve, D.en
!s6d h
pbctic
of
lunar cat.daE
but rhe
!me has ben erten.ivety
usoc |n lonrare (ror
insrance
luooioat
by t{an4r
lnd
A@urat.
llmo by Odeh)
as a gu|d
for the rcgtons
of
vlslblllty
or i.vtltbllty
oi ths n6w
l!..f crs6nt,
Howver,
In thi. wort
the main
emphasts
ls on th6 modets
rhat deat wlrh rh probt.m
o, eaniest
vlsrbi ry of new
lun.r cesco.t
so that other tssues
6r nor constdered.
The ri6t
asr@phlstc.t
modet fo, ervtng
thls polreh
was rhat o, aruin
{8tu1n, 1977),Ihis
kas ba$d
on tho av.rage
bdgttness
hodetrorru
tltoon,
rh6
averaSo
b.tghtnoss
ot the twlighr
sty and
lhe theory or extlnction ((ooman,
1952,
B6mporad,
1904,
Stedntopf,
1940). Sruh was
,bo rhe rid
jn
modern
rimes ro
exprott
lho v.rtaflons
of tunrr
s.miii.meter
wlth
rhe Eaft]vtoon
dlsrance,
Afioturds,
appared
lh6 .xtenstve
u!6 o,lho phFlca
.nd scionce
ot vtslblity
by
Schaetor
donng rh6 t6st quarte,
o, th twe. eth @ ury
Gchaefrer, 19s6,
gaaa,
19aab,
1989,
1990, 1991.,
1993) ba$d
o. vrdous
racto6
ike armosohoric
e{inctton .nd sky briShtn* ds to vanou. objocrs l6adtn to th ttmtttng
mal tude or the sky. H6 al$ lhe.att2od rhe hportance ot (a) tack ot hrorm.lton
about seather predrclton
st iems a.d (b) necd ot tunher
qtlo.6
on ot th6
physlolos/
of huhan vi3lon c.pabthbs. Thus,3tnc6$ rheoFltcat modet teadilo
Lunar Rlpnes law by modtqvat Mus ms th6 only rheoreltcat modts a du ro
Bruln and Schaeter In rhl.
york
Schaoter'. t$hntque! .16 .pptied ro th6 ,6cent
obs.aalion.l
data and a.e toond to b6 In
good
aet!metrt wtrh the obsetoalonal
The exptotts or
yattop
(ya[op,
199a) whlch was .gatn mor of enoticat tn
.aruE b ba36d on the ob$da{onat
dsta and
p.n
o, Brutn,. mod6t bur wtrh rhe
srmprrcrt
ot a 5tngl6 par.meref
crito.ton tor the n.w oes.enr
usibtr(v, Thls
Yallop s modet c.. b termed
as a s.mbmpt car moder. one o, rh m6t
srgnlllc.nt
connbutons
ot
y6lop
ts hts concept of bst th of vistbfiiy, Tne
sonware
Hrtatol
computes
borh th. q_vatues
(ya
op, 199a) and rhe naCrltod
@ntrst (rhe
rerm cotned In rhts work) rhal tsthe dnf.ron@
o, rhe r{agnjtud
ot tho
llroon
and th. timtflnS
hagnltud6
of rhe sky ctos6 to cr*enr.
Ihe conpartson
ot
lh tso i3 di$ussed
..d som. ot th6 extra ordtnary oDsendtbns
are cdflc.flr
analy$d.
rlle mosl stgniftcant part
ol thts ch6pter ts the dvetopnenr
ot a new
srnge psrsmeter
crttodon
for th fl6r vistb lty o, new tuhar crsc6nt,
we have
con3ldred
the acruatbnghrne$
ot the cr6c6nt rhat b pnase
dep.ndnt(instead
of
aver.. bdntnBs
ot ihe tul Moon
ctos. to horizon
usod by sruh).nd
rho.ctual
b
ghrne$
ot lh iw ght
3ky close
lo rhe potnt
whee rn cesce
rs
prese(
For
lh bighhe$
of bolh (the
63conr
and th sky) the loots devoloped
Schr.fer.nd
otheE
hav6 been osed, thts
has ,6!utted hlo new vlrtb tty and lmtring
vbtb iry
cunqr lhb te6ds to a nw st of basic dat. whtch In run E.onvened
hro a rcw
slnge paramoter
cdredo.
ba*d
on . retarion het en aRcv and width o, crescenl.
lh6
osr mod.t ts anorhr somfempnbat
modot, Our cdterion
is lo{.(t
to havo
bettor
succe$ percentago
than any orh.r crile on devetopod
dq ng rh 2Oh
t26
4.1 BRUIN'S PHYSICAL
MODEL
Atuin bsed his wolk (BNin,
1977) on 1he obseded avedge brigbh.ss of sky
agaiBl rhe posirion
of th. sun b.los ho,iD, ,ner ssel (0ut natched tnc resuls ol
K@h{ et. al.
0
952)) and &e bdshrB of rh. M@n s a tu&tio. of ddud., b6ed or
lhe 1h6ry ote inclion dw BnpoFd (Benpomd,
l9O4). The fi8ures gi!e,
by him, Fie.
? $d 3 (Bruin.
1977, pp.339)
arc r.poduced
here in Fi8 No.4.t,1. On rh. b6h ofthcse
sludies Aruin developed
the Lund visibilily cuFes (relarin8
atdtude,
, of
qeeenr
plottcd
asainst s, lhe els depE$ion
blow hoizon) 6d fie Lioiring Visibitiry
curyes
{Elatine,
+
r,gai6r
r) ed pEenled
in fis. no. 9 (intude<t
in rh. eme Fig No.4.Ll)
(Bruin.,
1977pp.339).
Fis ? shows
how $e .!e,a8e
brighhss
of the sLy ,s diminishes afre!
suist s a
Iunclion
oI the allitude
of dE sun, lhe elar dcpG$ion
or orp r, s !n. su g06
btow
hodrcn. Fig 8 (Btuin,
I977) shos
ihe @iarion of rhe avragc brightne$
offu
M@D
ar
s a fnncrion
of the alritude
ofthe
M@n n above honzon
.r
h. Lnnar Visibility
odes
devloped
by Btuin shown
in ng 9
@ruin,
r97?) are dvetopd
using the two functioB
Asum.
a panicular
brignness
ofsky after rh. sunse!
ey lU_
stitb, ead our lbc
corespondhg
sotar deprh below
horizon
fbn nC 7, r = 4,a degEes
m rhis casc. In o!de!
lhat lhe
@en is visibh
in such
a bright sky lhe ctscenr
should also
be at lsr a
bighl (lor
s!ilb). Then
ftod
fig 8 Ead onl rhc alftud.
of ihe
M@r wirh Ih.
coftrpo.ding
bnghhs
rhar @Des
our to be,
=
1.9 dgr*s.
This pmduccs
a poi
on
!h. visibility
curye
jn
Iig 9 1hal shows
a rcta onbrwentheahruderofth.cresc.nted
ne &ld dip r below hdjrcn
foi a panicultu
brighrness
of cre*enl
and oa sky.
Thus a
visibilitycure
isa coltectionofpoinbG,i
=//r), shere
oe bnenbes
of cr*.nt
ad
thal.of
sky mrh
for cooshfl
widrh
of cE*nl. The qucslion
is rhar fig 8 giv6
rhe
brishl.ess
of&c
tull M@n (dound
30 d hiiur.s Mdc) and rh cGcenr
is
eeneo
y
less
rhan t alc minule in width.
Bruin
Galias this probteh
bul t.av$
i! s ir is by shrinS
Oat any dikrcpalcies
shau b accounrd
for by soh. rtnd
of
.Gcsbh,,
taclor As
121
cxnibircd in n8 9 ir is mr.d lhnl
dif,cFnt vidrh ces@t3 @
girq
aI $le dip r
=
0 dgees lh. ninimM dliNds for
2 3
a2
Tbh hcms Aar rbe bndrh$ of lh. sky ar rhe* atrirudes (r) G we .s rhe brishrne$
of
th cBent of@ftsponding
widrh when lhe su hdjul $r. I. ord{ dul l,rtc ce$. is
rt 16r a bright s the sty wilh dftEding ahiludc rh. c@e
nusl b. wider ud sidc,.
Tnes ar thc sanins poinls
of rh. vnibilny c!ryes fial aG aU shaqty d(rtsing
f!.crions ol the sotar dip, That heons lhar not only the brighh*s
oi cc$e bul $e
brighr&s
of sky (har
cqul alons lbcs cwa) borh diminish
sh!+t, wirh
$e
inc@ine
st& deFEssion.
Thr.forc, for larger values
ot r rh. ee$ent of sne
brightne$
@ b. $en at
lower
od loer alftudc
,. Tlw
arc al$ the sianing points
or rn cums
ttat show lhc
b.h.viou
of, +
s
{sh ofglribd.
of M@n ed lh. sot{ depb) agaiGr th. $tar dept r
Ahhou8h
the sm of th. atlitude /, of $e cresced
dd the r me $lar dip Eoains alnost
consbrt
4 $e ce*enr gos
doM dese cw6
coftsponding
to fixd crcsnt width
ed thcEby ro nxd
brighhess.
As
(he
atrirudc of ce$.hl daca*s
0r. sky brighrness
n4l d<Eases
bul rhen closer
lo rhc hodzon the \isibilill
sbns deo4in8.
Tnus rhese
cuNes fir$ sr.d decrsing
with inc,eding
!, reach d hininud
ed lhcn sl,n i.cre6ing.
This in facr shows
the raryjng
@slrst of the brigl JEs, ol lhe crcsn
md lhar of te
sky. with
smatler r and td8.! , lhe contAl
is ag.insl dc v6rb,tity,
As , incpses
dd /l
decEass
$e contFsr
beo66
favoudbt.
fo! vhibitity
of c!$enr.
However.
6 /,
funho dqees
rhc @nusl
again bc@Des
dfavombt.
Ior v$ibility.
t28
Fig. No. 4.l - ! fic fi8u6 fron BNin s Pap.' ( t 977)
rrr, ?,
rc rddb-r rr oi *l
t29
For thimer c6c.nr rh ,r +
s aSaitur r
plots
Sive
thc b.st time of vhibility 6 the
poinr whi.h is the midhum of rhe cwe, h rlso 3ueSens a tug. of tim. for *hich Oe
crc*dt my Ehajn visibl- Th* de excellent id6 rhar @uld help cre$ent-hunre6
bul untdtunably Btuin has nol pesenld
a clear cul ompuratond lrchriqu. Brs.d on
sihil& ided Schaefer ha worled out Enorher schehe of computario. lo b discu$.d
latcr. The schcnc for computrtiohs is dduccd frch the visibility cuNes olBruin sd is
bsed on ll)e dinimum point
of rbe r + It plor
againn s. A relarion belken rhe cE$.nl
vidth cor.sponding to d r
+
, cwe sd rhe valu. of , +
r ar rhe minimum oi lh.
cufl. nay be d.duced fron abularing rheF ratucs. For lhis purpo*
rhc data deducrd
fiom 6g 9 b, YaUop (Yallop,1998)
is d follows:
The valus of ARCV ore the valucs of ,
+
r picked fbo rh. ninimln of rhe,
+
r cufl es
asaisl r whi.h coqespon.ls to the b.sl
-tine
ofvisibihy ofcresent. Tlh dar! 6 edto
a dird degd polynonial
usinS lean sq@. apptuximrion lqdr lo the follovine r.larion
Table 4. L2
2 3
ARCV
=12.4023
9.487arv +3.9512W' O.5632tr' (4rr)
Tnis
(
an be tEnslomed ro lh. \ Fibitrly oaEmero
.
r, lunc,ion as to'toq:
v),
=(ARCV
-(12.4021 9.481W +3.95t2t/)
_0.5632W)Dtrc
(4.1.2)
Tnis crn be le$6d on rhc obscnarional
dara with the visibitiry condilio thal a cssce.l
should be visible if,, >
0 olheNi*
it should E@in invhible. Using condiion (a.1.2) on
lhe data *t ed ro evatuar.
n rhods in ch.prr 3 dlc plor
w obhined is shoM in ligu.
no. 4.1 ,2. ln this fig@ lhe cue
nmed
..Boin\
Limit,, is the plol
of $e equrion 4. t .2.
|]0
Th. rd of th.
plor
CD$ th. rc|t|iE.Xirtde (in d.8r).gaiMr th. cltsdr wirhh (i.
I snd9 l@ldd ar dE bs tinc of visibility for @l obsd8rioi of ttE &tl sel
coNid.r.d ii th
peioos
chl9iq. All !h. pd iE siglding cas .rd ihe @lrs of
cdlculalimr b.$d d (4. L2) @ 31Em in Trbta 4 | 3 TtE @not.r. dda sr b shom i,
2
R.--E-'_;"_
r-r*.rl.sc.G,wu.ca*
Fig. No 4 1.2
ApFidix.|u
slDB rl|
@hs of .rptyin8 Btuin.s
[bn,
yttrop,s
ondid) itdi@ (ro
be disssd in rexr rnicte) .nd th w dftdim
dvetoped in rhj3 woli (ro
be repond
in anicl. 4 4 betoe)
undq rh. hQding
-Mod.r
tne firn @Enn otriaitu
lh. vat!* of
visibilily pmmetd
d.fnd by (4.12).
TrE Ddl lh cotunr,
e ror the orhq rh
ltl
t32
lll
tJ4
tlq
?$I;;
135
Our ofth. 196 positiv
sighring
in the @pt. t4 cs6 d.qarc rron th. Linjr d@
!o Btuin.
TheEfoE
rh. nodet du! b Bruin is thc best mongsl
ql
ihe orhe, 20o ccntury
nod.k ad is s good
$ lh. Lufu
RiFn*
Law. Ar nx es rhai daiar.
f.oo
Brbylonid (io.rion
atso dcviak
froE Bruin,s nodet.
A ctoer look in b ttE
derails of
14 caes $at deviab
fron Bruin,s
modt sve.ls oEt rhe la cses
devi.rilg
frcn the
Luar
Rip.ness
Law and lh.e 14 caes have 8 common
cascs. rn. fihl I cs.s
ofvisible
cNolntable
t.3.1 (ob*nation
no.286,2ed
272) ofoncrec
cros to auruDnal
.qunox
have !alu6
ofve srlt aboE
Bruin.s
timi!
siyen
by (4.r,2).
A. n @ di*ussed
'n
snicle
1.3 the ce!ce.&
in 6ese
.6es eE older o
vi'ibihypo$ibre.
rh. Bruin,slt.i,i,b.,.d..rh"b,ich.::,:;f,J:1':;T::
cases ae erisfying
1ne Btui.\
lioir
despite having sEEll las.
Our otlhe
six cdes lhat dviat.
fror Btuilt linit
bnr not fbn LUM
Ripenes
raw{obs.4o.413,434,I19,ll5,2S5
ed 290) fiEi fiG havc
qalt
^Rm
valu6 (o.ol,
0.061 and 0.07
rcspedivly)
so dc hsginal
for Led Ripen*s
Law.
Sihitdly
si, of the
Ijg that deviat
fbh
rhe Lu@
Ripn $ t.w but rc! f@h Btuin,,
ljnir (obwlrioa
numb6
286,2,2?2,314,6t3
ed 716) firsl lbG
have b*n dscussed
befoE.
The n.xr
1lz
t36
two ll4 ad 613 have smaU v, v.lu6 $ dc m&gitul ds in BNint Mod.l. Tn hsl
one
(obs. No.7l6) is asain u old ag., wide ond bdClt crceoi
Ths sc ob*rve that 6c Bruio's Linit md the Lund Ripen.ss hw ee nol
exaclly supplcm.ndng eh oth.r blr thcy @ rh.rically cquiql. Howevd a
Brui. s linit is rakin8 brighhe$ into considqation theEloG Bruin's limit h moE
logicat ud noE su6sful.
4,2 YALLOP'S SINCLE PARAMETER MODEL
To devclop his onc
pdndd
nod.l of firsr visibihy of luMr clt$nl Yallop
used Bruin s wort in order to .xi6ct optimum crc*enls *idth for vdious rehtive
ahnud$ o. @s of v'sion ARCV, nedion.d in ptvio6 anicle. Like Folhcdnghan
developed a lomula cllline ARCV wilh DAZ on lhe bask ofht sunnary ldble da|a,
Yallop coroider.d fie bsic dau for dveloping a Elalion blren ARCV md lhe Nidth
of crescent W, Hh data (froft pase
2 ol NAO T*hrical Note No. 69 (1998)) is
Epioducd in the oble no. 4. | .2.
Hoselcr. d slal.d hy Yallop, f6m 1996 Mdh HM Nautical Aldanac Ofllcc
ddided ro abndon i!3 tcsl bared on the Bruin mlhod (4.2.1) for lh. one baed on lhc
''Indi.n" melhod d thc lndie mthod
produced mor scnsiblc rcsults fo! old .gc
s'-shrings al high alirnd6 thai occuB at l.rsl once d y.r fo.lalnudd rtomd 55 d.sd'
Bed on fie sorli of schoch (1930) th. b6ic dara ued in the Indis. melhod h
siven
in
DAZ 0' I0. 15. 20.
I00 30
Tatrl.No42l
As rhe width of rh
qesent
is
sivcn
by
(2.E.9) dd thst @ abo 6e wifien as:
tt7
rr'
=
ls<t
-
c.{A RCv).os(D,4z))
(4.2.D
While applying Brui!'s melhod (qu.tion 4.1.2) or lhe Indim method
(4 2 2) $e actual
vidrh t/ sbould be consid@d
(nol
a @nstonl l5 e minulet. The method says lhat if
,4,RC,/ for lhe
place
of obseruation is norc than $e value of lhe right nmd side oa (4 2,2)
the .Escent sholld be visible. Thus a visibilitt
pameler may be deind s:
a$uming ih seFi-dimld of tne M@n to be 5 con$lnt 15 dc ninutes. This basic Daia
cs b. t@sfomed inlo .Lt! rclating the width of the cesenl ed @ of lhion ARCV
likc thlt in table 4.1.2 ofYallop bed on Btui.. Yallop tr4Iomed ihal d4ta fittine it lo
r cubic polynomial6ing 16l sq(@ appoximdion 6d ohainqlIh. following eladoni
ARCy
=
ll -aJ7l -
6.3226u/ +0.7119tf1
-0.10)8w'
Yallop ds @nvert d Maundd's condilion tom DAz-based lo lhe width-bsd
and oblaircd lh foUoving cubic reladon b.tw.et ARCV ed W:
ARC|/ lJt78)
e.Olt2w
-
2.O1OaW1 -Ot16OW'
142.4)
(4.2.)
V| -\ARCV
(rr.8J7r
-
63226W +073r9w'-0tntw')Jtto
(4.2_3)
Yallop alls lhG ,/p 6
4-value.
In gntal if the visibilily
pemetei /p n
Positivc
lh.
crcsce.l.may b s*n. Applyins this lisibility condnio. on rhe dala et of chaPtct 3 ii is
found rhot 16 positive sighi.Ss out 196 deliate fom this lndian visibililv condilion
Thcse d.viating cases ae shoM i. 6guft 4 2 1 as vhible ciescenls below the lndian
"Limit'
ed re rabulated in rable 4.2.2 .nd ihe rsults for cosPlele dao set ats prescnled
in rppndixlll io the s4ond colmn und.t lhc heading "Models"
l. view of lb'sc
eluhs w find rhar rhe Bruin's Mo&l is ndgiMlly better ihm Yallop's crnction fo! this
B8
*lich l6ds ro tlE visibiliiy pabr..ld:
,ip
=
(,{XCr.
.
01.t733-9.0312W
+2011J4W" 013601/
)/10
(42t
Fig No 421
. lnda Umir . htsibl.c.e
ApplyinS Mendd's nodifid ondition to thc daia sr of Ch.pLr I it is fou.d
thal oul of 196
positiw sightings @ iher.27 clg th,l dwiat fron the 6nd;lion
d.fined by
(4 2 5) rhe se e shoM in 6g@ 4 2 2 Thus Me 6s nodited
@tdition is dill mr bdd th3r th. ltdiu lr|d rn Btuit's @rditios All thc 14 {,g
rnat ddilr. iom Bruin s linit tte d6nd. lion rh. Indie linn Ttu rvo tddidonll
wr io!! m. 3r4 .rd 33) ttd ddid. fron lndis $nn & Idtd to b. tugjn.l cet
(vr = 0 ol8 and o oo2 repedively) in Y.lloP! Indiln dEd.l Thu3 thc t@ hod.ls ar
in
clore sgr4rcot s Iney re both bas.d on sinilu lpprs.hes a.d onlv slishtlv dillq itr
i
{
Fig No 4'2 2
lD addirion 10 @Ndting .ll visibiliiy otditions from DAZ-bas.d lo th. Widlh-
b!*d Y.llop achievd tqo orhd rdeltbl. t8ks. Oft oftheh is hh d.ducion of BBt
ine of Visibihy The otht r.Mbble ontdbllion liom Yallop is io tkaw lincs
140
b.twe.'rgiotrs of v&ids vbibility condilions on lh. b.s of viribihv pdma.. ,/}
used in lhe Indian mdlDd th|t be cals
6.8tu
.
Fis.No423
Fdthc bd rinc ofq.sit lisibililv' hc nor6 ih.t h fg 9 of Btuin tlE siniM
of viribilitv c!tues of , t r agaiin s lor different
ges.ent
widths, fom a slrsisl]t line
which whs Drcj.cld
nels tn orisin of the @rdiMt svst'm
(" r) The 3{m h
shom h6e in fi8u.. 4 2 3 s a G{t lir.
PNing
ttroSli niiinun of @L @rc Th'
slop. olrhis saSl lin.i3(, trta/4d,rs
5/{ Itis dnimun @@sponds to lh'
bd vilibility @dnio|\ thc b.d cerlln bd}6
rlE N6'ee briahtns ortlt d(v !fl|
the b.iShtness oa th. c..stl ..dding lo Bruin Yall@ inrdPr'tt it a 'poinr in tm'
rhNt rlivi.!s "the
tim lin" beiv@ the Sunst ts ed lhe M@n!t l, in a nlio 5 4 Thus
rhie "poi.t
in tin" i3 th. b.!i tine I, of c..s..ot
vitibilitv
Sivd
bv:
t,=
5\ + 4\rs + LlG)
,
9
T. *!1,4c
l4l
(427)
Finally, Y.llop d.duccs rhe visibihy @ndilios for dillcrcnt M8es oI q_vatu4
aic. a detailed dltysk of rhe dlta *r of Nund 256 obsdado6 avaihble in his timc.
Our Esulti in lh. sdond l$1 colmn of rlblc in appndix-lll, e lPpliqtion of lhc
Yalloo s condnion
(bascd
on bsic dala of schoch, l9l0 or lhe Indid ndhod) io! $e
doia selcted inchapter 3 wbich is taLh mostly iion Odh (Odeh,2004) Theconditions
d.duced by Yallop d. Eprodued heE in labl.4 2 4 Ihese conditio.s e iddicalo6 for
lisibility eiih or wilhout oPlica! aid.
In all crloldjoE in rhis rcrk rhe coiDur.rioa have b.6 dotu for this besl tim.
sivcn
by (4.2.7). EsFcially the calculatiotu fo. rhe iable no. 4.2.2 iD $ltich rbe Indid
condition (4.2.4) c used lhc @mputations ac done for this best tim..
The linilins ralucs of
t
weE chosn for lhc aix cnbria a to F for the following reens
(Yallop,1998):
A lo@ limit is rcquird to spdl. ob*talio6
$at d uivial 6on rhos l'ul
nave ed. .len.nt ofdifiqitv. Accotding
10 Yallop il wc foud that lhe id'al
sirr^ion ARCL =
l2o nd DAZ = O"
prcducd a Fnsible cut-otl
poin! for shich q
=
+0
216, Tnere aG Ill exmDles i! Tabl. in appendixlll
G'cond
lai column)
whn q exc.eds this value, ad i.
8.Mal
it should be vrv ..sv lo se 1he new
Tlble 4.2.4r Thc
t-test
crileria.
{A)
q> 0 216 ENily visible (,4ICl 2 I2'r {EVl
(B)
02le,l> {014
visible und(
p.rfd condnioN
(v
U PC)
(c) May nedoptrtl lid'o find cerdIMNOA)
(D)
{ 160:4
>
-0
232
w-itt neo oprielaia o frna crescent tRoet
(v)
(E)
-0
2l>4'-0 29q froivsrbG viii[lcmpe,4nC.
< 8 5'tlt
(D
(F)
4-299>q
-tlor
'sitk,
ueto" Dujon tinir;Rcl < 8'
I
142
(B)
(c)
(D)
c@dt in ln.e m,
Providcd
th.c is tro obscaing cloud in lhc sky The
rponed
posilive sightings i. dr6e cascs e I 14. Tns it is @mble to consider
cscs wilh
I
> +0.216
10 b. lhose wbcn the cccnl is esily visible.
Fon obseryc^ rcporls it has been fou.d that, in
gcneral,
t
=
0 is close to lhe
lowr linit for fi6t visibility ud.r plfecr ahosphenc co.ditio.s 3l s.. lvel
withour Equirine op1ic.! aid. YatloP u$d his Tlble 4lo st lhis losd linn for
vhibility mot
p@helyand he says thal from inspstion of Tabl. 4 ihe
siSnilidcc ofq -
0 @ b. str bul
t
=
-{ 014 is &olhd
Possible
cul_of val@'
Thce @ 68 Aes in Tabl.4 sith q in ihis Ens. in the daia u*d bv Ytllot wirh
48
positive siShtings. Th. data sed in this
qotk
(in app.ndixlll second lst
@lu.) thec aE lll ca*s with q > 4Ol4 bul les lhan
+0216 Oll of th*
l1l cse) rhe!. ae 6a
posirive sighnngs withoul oPtical aL
Yallopusd hisia6L4lo fi.d|hecut ffpoinl
*hs opti@laid isal@vs neded
lo Iind the crcse.t moon by rutching lhe q_test visibilirv codc wilh scha'Iecs
.od.. The rcund.I value of
4
=
_O
160 @ cho*n for lhc cut_olT dirclion ln
Tablc 4 (YalloP, 1998), thcc \,w 26 cNs thar s Gfv rhis diterion
t0'16
< q <
-0.014), only lhree ces out oflh.se wre
positive unaided siSltings tbe tcst were
se.n
vith hiMul6 or r.lceoFs ln Tlble i. appendixlll'
*cond lat cormn
useii in this *ork therc 62 cses in rhis tuge ol
q_valus oul of vhich I 0 sE
unaided si8ltinSs dd 29 times lh cresced
*as seen either vith bin@uktr oi s'lh
ln lhis ca*
(-0160 >
t
>
-0232)
YaUop s Table
4 ha' roo lew enli's fton
which lo estinale a lowt limit for
4
The situalion is nade NGe bv thc fact lhat
whe thse is an nl!v. in non cas.s' the Moon
ss not scen even wi$ oplical
aid. ln f4t it h @ fot lhc cc.dl to be obedcd
lElo* 6 a9pae't clo'galon
ofabout7c5
(Fatoohi d al, 1998) Ydlop's Tablc
4 h6 14 cs's in lhis dg oul
wbicb 6 re
positiv sightirgs thdough binoculss
o! &le$ope ed one exl6
oiilinary
ce of uaid.d siShing ln th' r'bl' i' app'ndixlll Gecold
16l
141
(E)
@l@) of lhb wolk lb@ e 33 .M our of which 18 @
potiliv. sidines
with binoculd or 1el.$op6 dd th@ extra otdinary ces of unaid.d sidli.g
(ob$flalion no. 189,455 add 2?4) lh.t is dillcral fren fi. @ @sidercd bv
Yallop, Al lhe tine of Yallop
{1998)
lhis wG thc linil
helow shich n ws
NW.d that il is nol
Posible
10 c thc lhin .t snl n@n .v.n
vilh a lel4oF
Alloeing I' for hoiienlal
panllax of lhc Moon, and ienoring th' eff'cl of
rcfa.liol\ fo. & aptent .longadon of ?q5, ,'{XC, =
8c5 lf ,'lZ = 0p rhis
coresponds to . lowr linit of
I
= -{ 2l2 Wilhout
good fidding lgles@p* md
posidoml infomation, obsne6 aa unlikelv [o w lhc crc$"t helow this limn
TheE is a lheoEical cul{fi
Point
*hen th. appatcnl elonSdlion of lhe Moo'
frem the sm is ?", knom 6 lhe Ddjon linir
(Ddjon l9l2 1936, llvas' l98lb
nabohi el al, l99S) This limit is obtained bv extlapolatine
obedalions nade al
lager elongtions. Allowing t" for hori@nul
p@lld ofth' Moon a'd i8f,olrng
rhe effect ofrefEcion, ah.ppornr elongarion
o' 70 is eqnivalent
1o
''{'R'1
= 8'
Wirh ,,llcl, =
8'ed D,42 = O! the corespondine
lowr linil on
I
is -O 291'
However, in Yallopt lable 4 thE tte 2l enfiies
witl onlv ]
posilive sightine
with a bin@uld
fot
I
<
4 212 ed no sighting claim
wilh s_aided cve ln lable
in apFndix-lll
(se@nd lst colw)
th* ae l8 c*s ir the mse
-0
212 2
4
>
-0
299 oulofwhich there atc 7 sishdng
snh binocuhr
ot tlescopes
and onlv 2
claims
of un_aided siShdngs
(obsdation los 389 and
455) Both the*
obfdrtio.s dcviak from all the crit.ria considered
up b lns
po'nl
The table in .ppendixlll G4ond
last cotumn)
or this wod( shoss 66 cases
wtrr
-0
299 >
q ed therc is one.xtra ordiMry
claim of sishtins
opti*l aid
(obs .o. 189) Ap&t fron $is lheE is no
posilive siehting
silb o!
wilhoul opdcal sid. In lable 4 of Yatlop tnee
is no clain of Esce sisblins $
A@oding |o the visibilitv dNifiorion
shos
divid.d into 5 tgions bv four consi&t_q val@s As lne
abovc,
rhc suf4 of E nb b
aclual visibihY of lhe crescent
(r)
depends on ils width dd oi iis dltilude .bov. hori@n d th. rioc of su.sd accodi.g lo
Bruin (Bruin, l9??) dd Yallop (Y.llop, 1998) a @nsht
q'valu. describes a cufre on
th.
globe i.di@lin8 sinile visibiliiy @nditio.s along all
poinc of$e curye' Such a
clne is a psldcr@bolic cwe wi$ vicx on the 6l-dost loisitude Thc
lonpludi.al
p6nion of lbis ven x vei* nonih 1o nonlh
6nd th' hnude of |he vqar
d.Fn& on lhe d.cliMtion of th. Moon ed lhe Sun on the ccle$itl sphere Duing
sumheG in nonhem henisphlc lhe sun\ declimtion h extren nodh dd if ihe
d.climtion of ths Moon is norrh of $c su lhis ledex no!.s to exlEne nonb and lhe
c6@ visibilily is edier i. rhc nonn hitudes Duing summer of the nodnem
ladud.s if lhe Mmn is eufi of lhe s6 then ftis v.nex d@s not @ch irs
'xcm
nonnern
posilion dd still tne .e{ cE*mt
vhibilitv is better in 1ne norlhen laitudcs
Thc situaion
h revese for lhe $liheal henisphte
Tne
palabolu opens westMd above
(nonhwardt and below
Goutbwrdt
fion th vcnex The CuR' A is rhe collection of
points on rhe
8tob.
fot which rhe
q_value is 0.216 All rc8io's
$ithin lhc lwo b6nches ot
$.
p&abola wesl of rhc vertcx e the EgioB
wh.e |h.
q_vdhe is
s@ler
lhm 0-216 md
the cle$ent h ea3ily visible to ln. Mlcd eve in lhis rcgion' Csc B is the colleclion or
all points where the
q-value is -0014. In all tbe Eeions be$e!
cuftes ed B lhe
cicsc.nl is lisible to thc nai.d ete onlv undet
pcrfed visibililv condnions
The Fgions b.(wen cuN. B and C
(q_value
_0-16)
de $e tgio's io wbich d
obsen.r suld Gquire opdcal did 10 locatc ihe cr*c'nl dd thn it mav be visible lo
naked cye. For reSio.s
wi$ q-vdlue I$ t\ai
_0
16 rhe cresenl
wolld not be visible to
the .akcd eye For a comnon. untaincd obsePer
it h highl) unlikelv
thal ihe cFscem
*ould bc seen in rgions ed oflhe aNe A Thc scienificallt
ecoded
obsaliom
(oh
ehich all $c sludy of the rwnlith cdturv i3 bNd) do oot
Pohibil
obedalion
of
.r.sc.nl
wiln mkcd ye in region belwn cwet A 6d C In sucn t'gioN' in facr' lhc
probabilily of obsenation incFdes whh the nlmbef
of keen tdined od expenenced
145
4J SCHAEFFER'S LIMITING MAGNITUDE
MODEI,
Ilruin
(197?)
ued only avfrgc brislhcrs ofsk, duinsrviliehl and rh' vanarion
of brishtrcs oinE full Moon ro obEin appNximlc cohlrsl lb!
(csccnls
of$rtuus
sidths ro develop hh crcsccnl lisibility cuncs dhcussed a6o!c ftc t'srltins nodel
fornalized in lms of , rclation berwen cRsenl
width md thc Elalilc tltiludc ol
{*dr ar
"tal
rime dcduccd by Yatlop
(1998) pro!.d 1o b hiShlv succcssful'
lihough, the basic data cxtacled by Yallop frcm Druin s visibililv cuBcs- was
rcplaced bt rhc basic das due to Scboch
(1930) (lhe Indiah nclhod) lo aFivc ar his q_
value coodidons
(di$nsed abovc) for rh nN ces vhibilil! n h6 bccn secn rhlr
rcsulls iom Bruin s d,tt .re mrlgi.ally bctter dan thc lndian mcthod
'or
lhc ddo scl
Schacllcr
(1988a. 1988b) oh lhc o$er hand has uscd $c
phvsics of \isihilirv'
cxr.nsivclt
ih rcsulrcd inro a lool (6at Shacrdconvencd
inlo a compubr
Dmgmm)
to
ddmine $c briebhcss ol sky at anv
poi ol tinc dd for di{Icrcnl aftosphenc
rcmp*tutes aDd rclarile humidil!. Ih rhis {ork Scbaeficls
progrm h ep$duccd a'd
frade pad of the lundr crc$eni visibililt software
dcvclopcd. Ililalo! ro clal@re
lisibilily cohdnions. Tlis
pan of the sftld is rsi b conpurc thc sk! briSbhcss
(or
linni.B magnirude) al
points clos to $e cre$eht md the aPPatunt nagniiudc or lh'
lunar crcscenr ro sludy $c laryins conmsr dunng twilighr for vanous tcnpcrat!rcs and
olativc fiunidny. If rhe appaFnl brighmes of the crc$e.l h morc ddi tlE bighhcs of
lhc xrilishi sty lhc cre$e should b. visible o$cNne nor Schacflcr
(1988a) himsell'
hasap!li.d
a sinilar rcchnique lo @lyscthc
visibililvor invhibilnv data avnilablc in his
riFc.
-l
he @hnique is ,Pplied to $e d a*lof rh. chap161dd
the rcsulB obbiocd
arc
pnqntcd in rabt No 4l l Bcforc a discussion
6n rhcs' Esuhs Schrcli'is
nldhodology t-or compulins sky briShhess undc! difeEnl ahosphcnc
condithns
's
Aner rhc conjunclion thc
to tne non&n md lhe
Poi
oa
ne* lumrcrescen{cd
bc seen in rh. scslcm skv ck's-
$@r Simildly the last crc$enr cm bc secn i. lbc
casrcrn st! bc forc sunsd. l hc conlEi bc(wce n lhe briebtness
o f crcsccni Nd thai o r thc
rwilislr sky dcp{nds on d number of f.clou. Thcsc incllde:
P6nio! of the c@nl which n.elf is significsntlv {fTctcd bv Lhc
Tbc $.nerine orthe tieii ftom cEee fld thc sunliShr dle to (a) thc
roial amount oaair-nass the ligbi tdvels-lhrcugh.
(b) thc rotal amounr ol
aeosol
pesnt in lhis air. and
(c) lhc slratosphctic ozonc thoush shich
rhc lighl bas lo ftvel. Th6c *!lt ring souEes cauF th. inlcnsnv of liehr
sourccs of liehr rhal includc $c S!n. lhc M@h and o$r sourcG
(like
anilicial light lbat G nol considcfd
in this work 8lh'v m noi s
affc(i!c during lwilisht.
The amosph{ic ldp@tuE and the relaive hunidilv
Taling in|o considmrion all lh* alldls |he to|,al brighlncss of lh ikv is
conpded at lh
point whcE cmcol is
pae lf rhe bnsl i$s of $c atv is noE than
or equal to tbe briShine$ of the ccs. ihc cGcent
En nor be s(n' Eten ii rhe
brishtness of the crcsocnr is marginallv moe $an the bflghtncss ot ihc skv it is vcrv
difilculi lo loc.c lhc
(erc6t withour tny oplictl lid ln $e followinS thc q@'rilalivc
bols aR di*ussed bricfly for .ll dc$ @nnuaiions:
For alirudc w.ll lbo horian $e lpFcnt
Fsnion
ofrhc crc*e isEi*d bv
anamon.tR. thc angl. ofcfmdion
(Snan l953.G@n
1985).
givcnby:
x=5s.{#]*'
(4.i r)
whec P is the ahoq'hcic
P6$rc.
lhe cEscenr. for ahiildcs closr ro
/ is rh. |cnFatuc
and z
rhs horizin rhe following
t47
i
=
l,.cor ,+
1i
-
l
(4
t.2)
L
I+441
r rnr I
x- t.ot.corlA,+
."-
|
(4.ltj
I
n'+s.tt
I
whcre, 90'r : lnd , - 9ou : R The sollwde Hilalol wo develoi,cd in $is work
ror lh delcrminarion of lisual linitiie naehitude thc major nePs ol calcularions
iadoplcd
lion schacf4 s
pogBE) rc lised b.low wih bncf de*riPtion Rel4nccs
and dcrailed d.sc'iptions can bc folnd in Scherd
(1993)
Thc prcgEn funcion /drat r'l(,) 1at6 s inpu/pE-c.lculatcd
valnes listcd bclow:
.
a4r. thcal(iludcofnoon abovehonzon. tdu. ftc azinnth oithc noon
. par. the alrillde oflhc
place abovc sea kvelih ndcB,
Pn,z.
cslimlted rclalivc
hunidny of the
place. p/a/. lairud of the
plde.
PratP.
esrinatcd lcnDdlrrc of
.
sd/pn4. lhe right Nensioh ofthe $n at the inc of ob.cnstion.
. \eshlil (= 0.365.0.44,0.55, 0.?. 0.9) $. {av.lcngths @@spondinS lo U- B. v.
R md I bands
. b,r.r[t (* Sxl(]iJ. ?x10
i.
lx10fr. I'loi3.3xlOI)
p!3ncl$ !.lues in lho
nish dhc brigihss sssilled snh .rch wvelenglh $lccrcd
.
a!r1t
(=
0, 0.0.01!. 0.008.0) p@eler values in $e cxrinction cctlicicnr
corespondins lo lhe ozrne factor ssdialed wirh ceh wavel.neth sclccled
. rr.!.r/,
(-
0.0?4- 0.045. 0.031. 0.02. 0.015)
p.Bmcrer values in $c cxrinclion
ceficicnr coftspondi.e to ihe w@ficr facloa
(hmidnx lcmpedurc elc )
associatcd wilh each wavelengh sel{tcd
.
@vh[j] l.
-lA.%. -10,45. -11.05, -11.9.
_12.7)
lhc nagnitude of fuu moon
coftsponding ro dififtnt slel.d warclenlh b6nd5
. mschtil
(= -25.96. -26.09. -26.74, -27.26,- -27.55) fic $lar magnilLrdc
coftspondinS to diffrc sel*ted w6v.le41h bmds
148
cnschtl ( t.36.0.s1. 0.00, -0.?6. -1.17) @Nrion for lund masoirudcs
!! csponding ro difiere.l sleded wavelcngih b6nds
r"a..
the
ler
ofde obseMtion,
c?,,ap.lhc elonsalion oalhc n@n fon lhc sun al lhe line ofob*ryorion
'lhc
funcrion shs Nnh $lcclinS a poinl I wnh sky position
sitnhr lult
mdh
I
O.l.lM tum
+
0.r-i-e. a poinl clo* lo th. cstrc of $e tu.e disc Thc
^.ilh
dishnce ofrhis
poid.:ed,sr is scd lo calcul.k lhc
8as.
aeiosl ed lhe o7..c ndss
xr
= {cos(?cdig
)+0.0286
icxp(
to.5'cos(zsrd,ri
)r-l
x4
= bo(ud'i )+o.or
I
1xp(
-2a.s'cos(
rd,u/,Jl
))l-r
. L lsintf,",./,r I l' I
"'=l
lr.:oro;rrl
]
Ka
=
o.'chlil'O +0 4'lpto!
'
co{satpha
) -
cosl3'
Ptat )))/
.
*,,
=,,,,,,r,,..
*.(,i#
).".(tf ).".(-
#il
)
This is followd by rhe calculaio. of th cx nction @flicicnls componcnls
comspondine ro live diff@r \Evlnglhs cleted in the @v Ydc,ll/:
& =o
1066
'*e[-
?s4J'("qrrtl'r)
4
14i7)
r,
=o
r,(xru;'".-,(-#).(' -a##-*,)
",",,,
J,
*orr'.^-,0*r!!\
'
''o'
t
(4.3.4)
(4l.t
(4.t.6)
(.r.3.9)
(4.i.10)
For cqch wavloslh bed rh.* eidnction ccmcicnts a'c ecumulalcd in
krchli)= K, + Kd + Ko + K"
(4l l l)
And rheir linearconbinalio.
wiih mas componcnls tE
gathcrcd inro n
v
dnvhJl:
,.tdchltl
=
K,
r
^
s
+ K,' x, + Ko' x
o
+ X-' xs
(4I 12)
lbe.qurioft (4.3.?) to (4-3.12) aE
Pleed
in a loop thal rum nv ddes oncc for ach i
O. 1.2,I and 4. Aner$eexccution oflhb loop lhc rir m4ss al poin r, thc
tosnion
of
rhe M@nandfiarof theSunacc.lculal.dusinS:
rrr@/
= [cos{'drd'Jt
)+o.o2s
icxp(-II'co(z"dirt.)] (4.l.ti)
il (nofu < 0) nnposl
=
40
ar nnpoeJ -lcos(go -
nul
)+0025
r.xp(-ll
il
(\ah <0) xn@ld
=40
et:. snpoel
=
lcosleo
-
ett) + 0.025
'cxp(
-l
t
-
.
(4.1.14)
, ,
(4.l.tt
Th. masnitude olthe M@n is lhen @lculatd NinSl
mtut
=
-.12.13
+ 0.026.lt 80
-.to,@ |
+ a.
ltso
-.tons )a'
r 0
t
(a3.16)
+ c'.rrt4
FoUo$rd by nid -am. bnghrncs. honlidl biehh.ss.
twilishr bnghl.s and $c
ctree
-
n
4 1. Lkhlil' nq6tl
kn =
rc15t5
ftmp"
| 40)
+6.2.107 t(leto,stunf
,+
tot36
.(r
06 +cos'(/.io'sui
)J
(4.3.r7)
(4.r.r8)
$hm
/elo,At,
is $c clonsrtion ofF fon $. ccnft oflhc
luE di$
noohh
=rc
o!'lo,htus
D6c'il4+.r:7)
'(l
-
ro-0
4'ri.,l'l'"*/
)'
1t3.rot
(tuh
.
ahree + aaoo@
.
lt -
c!tuae
)i)
^filb
=
t0-0at(,*.r,14
nschlil ttz 5 -s.t' -!'dt'
t(t@ I llchlnl
'
i_
roo
l,
(r
_
r o
-0r.,,.,r,r"*./
)
ctort
=
rc4
a' t'chlt
l'
|rydql
/g-, -
ro(6
r5:/./d,N*
i a0)
+6.2'to1 tlfetoresn)z
+
ro$6
.(.oe
*.o.'?(tt,,r* ))
.tqh - |o
ort'l' ;i,l't'n6chlil'ar'').t
-I0
03rrs/'I4\fuir'
)'
V"'
,
"fat
*aaoooo'(t
-
"hn))
(4.120)
(4.1.21)
(4.1.22)
150
(4.12l)
lf thc hviligh briebhes rv/, doninats ovc. tne day lieh briehhcs dat, rhc. thc sud
.i r,grrb and .' ,1, are slored in ,r.r/t otncffi$ rhe sun of ,'s&r, md etb rR noE'd
in L.r/t Morcover. ifrhe Moon is.bov. horizln thm de,, C lho addcd to bs.r/t/.
l-iially, fic brighbes ,.\rrlt is @neened inlo .m-tanb.6. fon cquaon
(4l.16)
till rhis point all conpulalion is done id a looP that recutes Ilve timcs again, once for
sch wavelrylh bdd *l4td fnc aicula$on ol 6e limitins naghitudc /, is donc .s
(4.1.24)
(4.3.25)
(4.1.26)
(4.) 21)
la
(tel <
l5o0)
ic,,e=loat..eo
lo-re)
Els
{
co,a - I o
! rr
. .n o
"
I 0
r
'
}
kh
=
tum'\t +
Jctu"
tb.t
r
t..
=
t6 i1
-2
t,IVD) d.".htzl
\
In(I0)
l
Schaelcr (Scha.fer. 1988) in his drtshold co.tdsl nodel calculates /i as rhe log
of $c ratio of rhe acrual tohl brigltoBs of th. M@n ad $e tolal biSlttnss oi $c Moon
neded for visibiht fo. rhc givcn obsping condiions ln this rc|k we considr rhc
mlg.itude oflhe Moon and $e lisual limiliog naennude slculatcd frcm thc alsoinhm
givcn abovc- The diftcmc. of Moo.s naenitude z"d!A and lhc visutl limitins
nalnitude le- is consideted .s nugnitude .onxas de"or.d 4 zDzq A plol (Iig 4l I
bclow) sbows dirercncc ofscbacfcls thEshold cohtrasl I and $c nasnnudo contasl
/r43 Scries I sho*s ,1aas lor crcsmls $ wca not $cn and erics 2 shows ,'lu zg ror
crusoent ihrl \vcre sccn Sdies I and series 4 sbow ,4 cot.spondins lo dcsccnc $al
wce not sen d lhal scte sen Esp.clively.lheda1a lor this fig is talcn lrom Sch.cfc!
(1988). P$nive vales ol cont6$ fo. crcscns $al wrc nol *o ad lhc nesrtilc
vrlues lor conlrdt lhal *erc sccn snoN lhc inconsistcncics ol thc modcLs
qirh
lhc
ob*ndion. Th6e inconsisteoci.s may E$ll fDn .stiDatcd lalues of tnpcaorc a.d
Elative hlmidill adoptd for lhe calcllalions.
l5r
Thdhold conExl vr| f.e.ltld. conbtt
i-
Fig No 4l l
Ta!t.4.1.1 is d.v.lopcd sina the sc
prcssn Hildol i4 o!&r !o sDlv* $'
crts@t ob*frarion @rds t Ln tod ti|c E (S.h&Lr' 1988t Ydlot' l99E Odeh
2004). In @h mw of thc l'bl. obsfrrion Dmbq
(s sign d bv Odch (Od'lL 2004).
dde of ob*darion. ldrlud, longrld. &d.lcvstion tlove s l.v.l of lh' ple ftos
wh.d th. c'l6l is ob*dc4 followEd bv $. diMr.d ldp.tat@ 3nd 6ri6aldl
Elarivc h@idny. Th .ext thF @luld @nr.in $c uit.6,l lim' &d th'
ldf,rdlig Ms,in4le .dr6t wh.n th. ru&ttn d" co,rr/dt b4om$
j6t
f!vo@bl'
for siShrinS of c'lsdt
(@lum vith hddinS
.3l!n)
*id n is bsl for sidlinS
(@lwn
wi$ lsdins 'bd-) ad whd i is favo@ble
io' sidtina ror th' lar rin'
(6ltm wilh hddirg 'ta'r). This
8iv6
lh. tine Engc lor $e
posibl' Et'd cve
visibihy ot $. c'ls6! TIE rus,,'& .otdr i3 @Nid.ied onlv fot @id'd visibilit,
oa crcsdt. Th. lan $E 6ll,!m @Duin th. i.fonMdo. E$ditg *tEths lhc
clt* M claincd b b. vi3ible widout dv opdcal ai{ wi$ a bi'@ulu ot eith a
t57
Tt. ob*Mtio6 @sidered in th. llblc 4.3.1 e ody rno* *lq il wr claim
rhar rh. cc@ 6 sn by dy n@s .s ll|e rcordi enen rhe
de not El.ver. Moeov.r, by vrryiog thc Grinared tnpdt@ dd Glatirc huidily il
n valual.d 10 oblain oplimm @ndilios for nr}d eye visibihy ol $. asc.nl, If th
ntaEnituda co"na is obtairea ro b i. favour of visibihy onlt dcn lhe lim. ra.8. of
naked cye crescenr lisibility Ee delemined md included in thc rzble.lt thc nagnitude
co"rf"rr is nol found b be in favou. of u.aid.d visibility the l6t
posiliv. value of lhe
nagritutu conn$t is c5lculaled md th. se vatue is included in aU the thR
coGpoodins columns.
'rhe
s,m
positivc vahe in all rh* @tM.s it rhc indicalion
that under lhe walh.r ondnioN consid.Ed the crsccm ws Evr visible to lhc naked
]-his table shows tbal $erc d ll cases ofposidve sighting claihs {ilhout opiical
aid when nagnilude contmt was nclq in iavour otunaided visibility. All tsc
positile
css e aho nor in aetemenl wilh tbr conditions due io Folhqi.ghm dnd nalndeu
Lunar Ripeoes las d@s nol allow l0 of thcse dd the two of lhen e oily ntr8'hal
cses a.cordins b n. Only one 6e mlcdly diffD fiom Lllm RiF@ss law. Onl, I of
$csc 13 ces ue not allowed by B.bylo.id cdknon. To or thesc ces m not
allowcd by lndim nlhod ed rhe !6t of th. thrce m n&giMl c66 i. Indid method.
Boih Bruin's limit 6d Yallop s critcrio. do not allow.ine ol rh.s cases ln cae or
orher tou dlaims Ellfoutcs* are marginally lllowd by Bruih's critelion bul Yallop s
dlsion difieB a lot in one oflhem.
Thc liBt
pase of the lahh 4.1.1 shows t$o etaa odinarv claims of nakcd cte
vi.ibihy of crc$enl, ob6 No. 189 &d 455 wilh q_values -029 dd
_0
216 Thc Yallop s
c.it.don d@s nor allow naked y. visibitilt for lhc$ q Qlrcs 8d tlE naanittde
.o"r'4r, b ale nor favoMble ev.n wirh hiSlly exassenled
wealh.r condnions The
Modifid Ripene$ Fuciion (chapb 3) !alu6 corespoldine to lhs oberations e
aho noi favoudbte
G0.95
md -0.62 in tablc 1.5.1) for cEscni vkibililv Therefole th.*
obsedations, as lhey fdil to etisry evoy model, de highly melilble ahd ar. outlie*
l5l
TheE is only onc noc clain ofnajcd eye vilibility of ffiant wilh
t-Elue
lcs
rnd -0.16, obeMtion no. 2?4, with q-BlE -0.22 | (AR- =
-
l .l9)- I1tis obs.dalion it
not allowed by both the Yallop s crilerion dd th. Lunar Ripenes Law but wnh highd
.tevariotr (1524 n 16 ahove s lcvel) dd loe hmidity
(6linat d to bc lo'ld lhe
tuEnitude cohftast is favourabl for uaided visibilily lnd $e ob*nolion is not
uNlidble. In rll the esl of lhe cB@nl oben rions *ith
I-valB
ls lnd -0 16 lhe
claih ofvisibilily of cressnt is with binocular or wit lelescope. Thee claiN de also
nor ucliable 6 out of25 s@h claim 8 harc favounble uas,itt.L cotun lor n*.d
ete visibility with oplimm 4tinales of lehpcdtwcs ed rclative hunidiry'
The hagnilude conrAr for sme other r.porledly
Positivc
cE$nl sidrinss
{ithoul oplical aid n nol favoudble. Th6e e obeFalion nunbe6 14l, 3 19, 416, I16,
315. 2a6. 611, 314,272, 2. The
q-values (and A\"J fo! $ese descents &
_0
153
C
0.8?), -0.1r (0.07),.0.101
c1.06).
-0.047 (-1.t. -0.02?(0.167), 0.00?
(-3-5),0.01
c0.7?),
0.012
(-1.01).0.018 (-2-88),0.109
G1.47).
For 341.416.Il6 rhe thrc. crireda (Yallop\.
Lumr Rrpcoess Law md ihe nagnihde oi!r60 e. co6islenl- For 286,633,114,212
dd 2 Y.llop's citerion allows.alcd cye vGibilily udr
"perf*l
lkibility condnionJ
but bolh lhc Lumr Ripness Ls* and lh naerrilude conltdt are nnfavoulable for nk.d
eye visibilily. Thu ir apFd thll Lus RiFmss L3w is nole coNistcnl with the
m.Snilude conlrdt rcsulis.
Io rhis work limiling tlesopic hagnitudes &e not coGidcrcd as lhe rponed
ccsem ob$fr.tions wnh bineuls {d lclcsP.s do.ol pevid. approPriale d.iails.
ThcrefoE lhe appopiale limiling lelescop.s cm not be conpnled MoEover, out wo*
is horc conccmed wilh visibility of n w casd witboul dy otircal aid
154
t!.2131)
-'.gr""il-
,,;* I
"
,.;;; I
,.!('!,"]
;;; t"
r-?tp!!
,,;p,{
I
155
t56
l5?
t58
4,4 A NEW CRITERION TOR NEW
CRtrSCENT
IISIBILITY
while dvcloping rhe
"vbibilitv
cudcs"
(it againsl 5) $d the limi$n8 visibilitv
c!ruJ
(, +
r against r) for.onstad
brightn.ss Bruin @nsidcrcd
the avedgc brightnes
of w$m horian duiog rwiligh od fi. ldistion of lh. bdgltN of lh' full M@n
with tlE alitude above hotian c me ion d @lier' Instcad of @cid'dtrg av'ase
brightness oi sky we hav coNideEd dual blighrnds
of skv and fte cr'scent calculakd
sing the techniques developcd by Shefet sd olh'6
(Schmier' 1988b, l99l) i' lhe
$nw@ Hilalol. W. $lslcd c@ent vi.ibilitv circUmtarcls
of ldious rcw Mm6
css whn lhe crcscenl Ms rponed b hav. beo sn For cFs415 ofa
pan'culd
width we found lhe altiludes I oi skv points with btighhess
equivalent lo that ol tho
particlle crc$. at dilltnt $l& depEsio.s r' Th. ovcdgd of the
'ltiludes
of skv
Doinrs
for difl'rnl $ln dctr.$ions for plirhuld sidlh d Lbllatd in T'blc no 4 4 l
The left most column of lhe lablc contains ihc solar deptssions
r and ihe toP rov
grvs
rh {idrhs r oflhe crcsenrs sclaled ed thc n xl one
giv.s its na8lnude Thc enties of
$e 6r of rhe blc ue lhc aldtu&s , shcE lhe stv hs rh' sm brighhAt 4 lhc
briehtness of tnc cresknl ofthc width al th. top of lh @luon.
It should b. nold thal duins ihe twilighl 1ne widrh of the crc*dt vd'es up b a
dc seconds for very wide d.sc.nls. Se6on to eason ed for dif|ere'r lalitldes the skv
bddrlnes fot th. sdde altitu.l cl6e lo th.
poid ldee ihe
sun sts also vdi's lor
qch
column of th. lable 4.4.1 a numbq of c!*s of alnosl eme cE$enl
widtb wE
@nsidered md each ahitudc is aveEg of lh.se cdes Thc dtla of lhe tabl' 4 4 1 is $e'
plottd on a
sraph
shown i. fsw 4 4 1.lb lhis figure n as a fuhclion ofr
(i'
=/6,) @d r
+
,' = s 6 a fuclion ofr
(rl
=
sat)
aG bofi
ploned
/ft
represnl the "visibilitv
cwea &d the
s(,
rc9dnc
the liniting visibilitv cudcs" sinild lo wh'l Btuin
(Bruin. 1977) developed.
159
T$LNa43.l
tf t li rl!.
a.l a, -r.8
1l t3 4.5
1 tt.a
95
5
2a
5_a
5
32 2.1
1
2,5 1.f 1,1 0,8
, 3.05
0a ot5
r,e
0.t 0.55
2f r.t
255
0l o5 o3
o,7
o25
0,2
r.t
o2
2 1
oi5 o.t
Fia. r!b.4.,1.1
5
3
2
Altdav.r
6ot Oap,Ebo
!
I
t@
12
Alttudo v.6 Sohr Oottesalon
19
13
l:
!9
Th. @rdin rs oarn ninid ofafi,
Ghom
i. figurc 4.a.t) e lhd b.sic dals for lhe
@del
pe
nrv dseloDed Sou tu dE i.ble 4 4 2l
Using tubi. l.e sque appronn rion * oh.ird lh. following El.ro. ben*cn
rchtiE .ltilud. ot@rf ARCV !d tu widd r
ARCv
=
435t 37tvt +2222O75O57W2 5.42264J1tt! + t0.4341159
(4.4
D
I6l
On lhe bais ofthh dlatioo wc tlcnre th. visibil,ty
p.m.tr v, 6 follows:
v
e
= QRCV -
('-O.35lg$7W3 + 2.22207 5057W2
-
5.422643U t/ + 10.4341759) / l0
(4 4.2)
Our model for .adi.sl visibility of n w ls& *s6! ir that if rp
>
0 (w @ll the
visibility paEmctcr v, in (4.4.2) s th. r-vtl@) lhc ceml moy be lisiblc withonl
opdcal aid olheei* noi Applting this o.dition on thc dat set ued in chaflet I &d in
lhb chaptcr
qe
present thc rsulls obtained for whole data set of463 cd* in d.ltn
colunn of table in appe.dixlll. Fid fd .ss when rhe visibilily is claiocd wjlhoul
optical aid in odcr of inccGing r-ralrcs @ sho$ in 1abl. 4.4-1. Oui ol0tcs cses
only I I 66 d4iatc ton ou nodel. our of rhese I I c6es 8 de coosisteni sill the
nagnitud conlrast 9 arc consisle.t wirh Yallop s crirerion and 8 ats consislcnt Mth the
Lund Rip.o6s Law, Tbe oberyaiion Nnbes 3E9,455,274, 341 dd 316lhal d.viale
from lhe Lmr Ripen.$ I-aw, ihc Yallopt crilerion ed 1be Dagnnude conlrdt d also
negrdve i. our modcl. Howvcr the obseorion nwber 4161hat is negalile in orher
models is allowcd by ou!nodel. ille Een is th.t in this ce ARCV b redonably hish
(9.41 .lg@9. Txe widdi h small (eund
la @ sondt bur |hc M@. is rcry close ro
perige
s closr ro $e Efih.
In fisuE 4.4.2 the minima of each visibilily cw. is
joincd
resulrins inro o
nFi8ht linc stich $nen .xlodcd inr.e.l tn oigin of rhe
(r.
t) c@rdjnde stseo. The
srope of rhis linc is found ro b
(lh +
sys
-)
9-3t5 ot t'/s - 4.)15. This lqds ro a Dodi6.d
''b*ttine" of cesenlvisibility a:
,3
=
-=-i:
s1:s+4.3(Ts+LAC)
l(2.163)rhpanofLAG
9.3
besl tih. of crcscenr visibiliry is give.
in conp&ison ro l(2.25)rh panoflAc
in
(4.4
)
rB
t62
l6l
In
gendl
l@kingd Lhe @npt.rcdsl! $ rn ubtr
jn
atFndrxtlt rl
(m
b nor.d
'Ihr
t no clain of visibiliy
by ey n{s who slalue < -O.t9l.
In f{r as
obrdolion
nunbf 389 is not coDsin n( wjth .ny nod.l w dject n ed
ihercrore we claim $at th@
js
no aulhotic obstuation (wi1h
or wi$our
optical
.id) ofneq lunar cEsenr
for s-vatu. <
4,162. Thus cFsccn!
can not be sen
wnn vcr r-value < -0. l6 evs wirh a rel*cop.
For -0.16 <
r-value <
-0,061h.rc
e 26 (45olt
clains ofcrcs vrs,bihy
wirh
opncd aid our of58 rcporled
sd coNidercd
obse(arions.
^s
unaided visibilny
.laims 45J,
274 and l4l d lol coNnlenl wirh
ey nodet
s w @nclude lbal
fo. lhis tu8e ofr-utues
the
qscenr
cs be secn wirh
opdcal ad only.
Ih 49 c6es wi$ -0.06 <
sighting with
opricll
aid
&cmne crescenr
vi0r a
u..ided
sishring,
Unaided
r{!lu. <
0.05 theG e
(41%)
we conctudc
rhar
or.eutd
or a Glespe
sightine
b nol impossibt
ll ueided (25_5./0)
ed 2l
thqe ac
stonS chdces
of
oii very
slih chmc6
for
c@kenr
was s.en wirhour
th.t for r-valu >
0. 15 rh.
For 0 05 <
r-vatue <
o. I 5, rhce dc
j5
sishtincs
wirh
dtuar
ai d (1[r/r)
and 14
$'thour
oprical
ad
t2ra,. I hus rh. tuflr
hay b easit)
*.n
qrh
opucdt
aid
nr h! r4se
ot s-htr
&d !m be seer wirhour
opticaj
dn under ver)
Com
condnion
(sarh{
coldiriotrs
and heichr
above *. lerct).
For r-ulue >
O. t 5, oul
of nexl 2 t3 obeR.rions
th.
oplrcal
aid I 65 timcs (77.5yo).
Th@foE wc
conclude
cEeent
can bc esity
seen.
Thus
ou oodcl
$ar we
@ll
.euhi
&
(lh
critcnon..cd
be sleheizd
4
164
Calculate r-vdu. (or vp @odins ro 44.2) fo. th. c|lsdl a1 ilc besr tine
Th. vbibilily
condnior a
girn
by our 6odcl @ ihq givn
in Tabte
The success
of our hodet in t m3 of nuber
or posniv
ob&fradons
in
.gene.r
wfth orc suggqrd
c,itcrion
is achived dE ro lhe f&r rhat we halr u*d
Schrc&as
brigblre$
hodet, i.e.
actul brjghrness
of sky rnsread
of the
avela8e
bnghD.$
ed acru.l
brighbcs
of ces@r
ins&ld
of 1h. b.ighh.s
of ftU M@n. Th
nudber
ofposnivc
ob*pations
in agreeme
Mrb a cnterion
rs mostty
int.rp,ted
6 th
2.
l
vhiutc
uaer pertco
onairiii'lili[
May rcquirc
opricar aia o iiiiFitii?MFoli
Requi( ophol
ad (ROA)
.0.16
<r.value < -O.oa
Nor vis,ure
wrrr opriciisia-li
j
-T--tn*h
:,;--
,l-(rr%r
165
Wlen a ctirerion allows oprielty uaid.d visibitiry of rhc ncw crcsnr dd ihe
cFsnt is nol sn thcn it is a ncgativc.@t.
Th.re c& be a.mbd of ree.s tor
negativ em6. D.Airc rhe f&r rhal s obsdi may b .xFrioed ed r.ined
dlononer
&d lmws the loerion offie cEsent rhe armosphdic ondilions od the
Physioloey
of dc obw.at cy6 @t stil lead lo non-vbibilny of ihe crent Thes
facloB ae sdlt nol wll exploEd rhus the high frequency ofrhc..gaive crc6 shos
Oil the probLm
is srill nol eh.d conpl.Iety.
A posniv.
emr @cG when a nodel do*
allow visibihy
oa cesc. sd thc visibitiry
is nor claimed Snaltq rhc n!frbr
of
posirive
ercB dd b.ttq is a visibility
c.irerion.
The hbl 4.4.5
slmdises
the posnile
ed negative obseNarioB
in 6greoe.t
or d'esrem.
with diafcEnr
oilcrion
fmn ft dara sr w h.ve choen for $is M,k,
Tte labl is aEanScd
wirh dercsing
succe$ pcrce
age in tems of vjsibiliry
claihs
aruirenl
wirh lhe $ircrion.
Surprisingly
lhe Babylonim
cnrenon
ha rhe
besr succcs
percenh8e
ti)ttowd
by our r-vatu.
crilrioo,
Th. l.btc funher
shows lh Btuin,s
cnrenon (4,1_2)
and th. L@r
Ripens
law e.qudly
suae$tuI,
Thse
@ followed
by $. q-valu.
critcnon
of
yalop
dd rnc ARCV,DAZ_bdcd
Indid
ncrhod (1,6.t3)
Tlle crn*ion
duc
ro Ma@dd (3.6.10)
od lo$erinsnd,s
crjterion
aE dD lc6t
sucessful
ofde
mdhods
shom
in rhc |2bte, Ir sbould i, nor.d lhar tess
succdstut
a
modd
is in d$nbine
pGilive
sighdnS gncEr
it is. Moreoler,
strcrer
a hodel
jt
should
be nore coosislenr
wirh .cgaljve
obsryatioDs
(wl|en
fte cGsc.hl
,s nor sn).
,
The number
of iegarive
obsrnadons
in ag@mc
urh lhc diterioo
is at$
omrdkd
6 a resl
of a cnr.non
by sodc
alrhos (Fatooni
et ot, 1999).
Howe!e!!
ii
should
be notcd
$ar rhe
exploration
of Schafcr
shows
fior $e bneh|ness
or nagnnude
contra$
is highty
dcpendenr
on rhe w.alher
.ondir io.s. All rhe single pameter
cn&ria
consdsed
in the
rable 4.4.5
do
nor conlider wea$er
ondiriotu
of indilidu.l
obsw.'r'on.If
ay ofd* qitcdon
alom viribility
in soh
cae il ,. sl,U possibte
lhal
lne setbq
@ddirioN
&c
rcr f.vour.bk
for vkibiliry
&q oe crc*en
is not acrualty
166
Tl|rcforc, if Fothcdnghd's criGdon is nosl s@4stul i. b.i4 cotui$dr fot
negalive obedadon rhG dcs not at dl htu thrl it ii h.tcr or noa d.p.dabl. thd
Ydlop'3 mod.l. Bolh Mah&E $d FolhdinSldt hod.k @
oa resative oh6d6tioB (whd ctlsdr is mt *n) but e lc.st sussful for
pciliv.
ob*d.lion. Ihh is tre sinply b..!4 the criteri! a. sficlcr s @nFGd lo o$d
crireria. On th. oih6 h.nd Babylonib @ndition, i-v.lue criedon ed lhe Luar
Riperess law e highlt cotuistent with rhe positive obervalions but l4t coNislent wilh
the ncgativ. ob*Nations. The* dd other crit.ria
(Bruin's limn dnd Yallop\
4.valuc
onedon) arc noF conc.hed with condnions udr rh. visibihy o{ n w lutu oesenl i3
tossible
.nd not *nh fte .onditions un<ld which ir is idp6siblc.
ln kms of ovmU coosislcncy M.!Mc6 mcthod atpcd lo bc best, HoBevcr,
Bruin'r lini! Y.llop s
4-valu.
cnrcrion, Lufu RiDn.s law and o$ r-vdG ciieion @
ba*d on ene Iheoelic.l co.sid.radons &d ihc orhcr hctlDds m only empiri@I. Thc
methodr bai.d on @y thcore cal @nsiderion ndy bc inproved with be d
unde6ta.dilg ol etual physical
ed physiologicat
dpccts of the probhn.
4.s
DISG.USq!9N
In this chapter rh.
tobten
ofde 6El vkibilny ofnew t6d cEscenr is cxpto..d
on de basis of pbysical
modeh d6cribiiS rhe bnSlttncs of c@$ot and that of rhc
lMligh sty. Tn * nod.ls ha @u6cy of 2oyo vhjch is erhjbned in de succs
Ftqiag.
of Edin's lihir. Yallop,s
9-v.t@
crit,ion .nd ou r-value cntedon eith
ovall @Nisr.my of?9.q/.. ?9.5% &d ?5.4% (espelivelr)
wilh Ihe obseryatiotu. AU
th* hodeb have tngh s@ss perolag.
(90% ed plu)
for posilive
obFNarioB
(eheo
Ih. crcse.r wa Epo.ledly
sn). Wilh horc accudtc nodets of biehrles or
c6c.nr &d r*ilighl sty $s. merhods cd be ihproved funher.
Th. physical
nodek co.lidrcd in tht chaprer cd bc divid.d iflo rm clses
On th,r b ba.d diectly on ln. brighrn* nodets and includ6 onty fi algoljlhn du
ro sch4fd Thc orh.. ct$ or nod.ts dcdec !tuibihty
@ndirjoN o; lhe basn of
t6l
visibihy cws inii.lly corceived by BNin, Thb clss includes Bruin's lidit, Yallop\
a-EIu cntrion md th. s-value cilerion th.l is d.velopd in dis work
w. hdc ucd Schafls algo.nhn ro cxploE rhe Epoaed ob$natoN out do
not cone uder ftc
"Edily
visible ' @ndition duc io YolloP md when $. cEse m
rponedly sen, AnohSsl ths ob$palio$ ces lhal have ufavouiablc ha8litude
cont6l are critically exoined md some sft Gjccted
(esp4iallv obs.nation nlnbcts
389 od 455) s $ey de lol consislent wnh.ny of lhe visibililv ctit rion consideEd in
rbis work. Bo$ lhce rcponed cses m nol .oDsi.lercd Fliable as .ven undq niehlv
exrgeerated .hosphdic t nFEtw md Glativ. humidny rhc magiudc contrdt is
foud ro b. unfavoubL for cE$ent visibilily ve foud al lcdl onc ob*oation
whn
ile crc*enr sd Gpondly *n wi$olt.ny oflhal oid (obs. no. 274) ed thal is nol
co.sistent wilh any cilcrion bul havc 6 lalourable nagnifude co 6t fo! tlalivc
humidiry less than 50% and atnospheric lefrpcrature aound l0 deglee centiSBde
Apan fron obervarion nDmb.6 389 sd 455 1nee e ll olh.r caes shen the
cEse w4 r.poncdly s@ without oPlical .id but ihe ma8lilud. .ont6l ws not
favowbt.. Howvcr,olee
m ofFsitiv. ob$nado$
re consined
wilh ar lcsl on
oder crilerion consitleed in 6is sork A3 the brighhess model tE still nol
pedecl
rneEfore thcs. I I obsenalio.s ce nol bc dl.d out .s umliable.
The models $at @ dedued Iioh rh Bruin's isibilitv cud6 ud liniling
visibility cud6, th. Bruin's linil md YalloP s single
p&meter
(it
.ion drc found to be
consisr.d
qith.{h
other. Bolh hav. stmosl.quivaldt
succGs
Frcntagc
br Bruin s
We ha!. developed new visibihy curves and limiting
visibililv curlcs using the
brid nss mod.h due 10 schaeler md o$es O. the basis ofthese n'* cuBes a new
dara *t ad a ncw sinsle pmetei cril.rion b d.duced The .s liniting visibililv
cufl* havc lcad lo a slishdy nodifi.d "h.st
lime of cE$nt visibilnv Our nw
visibiliry cril..ion, thc r-value ;ilaion, is found lo be norc succ6sful fot
posnive
168
obsMriom bul lcs sue.senn in @mpdien 10 thc Bruin's I'mir dd Yallop'3 ctil.tion
for n.g.tiv. obsdaliors.
In vieq ofthe facl rh.t all th vkibilily oiroia de ai6ed al explorin8 conditiohs
undd which rhe new luM rcsert may b. seen the suc@$ oI a modcl lor
positive
obsrv{ion is hor inporlrnl d i$uc as cohparcd to ils succe$ fo! ncradle
obs.F iions. None of lh sodel h limcd ai deducin8 condnioa und.r which lhc
vieibihy of ftw lbr cJsMt is Dposibl.. ThcEfo&, a nodcls see$ for bcing
consblcnl wift $c
positirc
obsmlion b lh sses ofthe nodel.
In vi.s of the nagnitude @nl@r model bed on brienb6s of c@.nt dd of
rwiligbr sky il h6 ben *en lllar rhc lbibiliiy of .ew lun& cr$enl is
Sreatly
aff.cted by
(i) $e eleelion above sca lv.l oflhe obs.Nation sne, (ii) rhe almospheric lenpcdurc
and
(iii) lhe relalive humidily. Higher is the.levation morc islhe maghiiudc contrasl rn
favou ofvhibilitt. Lowd is lhc lenpcEiuF or hunidily the nagnilude contdt is mote
favouBblc for cEse sighdne. Evcn if *niampidal diteri

likc Yallop's g-vtlu.
cril.rion or ou s-value critdiotr <to.r rct allows cE$enl visibilny wirhoul &y oflical
aid thc mgnitlde conBl my b ir favour of nlcd cye visibilirt of the no ccsccnt lt
hay b. due hid* elevation ofrlE siL o. v.ry low lcdFarue or humidily.
Thus in makins decisions about rhe duthenticiy of ey clain of vnibihy of .eq
lun6! crcscant any smi-empi cal or a simpl..mpirical cribnon alon may nol pbve to
be sumcie.r, Such a
qiidon
nNi b. suppledcnted b, m molysis of maglitld
contdt befoe any althdiicalion is dorc.
All th empirical ad the si4mpirical mod.ts N dduced ftom $ne baic ei
ofdara lhd is d.dued vithout tating th. ahosph.ric @nditions and cldarion .bov. Fa
l.vel. This b6ic et of dala mv bc b@d on d ARCV-DAZ rclarion
(lik.
Folh.rin8bm's, MaudB or Schdh nodcb) or ARCV-WIDTII relaion (likc Ylllop\
nodd or our model devloped in rhh wo*) only. AlthouS}. atmospbdic conditions cu
nor be
Dr.dicred
;ccnrately, rhe sesonal svelases for temprature md Elalivc bwidirv
169
Thercforc, a possiblc
slralgy for vedliatio. day be to usc eslituted alevalio.,
t, esriMtcd tcmp.rarurc, 7, dd $dnakd Glaive huidity, l/0 md get thc rsults for
g-value or r.value. lf n allows crcsccnr visibilny for lh. eve.ing in question dd fte claim
h nade, tbe clai6 is acpted lf1h. s.mi-.mpiricsl cribnon d@s nor.llows ccsc.nr
visibility dd cresccnl sishtins is claim.d, .voluare mleniludc contBsl M,. Iftlo > 01he
progran
Hilalol alloqs for vElidtio. i. elvalion, rempctur dd Elrtive hunidny e
onc con adjust for thse quanfii*
and
qiry
whether a favoulable ma8nirude contmsr (M
<
0) is obtaincd or nor If rhe new mgnilude contmsr is favoldblc dcepl lhe claim
On bsis of the d!r. generaled
by pDgEn
Hilalol
GhoM
io ngu6 on the n xt
page)
Elations berween magnitude coht6$ and rhe quantiries
on wbich ir dep.nds
{t I
ahd I, ar obtained 6 aollows:
nay be considced for an adv&k pGdicliotr. I. cdc of vdifyins a visibilig claim $.
dual ahosbh.ric conditions mv b. 6oded.
M
= i 8177
-1.autE
+
O.0Ao000ze
M= I t626e40n22)
M =
-A 4 368
+
0 Ai26T
_
A 0008f +A
OAOA6t'
ThG for meter inc.edc in elevalion
M dece66 by O.OO0OO0I4'
_
O,0O4l, for ach
pcFnlagc
ircre4 in relaive hmidity
rl' vdies by incrss by O.O3l 56e(0
o,o:d)
ed for
ach degce cenrigrade inc@sc in tnpqarue / incrcdes
by 0.0126 - O.OO08T +
0.000006T?. This n6y ledd to the alproprjat elcvalio,! rehriv hhidiry dd
athospheric
lenperarure
tequjEd for faloldbl nagnituo
conrsr An applopnate
erclation
my b tbe elvation of . hill top o. buildirg Mf fbm wher m obseFalion
nay bc @de or oay hale be. @dq The apprcpiare lchlsar@ ed rclalive hMidity
t70
may 6ose that nay b. lhe ayrlse for lhc eson or lhc valB $at wE acNally
re@rded ar rh $ne of obsc(ation,
ELEVATION VRS NAGXIIUOE CONTRAST
y=
?E.ri.odtr+ 5 af?
HUMIDIIY VRS IIAONTUOE CONTRAS1
t
8
B
2
3.
E3
$,
3.
33
TEIIIPERATURE
VRS MAGNITUOE
CONTRAST
t7l
Chapter No.5
APPLICATIONS
Durin8 rhls work lt ls obsoed thar since th6 Babytontan eE flt recenty a
nomber ol pr.diction
crltsrta, mathehatic.t .s we as obsewational. were
developed ro detemln whon the new tunardescnl woutd be flrsr seen tor a
gtven
rocataon. as tho fist appea.ance ot new tunar crescent marks tho beginning ot a
new month in obseryarionat
tunar catendaE thele crireria and modets are
sagnirrca.t fo, calendaicat purposes_
whther an actuat obsrya ohat tuna,
carendar, like the tstamlc Lunar catendar, ui izes lh.se crireria tor arangtng its
carendar of not rhe36 c.trerta provtd6s
a
uidance
for both teslhg an evtdenco ot
crescenl si8lting
by common peopte
and tracing down ihe dares ot a catendar
jr
hErory where app.opriate
dates are not we recoded.
Ttus the main uti ty oi the
prediction
c terta tor the eartiest visibiny of new crescent ts to regutate tho
obsefr atlon.l lunar
catendaf .
Although ftrst order approximations,
rike Anrhmetc
LunarCatenda,
thar are
oased on lh6concept
of LeapyeaFand
rh6 averag6
mooon or rhe Moon fave been
in use, Nluslims
hEve been to owing
dctuat sihtng o, crescenls
ar teast tor the
monrhs
of fas n8 (Ramazan)
and pitgnmage
(z
hajjah), the acruat moion oi the
Moon varies grea y
due to vartous
tactoB whtch causo rne obseryarionat
catendar
lo be ditfered froh the arithmelc c6t6trdar.rh6
Catendars if based on a prediction
c lerlon llko thar otya op or ihe one devoloped In this work are rhe cto56t to rhe
ob*patlonat
catendai In this chapter,
wecohp6rethese
carendaBwith
th a.tual
obseryatronat
catend6r
in
pracrice
In
paktstan
tor th6 years
2ooo ro 2OOz, ft ts
found rhst on avorage
93.7% obseryadons
,16 ac@rdtng
to rho
yalop,s
o_v6tue
t72
criterion or our s-value
(or
Q&K)
cnterion. The disagr.ededt ls lhe resull ot eilher
the bad weather du.lo whlch the.ew lonarcr6cent could not be slghted 6nd th.
lunar nonlh b68an one day lare, or too opilmjsrlc clalms ol obse atloh and tho
Lunarmonthbeganonedayearllerthanpredlcted.
Funher, In ihls work another aoollcarlon ol these models is consldered. Tnls
is lhe use ot lhese modelsto dwelop a compui.tional roolro detemlnethe lenglh
of cesce.t from cusp to cus!. flie nw lun.. c.scent as well as crescent on next
few evenan$ b obsened io bs shorter tha. its rheoreli.ar length Le. 180 degree
IromonecusDlotheother.Anumberoialrho6havedscribedthereasonsforthe
shortenln of the obsenBd crescent (Danlon, 1932, Schaefer, 1991, McNally,
1943). However, Jew have atlempted devislng a mathemallcal technlque lo
delenino the exrenr of rhis shorrening ol rength ot crescent. On the basis ol one
pafamelef
dlleia ee have used cresent ot minimum visible widlh as limil on lhe
le.$h or .re$enr and devrs6d a simple rechnlque to calculate lr. The chapter
beginswilh a desc
ption
ofthesme.
5.1 LINCTH OF LUNAR CRESCENT
Ihe hct,lld rltc nc\v luhlrclesor
appcds stroncr llEn 180. terA r.islnorn
ldt cenlrics. Il wns Denj.h wlD fi^r
savc
rn exptturarnr for the pbenoneion (Dor.ru_
lt32&1936)andalributcdi(o$etunarteniincloseto$ecuspsMcN!
yanribuluda
dillerenl reNon snh tis
pbenomion
disadine Danjon\ hlpo$esis (McNa y, 198:t).
McNall) proved
rhar lh tcngrh ofrhc shadoss ctose to $ hrnar cNp ond fic d.panolc
oflunar suiface IoD beins pertecr
spherc coutdnl,jimiiish rtre brignllrss oflhe regions
ofcresent close ro cusps lo bc rhe caNc ol rhe phenomenon.
IIe arribured ttrc tength
shorlcdng ofcNscent to lbe,.seing afeca,due lo $e turbrlcDe of lne ,rhosplrere.
McNally has also developed a limula for calcutalnlg te knBh of rhc desceDl, Larcly
Sull (Sulta., 2005) has anribured
0E shortening of lengtn of crcscenr duc to the
Blackwell Conr.st Threshold (Btackwclt,
1946) and has dleloped I forhula lo
c.lcurale ciesenfs lcngrh. W. have aho devctopcd a sinpte
&chniqne tor catcul.ring
173
l.nglh of new lum ccscenl (Qucshi and Khrh, 2007). In the fouowins we reprcduce
this cflorr wilh slighr nodiilcation md a codection,
Schrrer cjecred McNall! s expldaion on $e bais or his Yiw thar rhc
shonening oflhe cr{ent length is situply b.ca6c oflh sharP d*line offie brigntnss
of rhe crscenr clo* ro rhe cusps
(
SchaelTer, 199 !
).
Usins rh. dcudte dodel of Hatl@
(llapk
,
1984) for calcularing rhc surface brighhcs ollhe cesnt Scbaetrer claims that
Daljon\ collected obse aions anJ his own n* dara fic tbe nodel Howewr, nenhet
Danjon nor Schaefer have sneecsred a ddhod lor calculaling cacehl ldg$ Hapkt
rDdcl nat be accurat for $eoreical setling rclatcd lo thc clongalion ofrhe M@n bul as
frr as the obscryed crescnls are conconcd dEre oughl lo be a depanur frod snooth
relarion berween elongation and lhe crescenl lcngth. Thc tason we co.sider n baFd on
obsenarions ofsone norning and {enihs cesccDh.
ltosl of the edly desfiption of the
phononen, concenuated on rclatine it to the
plEs (or dongation) of the Moon ihal is gcnet lly th !e6on b.hind the
Phenonenon
As rhc clongalion increass rne lengrh of rhe cesccnl fronr cusp to cusP keps iocNing
Nhich a connon obseryalion. The nathemalicd dc*riprion ol lhe
phenomenon
'n
lems
ufdeficicncy arc. br Daijon Nd !ho\t to bc incoftd bv McNallv Hosevr. e orr
esrimrrcd limil oo rh ninimu
\idlh of visibl. cEse
(2 to 6 arc seconds) bv
VcNJlly le ro ren
.mdll
"dlu*
lbr DJnjotr Liilil lhe d*np'ion due lo McNallv i:
logicall, souDd so is $at of Suh dd bolh rcsulkd in$ tcchniques for calculatng
hDglh of se$oa. HoNerer bolh llcNally dnd Sullan hrve nol reponed lhe aptlicalion
of rlEn desription o. lh Ecorded hisloricll dria found in liiiatuE (Yallop 1998.
Schaeffer l99l elc
).
Accordinglo Danjon, d desctibed by F.l@hiet al
si,(a)
=
st(.) cot(@)
(5'l l)
Wh.c $e @ PQ = o is fie deli.icncy at in fiS l (Fatoobi e|' Al" 198) a is rhe
elongltion dd o i5 half the cccenl lnElh tr apP6 rhal Dojon tr*d lhe Sine
t14
fomulE. by Nunins sphdicEl 6gL at
Q
to b. idr egle McNallv rejeded Dmjoo s
dSmcnt ed 6ing fou-Pafl fomuh adiv6 .l:
(5.1)
Nlserically,
for small ddgtes d sd a thee is onlv . muejn't
dillemce b'lsFn lhe lso
Esults. Generally
thc .lonsation
(4) cd be cahulaled and the cre$ent l'nrth
(2o) is
obede.!. e the rw fomuls 6 b. LPd lo find fi' dclici'ncv
arc' Hosder' ro
calcul.rc the c6..1 lenelh nonc of these @ be ued- McNally daetoPs a fomula
fot
angula! rpdlion
9
ftoD a cusp in tems ofclescent
width
R d:
I
SinE
,=f!1.'to"
l2t )
(5.r r)
nininum
lisibl. *id$ n.sured
ih ddid dncdon
'wtv
lron dE
disc. Thercforc the logh of th ce*ent h oblaits is l8O0
_
29
whde r h th sdldidetd
of tbe Moo[ md
Usiry
(he
Blackqell
$rcshold con(6t
Sutan
(sultan 2oo5) adres
at tlE
ninimun
vhibG *id$
(in |ems
of didetcr
of rh' smalld
eqlivalnl
Blackselr
(Bhckstll, 1946) di*)
of c@enl
ar
Frigee
dd apoge
al his l@rion of ob$Parion'
Tbe fomula rhal hc deleloped
for calculali'8 thc crc$61
lenglh rsi
o.l4)
-T
*t'
t
Rl
o5
l2t
+w
\
{5.1.5)
wirh w is the dimter of e snallsr visible .quivalent Bl&kqcll dnc and l/ h cental
widtholrhecre$e.t. (5.1 5) is$ecorsted fomof (1.5)inQureshi a Knan(Qutshi &
Kian, 2007). Sultd.onside6 minimum diameter of Blacliwell dGc lo bc 0.14 alc
minucs Nho the Moon b near
perise
md 0.16 m ninuls whn the Mmn is n.or
The
presenl $ork is based on rhe obseNalion or the last (old) rcsceit oD
February 26,2006. Duling this obsenation rhat sGned from lhc bcginhing ofnorning
oviliglr rill \ell past sutrie, il was noriced rhar for rhis 48 holrs Mon. noE tlrn 2?
dcFcs aMy ton lhe sun ftc ce$ent ln8fi srancd ro derede \rith lhe rising suD
simihr obsnalion on Mdch 28'' shen lhe aee of Moon wds dound 3l tous !.d
arolnd 18.5 degrees asay lron rhe sun. rhe cdscenr leneth d*leased nrorc npidly
qi(h
d(E6ing co.ra$, The l.n rine thb ciescent wJs $en lvilhou optical aid well at$
sunriF s?s less lhd 90 dege* in lngh. Tso dtys later nw cc$enl with agc 27 6
hols ar 15 degees a\ey fom lhe sun Nas olsned till setling Close lo lhe lDtiab
though rhick humid a(mosphde the crcsnt lenglh Ms aganr obscrved to bed4rcsnrg
Thee obsFations cleaily demonslrare thai lheF isnuch notc 1o b expload abolr lhe
phcnohenon ol shonening of cc$ent lcngth apan fom tlapke s .curate model thrl
shows detendoce ofcB*cnt lcnsth on clongalion tlone.
TherefoE, inrhis
qorl,lo
besin si$
qecoisidera
simPl.
seodeuical
model ior
rhe ce$e.r. fu model dFsibes the phenoncnon of shortnine of lcn8lh that depends
on th. aclual seniSiaocLr of lh. Moon d *ll a the rclaliv. alliiude
(ARCV) of th
csc.nl o\fr tftal sky. This is denved fro,n thc sinste pmnct.t (q-vatue or !!al!c)
crilerion of edlie$ visibiliry or cre$ent (chapler 4) fld is bascd on th facl thai
whe.cve! rhe widlh (o' btigb$e$) of cF*c clos to cusp is below lhe mininuto
vhiblc cnrnl widrh (or b
ghtn6, or rh. dcscent the vhol l.hsth or ccscent wirh
t76
s.lld width eould nor b. visibl.. Applying ou mod.l on lhe rc@ded vbibihv rnd
iNisibiliiy dala lvaitablc fic ldgth ofcEsenl in 4ch ce is calculaiql Thc calcnlaled
lenSrhs of c$en1 @ al$ omParcd wih thc obseded leheths dd wi$ thc lengds
catculsred uing fodlls (t.1.3) de b McNally md (s.1.4 & 5 1 5) due b Slltan. ln
cs ofusing McNally's fomuh AA is @nsidded liom lhe cilerioD used in lhis work
&d for Sul|!n's fomula the ninimM width or Bl&kwll disc (,) it 66ideEd b be in
the d.ge 0.14 alc minul io 0.16 arc Finut and depnds on the dislane b.tqeen Eanh
&d th. Mmn obtained using simpl. lined inieQolalion
IrviwofQueshi & Khan
(QuEshi & Khan,2007)
tlre bLishrns ofcfsenr ar
displacement
v
frcn a cusp is
gvei bY
8..
=
tF...Cdv tr -cos
t)+
sh* t G th radius of Moon, F. is fie mdimun nux of sunlight
olVoon.l islhc
'ePar-rion
berqecn lhe Sunand
'te
Moon in our
the lutu suface dd X B th disldc. of the M@n ftom the Eanh'
lhe cescenl at angular sepaElion
V
fom lhe cusP is
eivcn
bv
lV,r,
=rcosWll
CosE)
=
tl
ccatv
(5.r.6)
(5.!.7)
whc t/. is lh. width of fie cdnr i! lne diddle ln bolh the* quttioc
!'
vari6 lmh
oo ro 9Oo alo.g fie lenerh of rhe cFscent frcn centE ro a cusp respeclverv
For rhc develop'nen(
ofanv nodel thai dcsibes
$e ni'inun
Po$ibl'
sidlh rhtt
cd bc visiblc lttrough naked eve one requi.es 10 s'ek
guidance fron $e aclual
obedalioN. ln $e history of *idtjficatlv rcponcd obeNation
of thc srv
voug
cr.sent
Moon, lh ecord is that due lo Pi.rce od February
25' 1990
(eporled bv
s.h!.fd ad Yatlop) Thc cl*nt he claift |o have sn wirh narcd ev' B
jusl
14 E
houB and ils widrh wa3 O 18 dc minut Amonesl
'll
rfie
'*oded
ob*flalios
lh'
t11
siglling of such a
youg
ed rhin cesc.nr wb nvd rcpon.d- In lhe norlel $ar is
developed in this sork thc losct limil ofihe *idth ofvisibl. ctsent is considered ro be
o.l8 aE minut. However this ninimum is not th abelule ninimm for all c6@nls for
all
posible el ile altitudes (ARcv). I. fiis work *e consider rhh ninimun of 0. 1 8
. arc-ninutcs of crcscenl width shen fic Elaliw dinulh. DAZ of $c M@n is ao md
rlr r.larir. alliiudc ARcv
gives lhe q-lalueof_0.22. Y.llop s ditedon
(4 2 3) for $n
q-
,1R(y =9 6311-6J226W
+0 7319 t'i2 ol0ls,t/3 6'18)
Thc values of ARCV according lo lhis *iteion
giving $e
q_rdlue equal to
'0
22
Nould
ield
! difcre lotrrlihiion
lhc visiblc width olthe crescenr' Tbis is causcd bv
dilTriem relarivc dzinulhs DAZ FoT lh. lasl
posibl' ARCV
(4o) th *id(h ol lbe
iNisibk ae$erl Nould bearcund
108 alc{cconds
$at occur dl a large valucofDAZ
ln
\i.\r ol diis $ilcrion ihi nininud
{idth of lisible cr$eol for @v ARcv is Gm'd
tr-
and s te *esent isjusi invisible for$is{idth:
(tIa)
Whqrc l'l. is tlE tlmrclical
enlEl
sidlh of he ces'enr
and
4costl
is $e rduced
rvidth al aogte
V
Irom lhe center of $e de$ent
'/-
n dre sidth rduced bv the chnve
ahnude
ARCV li ordcr thal soEe
pan ol dsenl is visibl
4(!'rvl
> l'l' ar sonc
\alue
V
=
Vn
'llrus
thc eftstive
visibte widlh of$e ce$cnl tor v
nnsing fon 0" ro
(5.1.r0)
Th. brishlness of crescenl falls sha4lv s 0 approaches
900
-
t th' aclul
visible reidrh
of cE$.nt
at any val!. of
V
m6r tE less tbd
d
e'onetic
valu of vidh
eiven
bv
equatioh
(5.1.8) Therefore rhc etr6tiv' v6ible
width
siven
bv (5 1 10) is
justiced
178
IE it ir ma dly lh koglh of.ilsc.d 6d nodo! htr lh. vilibL with of {tt*.al
b! lo diminjrl rlso. Wh@\tr lhc cr.rcdt it ilviliblc
'n
vi.w of
(5.19)
4r'bs
to
c*v-fr=r
(5.1.Il)
I!.ll oOE
qscr.
ia vi.r6e lb .tleI it vit'bL ia sftlth tl to'E
'rgh
!'n
Dlrt
dilh!6l!.cc..ttti3ncv.r!d.conDldc
180!irlcrgh
Tbu!'tV=V.
(5.r.r2)
Tladc i.
(51.12) ||,! i! ! ddr.. of Idf l!! l6tt of ih' cr'!c'dt
$ itll lt' iol'l
lcogth oflh. ctelcai k
Sivcn
bY:
(t.l.lr)
t;rr*"CY'*)
D
mt
'I}lus
$e ae$c len$h cd be dalualed whelever $e fieoelical
sidlh lr'
xcecds the mi.ioM width ,/, visible acording
b YalloPt
q'lalue ctn'rion oi our s_
value criterion, for $.
palticular lalues of ARCV In $c Fis 5. l l the *8nent [D or
AC is the ninimm
width lil- at dv ARCV inlisibl according
to Yallop's cliterion
The scgnenl AB is rhe thorcdcal widlh ltl" at fie cenrE of fie cresccr! Al sngular
spaBrion
vr
from tbc centre olcsent ED equh4(nrl/"
'lheefore
the
ponnt on
rhe ouler linb oi rlc cresceni tbal las dguhr separaion
fon cerrc
geal$ ihan
s. =
ZDOA
should noi be visibl TIE lisiblc cls
then crtnds fom D o D' @d
has letrBlh 2!rn. One should nole lhal Nheneve! ttl" (nininum vhible wid$ accordnr8 b
Yallop s nitrion) is
Srearer
tan ttlq ($coetical widtb)
{5
1 13) can nor bc sed ind the
cresceDi isnotlisible, ie iihas m lengdr'
The tr1odel developed
nl this Nork lo cotrlpute tlB lenglhoflhe
crcsccnl hrs been
applied lo a nuobc. ol ob*rvalions lepon'd
in IneralE
(Schaeffd 1984 Ylllop'
1998)
Tbe resuls foi ihe crescenl
length against
lhe elongatio'
also kno*n as irc of
lighl orARCL,ae
ptscnled in lable 51 1and in Fig t'l2 Tlre loBlhs
mcalculaFd
by scleciing
lhc nnrinum
vhiblc Nidrh
Vn
of dcscenl
foi tlrc valLE ofARcv
'c'ordrg
b
{t.1.8)
in rh elerv ca* and ihen usnrg
(5 1 13)
The colunns or rhe hble 5 l
'
I sllow rhc darc ot ob*ivirion
thc @dinares
of
rhe lcatioD of obseryer
(Ldlilude and longitud
Fspeclilclv)
tbe rclatilc umull)
PAZ).
rlre dladve
.hnude
(ARCV)
'r:d
lhe clon8alion
(ARCL) of $e Moon at lhc be'(
rinc ofobstvalion.
lbllowcd
bv setr1i_didetr
and lhc
cental widh ol cr'scnl
in arc
ninules.
rlt
4_valu.,
lhe niDimum
cF$enl
sidlh
viiihle at lbe rclatile
alritude
c.lculated
lom
(5.1 8) and finallt the cE$e'r lensth
cdlculared usiie
(5 1 11) Thetablc
is aFmged
in chmnotogi@t
or<lr
of ob$mtio's
dd co't'ains
onlv
Pai
of th conPlele
data sl lhat hs ben used for conpaine
mod'ls for carli esl crescenl
siehting in
pe!'ous
180
200
F
180
fi
reo
3ro
Era
i
roo
o80
i;@
=ao
JM
0
20 30
E mno
tig- 5. | ,2: Crlgn Lcogll! tr' vdi.Ii@ dE ARCV
Tlr! Fi8 5 1 2 slD{! lhai lh. nbdioel ctdid bdwen
ct!*4t lcntlh
'd
lhc
ctdgltion
h not snolh
s Eporr.d bv sd|Itrcr
on {E b$i! of H@k''t
mdcl Th'
tui! r.rlds
fd tl 5 N
(i)
dE cr.rc.nt hngth ha to bc tff"t'd bv dE ElihMoon
dist ncc .! cl'in d abos
(ii)
0F dttdgbdic
n!td4' cloe
ro lqizd trN|l tfrecr li'
cr$ent
losrh., cl.imcd bv McN.[v ald Silrd
MoEov{
v'rv wi'lc cle
'ot!
ftal
c invilibte dn lo $.it d4 vicitritv
qftb
$t hori4o mull
mt v|tilh $ddolv
for s
invisiblc crcsc.nr
the elongaiion
mv ba ttiSc $d
nult not h'r'' as lcngh
(i3 msl'
dt b. i isiblc) !.dding
to cLi$ of scn*&t
Ttt invisibilitv
of t eidt
'!l*al
!t
de to ii! clo..n6 io lFdzon
(sd[ ARCV) Ho*E'
sftn dft$L diiod'
(ARCV)
$e rnc G..nt 3lEI bc d!ibl.. Ot <ftosnlid
lnd cltir b tbai for r sw'
of
rrn
(sfrcidt) $idlh tlt stving tud'
(ARCV) mud
clN lo dtc4"
dt ldgft of
.le.nl fron nt mdinwn
(al DAZ =
0) 10 iB minimun
(terc lcnr$
vh'n itt
{-valu'
is
h.low limils of !tuio!) sooulv dd iot sdltolt'
b nE $din'd
69 5 12 odlv dto*
obsflllloB .rc coNidctld
tri.n lh' d!c'!t
M cltimcd b h!rc b'@ i"n or [E
cr.!c.d
Loglt i! c!a!.bla
lEr
182
T.bl. 5.1.1 {Continued
r8l
Tabl 5.'1.1
(Conllnued)
Durins rhis {ork $e ?O obw.tions of Dfljon (ne ionc{ bv Scha'lTs
and Fabohi 1. al.) @uld nol he acc6sd, howvc. the pictotjal data of cdccnt ltngth ir
beins
eeneraied
at fte Asaolonical Obsdllory al Univdilv of Kdachi. Th! obseNed
cBcell lengh fon
phologEphic Ecoids i5
given in Tabl 5 1 2. This inclldes sone
obsryadons made by olhe^ durirg past fe{
ycas and tbeir
pictutes ate availoble liom
M.icproi.on maiDtaind by oteh,
184
Tne nodel dcvcloped in lhis e for borh Ih brigh$6s ad th. lenglt of
cmce.i is nainly geomerric,
suppln .led by rhc single pmercr crilcrjon for $e
earlien visibility of ncq lunar cFscn1, Thc model
prcvid6
a simpte method of
cdculaling lenglh of lunar ce$eot and taks inlo accounl lhe atnospheric afects
indiicclly through singlc
pdaneler
crit ria for th. vnibility of new llnar cressenr only.
whenerer t/.
< n/- fi r$ent l6grh is nor cakulaled dd rh
according lo eordcd obsedation (lable
5.1,1), TL nodel hd been Gn.d in nw $ays
I:i6r. ior so6e of $e rcccnt obeflarions whose phologlaphic Ecoids arc available $e
cilculated dd obscrvcd cescenr le.erhs tre compared and shown in
jablc
5.1 2 and nr
lig 5.1 7. The cFscent l.nerhs calculared ushg ou! lornula
(5.1.13) arc
SEaler
thm lhc
obseoed values dd rhose due ro Sultan srechnique arc
genedllt
closer to the obefled
!alu6. In calcul{ions using th. fomnla of McNrlly A-t =
,r- dd X
=
seni'diafreter ol
The colu$ns nr rable 5.12 show rhe dalc ofobseruation lhc coor\iiMlcs ol rhc
locatior ofthe obseNer (lalirode md longitudes ii degre resp*li!ely),lhe elongation o1'
rhe Moon fod rhe sun in d8rees, the seni-diamcrer oflhe Moon. thc c.nlral rvidt[ ol
lh cEsce.l. ninioum visible width of cre*.nl
(all in dc minul6). lollosed bv lhe
crescenl length crlculated by our nodel ,id $e obsded crc*chl lnglh. lhc .a'nc ordrc
obseNer Th l.( No colunns contain cGsce|n lcngtlrs as calculaled usirr8 rlE nrodek
rlu" ro sutron onj Uctlutty .,p.ctvely. Thc du(a in rhh ubl has bccnlnlnucd iD ordcr
oiincre.sine elongalion ot ARCL.
To dGmine rh. lngh ol! crcsenl fom
picroial record the dieital
phoroemph
is opened in any
sraphic
$nw l@l- SeleclinS coordinales of lhe oa the poin6 (*o
ofr&n do*roeachoftu cusp md on closc ro supposed cenftof$ccrc*enoon the
vhible oute! liob ot lhe oe$eol an equation of circlo h developed $at leads to dre
coordinales of lhe centre of the luft disc, toining lhe cenlre of the lund disc with lh
two
yisible
cusps of thc crsce.l tbe dsle made al fie centre bv thc tso cnspc is
mc6ud. Tn
picue
of one of tlE cre$ent m.$u.d
in this Mv is shoM in Fi8 5 l ?
185
Fig. No. 5. L7: Mesuemcnr of Length for Cterent
of Mav 28. 2006 as pholoeraphed rr
Xffiltr UtoveElty obsefrd@ry.
'the
dlta aor the obsiedcEscehl lenglhshoM in |able 5 12 and the cbart i. fig
5. L? shows inlqesrine
paficn. Clain d by Schacfer
(Sch@fer, l99l
)
fie crc$ent lcngh
is a sn@$ fiDction of elonSatio.. but lhis drE er sho*s a tMd that cl*lv exhibns
delialion tion oy such sn@$ rel.tion. I]lc dala sdple is snall bnl lheE de lwo
subsets eech having neally sE@th relations, separatelv.
btwcc. lhc crescent length tnd
the longation. Hovever, rhen consideed s a conbiNd dala sel lh obsflatios
uith
elongarion ll93 de8lees
(by AnFa} l44l de8@s
(bv Oner) 1667 degEes
(bt
Ralini) md 20.12 degrees
(by
Qwshi)
deviarc Mkdlv lbm $e apPaEnl snoofi
rclarion exhibiled by the rcsl oflhe dala set Cecchl
lnsths in rhcse four cNs are huch
snallcr thm lhe uend shown by the rcsl ofob$wationsas
wellss thcresultsofe&h
rhc
mod.ls co.sidred abovc fot calculaline lhs le.gtb of $e ciesccnl
186
AII the* fout deviati.S cdes ae photogdphically Ecoded dd have the ledi
posibiliry
o| obseNational ercs. Out of |he ts1 of th. ight ca*s anothcr six @
plDlosnphic. Thc rccords due lo Sch&fq de lhc only cag 0tar "ob$nation.l lcngrh
of .ew lunr cE$ent is @nMed ils Eladon wift elo.Salion mul nol bc sneln 6
shoq in flsuE 5. L2 as wu 6 table 5. l2 (or nsurc 5. L7).
It is tunher nored $ar rhe rool mear square erot calculated foi lhe lhree
conputational frdhods
(Ouls, Sultmt and McNally
t
it n found $at Suhan s melhod
h6 rhe led( cror
(4.76 degret follosd by McNally's thal ha m .mr of 6 16 decrs
dd our model hd an eror of ? 22 degR' The najo. difernce hlwen our model dd
rhN Sulbn's dd McNaUy s is that olr nodel
8iv*
coosislmtlv hisher valucs ol the
lenefi oi crc$ent, wliets $e orner lNo nodcls havc bolh posidve lnd n.8flive emn
Thfunctionalrel.tionbet*eenelongationardlhecrcscenllnglhissinlilorinolrtuodcl
aDd $ar due to Srll.n s. bul lhe oneerhibi(ed by McNally's model is m.rkedly difitrcnl
McNally s mod.l is
Sivins
betre esuhs for larser elo.gaion but a3 $. clo.Sation
becond snaller the emr
given by McNally s nodl beconcs leser and ltrger
Tdhl. No t.1-2tth:.^r"la r'!h,lak.t L?ngths o[CrctehB
t87
180
160
'110
1m
100
80
60
zlo
15
ELOIGAN()|{
+OBSERVED
FOURESHTS r SULTAMS
o MCMI.LYS
Fia. No 51.7
200
i60
160
E.ro
:100
380
360
20
0
15 20 25 3)
ELq{GAIOI{
Fig 5 | 8r C'lsat tdgo5
$rinc
Eloqiion withdn wi.rioa dc ro aRCv
188
Tlre modcl for rhe calculation of cc*ot lenglh may be u$d d rh. .dli6t
visibiliry ctuerion 6uch in the smc say 6 Yallop\ cilcdon cm b. usd, Hos.ver, our
nphasis *6 nor b dcvlop d allcm e cdr.ion for $c s. This *ork ws i .nded
for a brter und.htdding ofthe grcme$y
of the lunar cEscent md lo delelop a ne$od
for cllcuhting iis lnsrh.
The scond md indi@t tesi of the 6odel is its conparison
qitb
the rcsuhs of
Ddjon ncnliored in Fal@hi el- al. Ifthe niiimlm visiblc eidlh ,/, for vdious ARCV
according lo Yallop's critcrioh is r.placed by rhe nininum ever visible cenralwid$ of
0.18 aa ninuks tlEt is equivalor b igoring $e atmospheric allst for lower ARCV
|hen the Eladon b.tsen cEscdr lcngrh and .lon9rioo bccons snoolh as pE*nrcd by
Schaefer
(Schaeftr.
l99l). The smc is shoM ii Fis. 5.1.8. The chart in figwc 5.1.8 aho
sho\s lhat limiling value ofelo.gation lor po$ible lisibilily oflh cEscsr is areund 8
d.grees. As our compurlrions do considerthe an'cctofparallaxrhis limil is equivatenr lo
te ? degrce linil very popultrly rlown $ DanjoD\ linit.
On thc b6is of $e calcuhred lenghs of {escenr and ns elonearior using ou
hodel the Ddjon deficicncy arcs aE calculrted igno.ing the af&ch ol ARCV by
aomula givn
by Danjon and thal given
by McNally (shown in Fig. 5.1.9 and s.t.lo
Bpedi!ly) These resuhs ae in clos agreencnr wilh fte Fig I in Flroohi el al (lbar is a
^rrcduoion
of Danjon\ lis 2)-
189
*.
Fi8. 5.l.9i D.fici@y Arc rg.ind Elongtiod f.dding to D6jon
Pig.5.1.l0: D.tr idct A!!.gd!d Eld$tLa...qdiosb LlcNdly
;r
3.
190
6.2 LUNAR CALENDAR FOR PAKISTAN
Mosl of the hlami. counri* follow d ob*wadonal lu.d calnde, ar leasl fot
ftn rcligious purposes,
Although subslantial work is done to cvolle a
pediction
ciiie on ro dcvclop a univerel calenda! by llys (1984b, 1988, 1991, 1994a, 199,1b,
1997) ed otheB, r truly lnilersd calendd could nor be dvelop.d. As according Io
coDmon Islmic bliefactual sighline of$c n6! L6d crceenl is n*essaty to bgin a
Lund monlh, such a univesl calend& $cns lo be inpo$ible. This b |fue speci.lly
bcau*
just
aner conjuncion $e new luna! crcscenr is nol visibl on rhe sme day
lhroughoullh worl,l, eveD ift*o places ofobseNatio.areoD sm loDgirude. According
1o recent delelopnenb (Scabefer. 1991. Yallop, I998,
Qurcshi
&Khao.2007)
ob*ryational l@r calendaB for each Isl.mic counlry m be d.veloped bur dc ooi
s.ncally
acceptcd b)'' rarious Isl.nic conmunities.
ln Pakisian an Offrcial Commiirle (Ruer-e-Hilal Comnft(ec) decidcs about when
1o beg$ a Lunar nFdrh on tbc bdis ofpublic cvidence and obseNatioos. This connilre
sa$e6
infodaioi 3bour thc claim ofsishriig rhe csce Thc clrims arejudged oi
rhc basis oflhe diFdncsof$e Islmic Laws. Som FpEsenlalivesofvdousscienrific
organiatiom de cle consnhed. Oncc $c clain/s is
jNritled
relisiously andor
soientilicauy, $e Ennoucemenl is nDde rboul begiming
ofthe nexr Lun,r m.nrh In x
way,lhe beginning ofE\v lunemond is bascd on
public obscBations
'
verined ii licw
ofde pnncipals laid dosn br lslamic shariaat laws (lisled inanicle 1.3).
'lle
advmrae. is rhal a larse numb$ of ob*Ne6" trle pan in $e exeai$ and
wilh it the pmbability
of sighlins .ew cBscenl is incesed. Morcover, hon oa thcsc
observeis de iionr rural arcas sherc thde is leasl ihduriallraffic 6nd liSht pollution,
aid n k higlJy prob.blc
thal lhe obseNing condilions d nar perfect. TheEfore in this
sluljy lhe* public
obs.rvations e considcrcd |o bave a hki degE. of autnendciry. ln
lhis \ork all lhcsc public
ob$dation-b.*d d.res ofsiart ofach Lunu nonth frcn ye.r
2000 b 2007 ae reproduced and 4 srudi.d in conparison wirh thc Yallop\ q value and
l9l
ours-value crirerion-baed crireria. A similar wolk for the period2000-2005
has akeady
bcr reFned (Qushi
snd Kh0, 2005)
TIE resuhs of E 95 lnDation during the Jmualy 2000 lo Scprenbd 2OO7
(Shawl,
1420 AH lo RaM, 1427 AH) .tong *nh obsRalional data 4
presenred
in yeady
lables in appcndixlv
All rhe conpuklio.s fo! the* tables de basd for the
city of KaEchi (Larirud. 24o 56, Longitude 6?0 l.). The fisl cotom indicales 16r
conjDct'on wjrh nonrh, day, hour, ninde and seco.d for rhe l@al rim of conjuictioi
in the sub-columhs. Thc calcularions are done for rhe day oftast codlncioi, fo! $e nexr
day and vherc Equird two days tater, indicaled undc. colunn hcaded
.Ldt
Coij
followed by rhe Dale in Oregorian catendar. Nexl $o cotlmns givc
lhe rlarive ahnude
(ARCV)
and reladve azimuth (DAZ) in degrecs foltowed by nooDset-sunscr tag ir
m,nules. ftc age ofM@n (in houc), rhe arc or tignt or tonsalion
{ARCL
in degrt
and fie cBscenhvidrl (irr arc minlret apper $e iexr rhre. cotunns, iolhsed by
colhns indicaling the
r-value,
visibilily condition otr q-value. lhc .elahc and the
visibihy conditio.s on s,value. Thc visibitiry
condirions are lho* de$nbed in hblc
4.2.4 (for Yallop\ oiterion) dd labt 4.4.4 (tor
euEshi
& Khan
qirerioD).
Under rhe
hcrding of 'Momh $c colmn givs
rhe nrhc of Isl.nic mondr $at begi$ anq a
sighring reponed on $ previous
evening foltowed by $c CreBorion d.te ot slan ofrbh
lDnlh.In lhis 16l coluDn und$ Cregori& dare ofsiafling lunnnDnrh, numbsofdar-s
in dE nonrh, iE also
8nd
Ttu la{ colunnr conr.ins a comnenl. If rc dccision oa
sl.nrng new lunar noDlh is in agrccment vi$ the prediotion critsioD
Gratur
q.ilqioi)
thc column conrains I,ROPER. tle
..ob*ryalional
decision .nd tbc Nodet arc
consideed lo b. i..gEeme.t only $ne. thc s-value clirerion show Ev, i.e. crcscenr is
clsily visiblc. Tbe conrhenr in ttE tasl cotuDn cobrains
,LATE,
if thc dcchion of
startng new lund nonrh is one day lare 6 indicaled by rhe dat of csy visibitiry on r_
lalue and EARLY iI the lunar nonlh has been naned ooe day edlier rhan lhar
indisted by the prediclion
crn on. A5 staled eelier all de* calculariohs @ doDe for
KaEchi and for rhe b.sr local lime for E$.nr lisibitily. Hower, ir should b. nored
lhal observarion claios are couected from alloverlhe counry.
192
Out of rhe 95 public
obsesalioDs
reponed
jn
rhis \o*, rher wre o.ly six
occ6ions (Jbe,2000,
Juq200l, Juty 2004, ApnL 2006, Jury,2006 and Juty,2o0?)
vh.n th sighling war Epond one day latc ii compdison b rhc pcdictio,
crnria
according ro which the New CEscent was lisible on rhe pevious
day bd *s not
reponed. Tbere was oDty one oeasion {hor rhe earty sighrnrg is rcponcd
Nov.
D,
2004), hus,1herc weE only 6.3% enors in rhe decisio.s oflh moon sightingcomine
of Pakistd duing ld sven yas. llese
resul$ e ba$d on verifi.d chims Tbe data
B8arding nnmberofcE*cnl
siendnB d.ins $ar sre notrc ficd is nol available. The
only case of LARLY'sighring
acepred
by $c audonties was for rhe nonrb of
The main
'e6oi
tor lare sishlinss
or rtr five indicated occdsions is th overBr
sky all o\r lhe country in.lllbese caes.In
case of$e onl)-' earty sigh ns for rh.Ian
scven yea6
altnpts for cRscenr siehring \ere n,ad rhe Obscdatory ofu.ireBity oa
Karuchi using 6 CodC reliacror rclescopc.'the prediction
crnerion based on r-value
dllowcd cescent visibility with oprical aid and rhat based on
4-vatue
did hot .llowed
visibilily eleo silh lelcsope. We failed
in sighinS of the crsccnt bul rhe omcials
acccpted clains of mlied eye sighli.ss fron aR. ctoe to Kamhi. Akhough,(he d\o
$n$il cosidercd did nol allow naked ete visibitny
on rhisoccasion lhc misconc+tion
lhat if rhe ph4se
ol rhc cresenr is noE rh.n l% n shoutd be lisible (Asrmnonicul
AhnrnJ..:l]O7r n ayha\c leJd he,te.i. or D.Jtcr rorcer
rt,e.tdtrn;.
The low percenbgc
ofee6 in rhis obscryalion.l elfo,1 is much noE pbnisi.g d
compaGd b lhe 6ul$ of m@n wlch, progEms
cohdEted in Unncd Slales in thc tar.
1960s and rcpond by Dogger & Schsller (
1994) Accordi.erorhh rcporl l5%positite
rcs (qons clains of observing $ cresceno and 2yo negadve eriou (cescenr was
visible bur rhe obsrveF nissd then) {qc iound monssr $c cxperienced ftooi
s"lche6. Thqe exF i.nccd h@n watcheu \v.rc geneElly
consideFd b know wne,e lo
lind $c crcsce.r dd whar dc oiolatioo of rhe
..homs"
wa.
l9l
Freque.dy. claims of lery dy sighiiog e made in sonc rcgioG of
paknb!
(pardculely
for ianins rhe dontbs of Rd.a ad Shawat 4s ienrioned beforc) $at
ad nor accefled by rhe au|hodds. Oie offic Dajor @!s of rh4 dly clains of
sighting ofncw se$cnt in Pakisran is lh. kenness otlh clainr dd lh nisco.epdon
.mongst trasses ftar when lhe
'tighting" hos been eponed in the Kingdom of Saodi
Arabia lhe cr$nt nrusl be sighred the ncxt day in
palistan,
However. tbe oilcill
d<ision about slani.g n.w luiu Donth in lh. Kingdom ofsaudi Ambia is nor baed on
acrual signdng of lhe n w c6ent Thee dcisions e based on cnrcria rhar have
chased tuee tnes ovt $c pan two decad6 (odeh
2o0o).
Up ro 1999 the citria vas 6 fouows lf$e Moon.s age at drsunslis t2 hou6
or horc alter fi New M@q ihe pevious day is the fi6t d.y of lhe Islanic
nron6. fiis actually matu lhd lhc luDr donrh begiG on tu day ofconjuncrion
oa Moon vhich occurs on or two dats e.rlis than $e rime shen tbe n.N
crescent becom.s vhible ro lhe naked .ye,
Fmm 1999te crilerjon {6 chareed ro the tottowing: The tunar monrh besins on
lhe eEning *hctr the sun*1is bforc tlt moon 9l according to Mrcca. This \as
no di$rtuus .s ir is
Fssible
lhar rhc sunsel befoe moonsd sil occur even
belbre rhe conjunction. ThEfore. rhe hmar montn may begin three days betorc
rhe ccscent bcomes vhible to nlked cye.
Ftum 2001oD\ardr rhe cirdion is:
a) Tl'e
socemic
onjudion scurs bfoP Sb*t.
b) The Moon sck aner rhe Sun.
This is nore realistic bul it is scarccly possible thal the crcscenl becones visiblc
on dE day ofconjunction.
in)
The Min p@mders
signinc.nl in lh. .arti6r visibilily crnerion for lhe luoa
cEscenl aE LAC, AOE, ARCV, DAZ, ARCL, Phas ad lh widrh of cE$e.t. As
n.ntioned abov none ofrhs pomelets
alonc decide the visibiliiy or.on vhibilitv of
t94
lhe lmd ft*e.t. Cncrally thc crnical valuc of thc Phsc b considEd lo b. t%
(Astrononicrl
AlMac, 200?). Duing rhc priod
flom Jduary,2000 b Sepr., 200? $ar
were consid.ed in lhis 3tudy rhe'e
qs
nor a sinsl. incidencc when rhe sidd.s ot
cEscenl with phN l.$ lhan l% ws eponed and am/.d. There weE two @c6io.s
when lhe ph6e
m grcarer
rhan l% bur ihrr. ws no claim of sightings a.d sighting ws
not possible
accoding ro bo$ lh. oitclia considqed (Oct. 23,2006 and Dec. 2l,2006).
In lhc cae ofNov, 13,2004 th. phase
ws I l9% lhal may have been lhc Eason rhat rtre
siehting.lain
qas
accepred (as
ne.don.d earlie4.
TheyounBslcrescentof
agc t9.l hou6(!r bstdheoivisibilny)eendurinClhe
period
of study was that
of
May l'7, 2OO?. Apan from b.in8 $e youngesl
cre$eht seen
duing th
Fnod
of study lhc ob$rvltion has anottrcr inleresing teatur. Thi5 Ms $e
or y case when thc cr.eent was sccn on ft. enc cEgodm date a it N6 born
ac@rding ro Patiskn sblded line. Apari ton $is record obstualion th@ are fou.
orhd clains ofyoung Moons sighling,Nov. 11.2004(22.1hours),tan.t0.2006(21.45
ho6), June 26, 2006 (22.76 houre) dd Fcb. 17. 2007 (2 t .6 hous). ln aI $eE vee 22
(21% of Ihe studied) ascs of sishdnS daiN when $c .se of M@n @ les rhfl l0
The obsemtion of Feb. | 7, 2007 @ nadc ar fic slronomical ob*Fabry ar rh
Instrule of Spsce & PlanetJry Astophts'cs. Unrvcrsily ol Kr',(hr *. ,pou.a U.
cre$ent nsing lhe 6' Codd Refractor TlescoF. Both rhe
prcdidion
crileria alto$ed
crc*enr sighri.g wirboul oplical aid but wc could se rh. crscenl wi$oul tetescope. No
other claim of
qesenr
siShring wa ac.iv.d by $ aulho ies on rhis day, Tte
aulho lies acceptcd ou laim. This was $c young*r
ccseft sen ar ou obseoalory
d$ng lhe period ofsludy, It is a Ko.d for ou! obs.ryarory and rhc vorld recod for rhn
part'culaf
clescenfs eeli.st obervarion (sw,ftoonsiahlina,con
dd
sv.icoprciecr.op). Our phoroSraphic
r.cord h also posred
on retevanr websnes.
!95
Tlrc' seE 6 c66 when thc ag. of M@n @ bciwen 24 hou's dnd 30 hous
ed rhe crescenl w4 not seen. Thus, ihis srudy also suppons th. idea that age is not a
depcndablc l&to. for any
pEdiction
crildion.
Anodier inrporbnt pdMeler
concened is rhe noonFt-sun*l LAG. There are 22
occasions *hen the crescenr of lag 60 minures or less was Fen. Oul of rhese only two
*ft wnh lag less rhan 50 hinules, Nov. l], 2004 with lag ]5 mi.urs a.d Aprit t0,
2005 Nith lsg
.l,l
minuts. In ihe *co.d of thcse c6es rhe prediclion
c
(ia
a o$d
naked ele lisibility. There wer 15 cases when the tag sas blveen 40 and 50 minules
and bolh dic pEdic
on crileria did nor altov crcscent
visibility *ilhoui optic.l aid, Tbls lh. n@Mr-sN4lag alone is also not a dependabte
parametef
for any prediclioh
criterion. Out of 95 new Moons rhe predic
on crileria difer
from $e Babylonian clnerion (Faroonhi
et al, 1999) only
g
tines when Dabylonian
crnerion (ARCL +
l"Ac(in deg.ect <
22) alto$ nalcd eye visibility but
,{luc
dd
lhe s-laluc cnteria do tur Howld, on rhese nine ccas
I'r view of tn6c fads we conclude rhat bod q-vatue
ed r-value cilcda arc NI
suilcd predicrior
cireria with r !.tue
clireion delcloped in $is work has mdginalty
be cr success percenrage
ibr posnive
ob$ralions (chapter 4).
porricutarly
in viewofrh
facl dar $cs fire.ia do not march acrual cr.senr visibitiry onty in one ou 95 cas
(1.057q).nd
thal @casion Ns conkoversial
in liew ofrhe above discussioD. Thc nve
cases Nhcn the cEscent $as seen hler tan
prcdicrd
aE not conside!d as an ero! 0s thc
probln
occun d d!. lo ore(sr skies. TtrGfoF, tor lhe tomulaion oa turue
obenarional IuMrqlendar
$ese
Fediction
dreia de nidly dependable_
TIE has ben only o.e occasion whd lherc mrc three co.*curivc nonrhs of
29 dars elcb (during
June, July and Aususl 2ooo). This is rhe ndinum fo. Fpelnion of
29 days lund nondrs anticipoied s e&ly a loricentury AD by Muslims ( yas,
1994a).
The li6t (Rabi ul Awal, I42l) of$is lriphr ofnonthsbeema day talerrhan p!.dicled
196
oftr\i'i$ lbir tNinun rcldirio! @!H ml lLv. tc.n th.Ia llxr! vt&r D ac&noo of
frt! (diD|d)
coorc.rlir.! tdt! of 30 d!y! 6d h 6b
Fiod
of
'lldy.
b. sighio8' ca c.r Morlly o.cN!nn8 Ep.ririon of fou 30 d.F' @d! io
f'v! o! sil Afthow\ rh. kludc shd. Lsw
(cb{i.!
t) dlos for con .don a! lnd
et o oh..wrrion idic:!. m m., bur ftr.dvmcc ptslirg
nd dcv.toFEr 6tcdf
m ohsE|ioo l|E
.j-n/-
h.!G.t d
Fcdidioo
diEir b{' grarty
bclp. Tt
AFadix-V rhosa suh r ltnr c.ldr. in
qdich
.oryurrioB s! bed i! Knstti d
lhe +v.lu.
qilai@
tvl
Chapaer No. 6
Dtsct ssroN
'ftis
rvork $is inrsd.d to
qplorc
fld.ompae fic mathcmaical nodels for the
crneds under which rhe new lund cresenl could be lnible at
silen
locdion on th
Eanh, Mormk!, it was intendcd that acomparhoD offiese nlodcl is conducled and the
models are nodified if posible, The lask of compdien od nodiEcadon of the nodel
hs ben succcsstuuy achielcd dd a neN model the r.vahe criterion has heen
dcveloped. A sumdary ofthis wo is presnted below sith r dkcusion on the najor
achicvedenG ofllrc Nhole eihll.
Fi6t ofalla bener undcFt.nding ol$c issues. conpubrional, aslrononrical dd
obrerarional, associated wilh rhe
prcblem;f
l|t firet sishri,lg of$e new lLmtr ssenr
is devcloptd.
Wc have xplodd the comPulalional tchniqucs and tlrc asrcnomical
alSornhm dd rhcir applicadon
(o
$e extcnt that is .ecsary aor rhe calculations
irrvolved in solving lie problem desribed in nr pEviors paraeraph lrritially lhc
rcchtriques wcre nnptmenled on Miciosoft Drcd work slcels bui duc lo leDglh,
calculalions and lhe use oflong fomuld Ne \cre for.ed to dcrclop a cortputfr
prcgnD
tlilalol. T]le
prognm has been used lo do allcrlculations lbt detemining c@ldinalcs of
$c sun sd $c Moon.s well as the padmelcs inlolved in oor pobhm lhe rc$'lts ol'
nr. applicalion of $ne of tne modcls @ obunEd $ithin ln. pro8nn and lltosc for other
modcls arc done on fic basn of $e dala
generaled
by
pngEm thal is salcd as ao ouqul
fllc. This file is $e. kanslom.d into an MS-Dxcel
rork shet md lhe resuhs of orhcr
modeh re oblained therc. Tbc hbls comp sing thse ts!l$ tifiin dre m.in txl and
thar apF{ in |hc apFndiG rc all dvelopd fon rhes *otk shets
The modcl due to Babylonies as d*dibed by Fatoohi et
$at wa modilied by the MuslintAFbs is bricfly desribcd ir
198
1..2) dd is ns applicarion is srudicd
jn
companson with other nodh in cbapls ] (anicle
Ll) and chaptq
.t
This tule is based on lhe sun of$c elonca(ion ahd the dc oflision
-the
Lunar Ripcness rule dednced by Muslins of rh. mdieval eh in exploEd more
errensirely. h is loun'i rhal though, $e Lutur Rip.!6s function is fo Dorc sophisl,caled
a compaEd ro the Brbylonian rulc, the luo mclhods
prcducc almost equivalent Esuhs
when applied to rhe re{nl obseRational ccords.
'lhe
$ct|rds h3sed oD relalions bclwe$ arc ofvision (ARCV) and $e tclJrivc
azimurhs (DAZ) rhar
\ere extcnsivcly develop.d durinerharlypanoflhe
20- ccDrutv
ae loud noE sucesful dlrins lhis study in compdison lo U ancienr and Dcdielal
Derhods The suoce$ in masuEd in ho* nany obseNalions are in agrcened wnh lhe
models. I lorv mdny rines lh. cFsccnt is seen wlEn fi. modls suggcsls ils visibihy.nd
hoN nan! tiDcs lbe c:.sceol is nol seen shen lhe nodcl aho suCgesls inrisibilny.
lhc rcnen rhl fie oodels blrd I'n ARCV-DAZ tlalions are norc $cccsslul is
irar wilh ihcrcasins rrlative azinu$ thc biCllNs corrdsl oflhc crcsccnt aalnrn rho
skybrilhhess impro\.s and the crcscentsofloseirclariveallitude ure visible. Sm.lleris
rlc DAZ lhis b
e]trr$
com6l dclerionlcs lnd lhc crcscn( is only \isible al hiel'cr
,^RCv. h comprnotr to lhcse models lhc Lunlt Ripcncss tutrclior is slronglv buscd on
rc of scpdlion. lh.
toblcm
$nh arc ol sparaiion is th $nh l ge DAz n tan ti-
nruch snaller rhdn su-lgesrcd by lnc Lunft Rip$es law
(10 to t2 d$recs) loi a lisibld
cr.sceit. ln rl$e cas.s \vilh large DAZ tlrc Ripene$ luncliorr ,4,r can bc llrgc so lhrl
rhe larger valLEs of R,,, arc eq Ed. Conseqlendy. aor lrse. lrtirudcs ldgc .rc of
scparalion is EqutcJ But lescr DAZ for larger laliodes auoNs snaller ARCV rtrd
con*qucnrlt smrll( rc of scpration. fhercfore, cspeci.lly for localioDs Nit largcr
hdudes Lunar Ripcn.ss law beomcs more inconsnrc s comparcd b the obscNtrions
and thc ARCV-DAZ nodels.
ll is sftn du ng $c di*usion ar rhe .nd of lh. 4ri cbaplr lhal lhd ARCV_DAZ
ba*d nodeb, the ForherihShmr's modcl. th Maundeas mojel and lhe lndian nrodel aE
successivly belrr. These imprct.menls ae due to deducrion of b.ner and b.trer basic
199
dau ofnininum aE ofvision for difcrc el.tiv. uinurhs- tlowrcr. all th.* modcls
isDrc the ridrh of fi. n.w lba cas4.d ftar vdie
SMrly
with thc Eanh-M@n
diskrcc for rhc saec elongllion. Thk c.!s!s vdiatioB in thc elully bdshh.s or th
.Eeent of emc donsdion. Cons.qEntly, ft. s.
pln
of ARCV ad DAZ $c
t'i8hh.s of casnt v&i6 for dif.rcnt Eanh-M@n disranc.s. Th lsk of this
considdrion is rh. Fain caus. of l.ss.r succ.ss
pec a8. of $.* n.thods N
conDlEd to the later ftod.ls foi
posnilc
ob*nations.
Th. Glliaion of vdyiiS bid nas of crc$crl si$ fic widrh or cE*.nt ro!
se lonSa on (and $m.
pih
ofARCV-DAZ luct thc
phriical d.$nPlion otth.
poblcm by Bruin lead Yallop ro dcduce bdic dala lating widtu ol cErent to $c arc
ol visioi. Yallop d.dwed this dll! fod $c minima of lhe linning visibihy .ur$ of
Inuin. Cons.qu.ndy. Ydlop @s su.cc$ful in dcducins hh3inel.
p.6nttc' r.sr. rhc
4_
ulue ciledon. This crir.ion
Produed
bdler Gsuhs i. compari$n to atl th.
ptcvious
mdhod!. Th. dcdudion ofvadous visibiliry condirionson lh. bsis otdircBnt dngcs o!
.r.valu.s $d rh2t ol rhc besr rimc of visibility' of .een frem rh. limitins risibilirv
cunes of ENin !'e thc motr markable of Yallop\ contibution l-hc \isibili'!
condirions
pro\ idc
ruidclinca
lbour uds *h.t condnioos rlt co*cnr \ould hL casilv
risibl. $hcn n $ill b. visiblc undo
P.rfcd
st.rhct condnions whc. Ue opricrl
\o(ld
b< Eqlircd .d when fte cB$ent
$ould bc sinPlv nor visible $ith ot Nnhout atrv
opti.al aid. rfu* condilio* har.
poKd ro b. noN and morc Eli.blc
$i$ incBtsnB
Thc najor co bution ol or e is rhc comp.ri$tr ol .ll fi. htljcls
@rclically, frathcm.ricElly,
phytictlly.nd in vi.w of$eir success
p.rcentagcs
'or
a
s.r of ob*wations colled.d tom d. l.t. l9ri c.ntorv till dcntlv. Anorhcr 3isnillcst
contribudon ol lhh wott is lo convcn aU th. mo<lls ino si.8l.
Padm.tcr
crnria 1 h.*
arc listcd bclo{ in th. inccsing order ofsuccss
pcE.nlagc:
vp
=
(ARcv
-
( 12.'o-0'.00s(D,{z)'z rYlo
200
",
=(^* -
l-
#
-e4,:!.,'l)
f
"
v,
=ltncv
.lo.no
-
o.orn1o.tz1-
tt
=(^RCV
- lrt.8311.-
6.3226tv
+ O]llgr2
-O.tOl8V3rttO
\t, -t5
+
py
rxtr+,pfl
vr=ARCL
r
!rc olscpaBlion -
21"
o.ooot uaz2\lto
v
| = tARcv - \t2.4023 -
9.4818W + 3.9512W
|
-
05612Wt
D
t rc
ln rhis {ork schactels modcl of dldritc bdshrn$ is ale erPlond in t.ms of
nasnitud contrrst tnd thc dsllE aF in lsRD.nr
$i$ his wo* (Schelet 1988.)
-n'h
has ben ehieved by iniplcmenrine lh. rshliqus d.r.loPed bv Schel.r and o$ets |o
ev.luarc sky brighhes
(in tems of linninB mgnitud.) and r brishtocss ol lhe
cE$nL Biglrness ofsky and that otcE$cnt dcp.nd heavilv on various ihosphenc
arsrs Amongsr ths lenpeBluE and clolivc humidnv arc lcpl \2riabl. in the
posram Hilalol in ord.r to exPlor
posiblc
condilions
undd which claims of nlted ctc
v'sibihy m.y b. Br.d for dillEnt condilions fhis lc.ds lo wh.t Ne h!v. rmcd 4
Magdlude Conl6r
(Amag
_
maenilud. of Moon
-
skr's linritnl8 a!!iNdr) lf
mognnrd .onl6{ is n.galit n is lalour of cN*tnr
visibililv o'tunvie
Dol [or
cxftnEly crilical n.kcd cyc obserylrion ckn$ of Nw lunlr ce*cN lhe magnitude
co 6l lE ber dallaled nrinut lv h i5 tolnd $d $he of ftcs cdcs appear doublful
6 fie oasniude conrEst @ n.v.r in Lvout or cc*ent tisibililv cv'tr with hidlv
ex.8g.ra&d wathr coDdnioB
(v.ry tow clttivc humidnv and lcmPtdur) lor the
vhole dudtion of th. ooonsd-suet hg |inc. Using th.
pogim Hilatol the tin$ have
ben evaluat d of(i) \$en $c nasnitud contGi is ndinn
(ii) whcn rh' nasnilude
conlldr
jnrl
bccodc ialouEble for crcsa risibililv and (iii) {hen rhc masnirudc
conm was last in falolr or ccsenr vkibilirv Th.s. esulN .r. sinild $ whar is
de*ribed by. veniccl line ovr. liditing lisibili(y cur. ofBruin
201
'fte
najor achjevemnt of this m* is th. romulation of t neq sincle
pstuerer
cireion
on lhe b6is of rhe Fchniqus deleloped
bv Bruin and Yallop using lhe
bngnrrc$
modcls develoFd bv Sch&fer dd othe6 rhc visibilirv cuFes and thc
liniting
visibilily cwes aE developed for crceenls
ol diffeEnl widrhs ll'!l wcrc
actually
obened tnd hav. bcen rcpodcd in lile6tue Bruin dcvelopcd
lhe$ cllvcs on
|he bdis or{i) lhe ale6se bdshlnss ofthc tult M@n
md thc wv i dalt,s
*nh rhe
decrsing
alftude abole hoi@h and
(ii) tbe avedge brighiness ot the skv dudrg
t*ilid &d fic way n depends on lhc dolld d'prc$ion
b'lov horizo'
On lhc olher
hand tc bave usd rhe adual brightncss
for Ihe obscb-ed cEscnB
ola fixed wid r llEn
lor tn sne ofobselvation
we hare calculared th' al ude of skv poins bavins rtrc sms
bridft$
d $ar ol lh dcsenr for difrercht solar depcsions
such compuratios
m
Epai.d
for a nunber
ofobseryed
cE$e 5 of the sahe
wjd$ al dilIelenl localions
and
dmes. The aliudes or thc skv
poitrts lhu obt'ined
re ten
'vc6Bcd
our Thc wnole
prccess h rhe. rcpeaFd
for cnsce.t ofdilTereni
widlhs
These conpulations
tesulled inlo our lisibililv curycs
ed $c linnins
visibihv
curyes. The linitihB
lisibilitv cses we have obEined
ae slishtlt
diferenl
'iod
$ose
of Bruii
with nini@
slightlv displ&cd
The ntlighl linc
joining thc ninina
oi dEs
cudes has a slope of9 3/5 as compaftd
to 9/5 for Bruin s cutves Tnis
lcads lo slighd,
differe
b.sl dme of visibililv"
which is 4 l/9 1 rine th
noo'elsuosl
lag aller thc
suet
(6 cohPdcd lo Yallop s be$ tine which 4/g rincs $e noonst-sunscl
lae afiet
rhe suset). Th bdic dala ob$inod
fion the ninim
olor liniringlisibilnv
cu8e l-rttd
b a fiird desee
Polvnodial
tsuls inlo the fouowine
visibihv
pdamslcr:
s
=(.4RCV -
(4351 31
/3 + 2222075057t4! -
5 422641ritf
+ l04l4l?tt)/l0
we have als dedeed
visibilitt condi$ons
in a tumt simild
io lbar of Yallop'
Our
vhibihy condilions
tre sliCh
v
difiere
lron those of Yallop Howevet'
ltplj_'n8
our model on the obseNatioml
dal! the succcss
pcrcenrage is iound lo b' thc besl
dongn
all the dot nodels tll erist and lhar dc ncd dd conpaed
in lhis
\orr'
Thc e6on is tbat our model is baed on $e acrual skv brighhre$
and lhe btislrhss
oi
201
(escenr $idr varying wea$cr condilions whercas Bruin s nodel h based on aleragd
brishlncssofsky
dd rhe FullMooo.
As claind by Sctaefd th brightn s modcls @v b in mt by a mucb a 2elo
still our Drodcl
yielded be .t resul$ s comPsed 1o tho* due to Bdin ad YalloP as lar
as rhe
posirive observatiohs arc conemed lt is lroped
rhat wilh beller models of skv
brighhcss slill beiterclitrion ior fiGt !isibility ofnew
lund descent can be delclopcd
sonE of$e lpplicarions of {he cnbda of.atliesr
visibililv of ne\f llod
'rc$ctrt
havc becn considered in $is $ork The fid ond $c mosl impoddnt applicalion lre ro
d(eaniDc
Nhcn tbe new lunar cresceht would b visible ar soDe ldalion on lhe
elobc
on
rhe elennrg
aicr rh oonjundion
Anolher ar.a ol appl'calion is lo deduce d
''obscNnrioMl
lunar c.lcndii- tor a
'eeion
Yct anofier aBa ol apdic'tion
\e hn\c
e\ploreJ
'.roJdrnrine
lhe lcnslh ofne\ ldDrr crcs(nr
t( !1ay be recalled
(hal
lhe liret appcardnce of
new llnn crcscctrt nrarlis r
bsinning ola new monrh in obsenalional lunor calendarq
rhere
'ril'ria
and models drc
siBnillcor br calendatical
Purposs
whefier
'n
aduul
o6n:ri'nol lunar calendai likc
rlc hliNic Lunar calendar' ulilizrs tb6e cril.da for a!6nging its cltndar ot Dol lhcsc
cLirdia
ptuvidcs a guidancc Ibr bolb tesing an tvidcnce
oi oescenl sightirrg bv connnon
peotlcdnd tacingdowndtdtrlesofac.lndar
inhhrorv{herc
approprirle
dates arc rol
\ll Ncordcd. rhus $c frtin
'
ililt of the pcdicrio! crileria
'or
$e carliesr visibiln)' ol
nrv crc$.m is lo egntalc
tnc obsefl.lional lunar
calendtr dd tcsrifv lh clainrs ol
risibility of ne\' lunar crcsccm
Although fiIsl ordc! iPporirutions
like Arnh'neLic
Lunar Calendtr tlrat di'
based on lle concpr of Le.p Yea$ md rne a!.rage oorion
o' rnc Moon havt be'n nr lse
Muslims h.vc been follosin8 acoal sighing of crescDLs
'r
l@l lor lhe monlhs ol
i6rii8
(R.maan) $d pilsinage
(zil hajjah) Thc calendars if bled o' a
PEdicrion
oir*ion like tbat of Yallop or dre ohe dcveloped in this work arc $e cLosest lo rnc
obervarional
calendd Conpan$n
of rhese criteiia
wiih lhc actual
obFNsdonll
201
old! b
!|dc!
in ruirD frr lh.
Ft!
2000 io 2005 blc Da dc
(q!!thi sd
Klte, 2005). h lbir
q'!rt
6. mrdy it cid.!d.d lo tb
y{ 20(I|. It i! biDd lb. d
lvdsc 9J% obtlnltiol! lrc m.oding to th! Y.llop'! r-uh. dt rion d our GEluc
(d
Q&K)
dilrio D. diltgt@t is lb. !!3rlt of lithd th. t d wtt|t r dM !o *hi'h
&e rw |E|r c{&. codd nol t tigln d dd tb Lud E olh b.t!! oE &v l.|c
qr
bo
AdrDirtic
cLiu6 of otsElion tld {t L|e dot:t t
g.!
oE &t dlicr U|n
Tbit tt|ldttbL !|gs for th. vi.ibnft,
(ritsi. for ol@t'.ridl
pltrPo" hB
oorivcd |' to d.dE e
"bt
6v.liodl lE[ c.lct b." for P'lii..r 0|al ts tctr
204
APPEDNIX-I
COMPUTER PROGRAM
HILALOl
205
{
cl6c{): maime.u0; cltsqo; Daiuourineo;
{
gotory(]0,4hout<<"welcone
io the New Moon cslculator";
goro\y(25,20):.oul<<
Prs Eni.r !o $an
:
void eaituoud.4void)
{
f!l.{=fop.n(schmse.hf',"a');
{
inputdalerime0i cl6cd); nonlh_chee.0i
I
ll6t_cahulatioo0;
jd=juliadare(lred,lmo
trtdab,tsac);
jde=jd+denat[inl(lyeaFl620.o)]/(3600.0+24.0)i
fclose(fptr4)t
stjd=juliedakoted,lmonrh,ldare,o.0);
$=Grjd-:15 r 545.0n6525 0j
elonep=sin(ndeltap.Pvl
80.0f sin(sdethp+Pvl 80.0)l
elonep=eloDgp+co(mdetaprPyl80.0)rcos{sdelbp*PI/180.0)
'co((slphap-rolphap).1
5.01P1.7180.0);
elongp=ncos(longp)r180.o/PIr
eotor)(s2,?)j
pdnl('T.
Elon
=');eoloxy(65,7):pinr(,,%?.llr
phasep-(1,o-co(lonSplPVl
80.0))/2.0i
solox)(5:.8);pdnt( T. Ph6e
=,,);Boroxr(65,8)iprinl(,,%7.If
%'.Pbasco' 100,0);
elone=sn(nrlarrPI/l
80.0)isinGhr'Pvl
8o.o)i
c ons-elong F(on
m14.Pl./ t 80 ol.@dslat
,Pt
I 80.o).coq
GtonS-
mlong.Pt/180
0li
elong=acos(londi
180.o/Pl:
phaF=(1,oa{doie'PUl80,0)!2.0;
mseni{jia=(nBdhdsor
I 80.0/Pr;
i=(jde-2451545.0y36s2s0.0;
Sotor)r52.0)pn fi"Widrh -'.gotoxrr65,o'.pnntt(
!i?.lltm.$rd):
Sobr)15-2.10':prinrli DAZ
- ):Sotory(65.r0ripnnrt(5.7
ltl
goro\tr52.ll):prinrf(
ARCV'igolorJr65.llr.prinrn
o.7.1tr
qvall(oah-sall)-(
I 1.837 | {,1226*wid+o,73 t 9.wid.wid-
0. l0l8'pow(qid,3)))/lo
O;
ov.l=(h.lr-slrx7.r65l-6.32261wid+o.71
19.*id.wid_
0.l0l8.pov{wid,3));
,06
gotox(52,12):p.i
{"Ase
mjd).24.0):
=
'),sororr(6t,I 2ripnr'4
./o7.llf
h .0de
Sobry(5z,11);pdn("Qvalue = ):goloxy(65,13)prinl("%?.llf',qval);
soioxy(52,1a)ipn
(visib.
=)rsoloxy(65,14);@ut<<'';
soroxy(68,l4);
i(qv.>o.2l6)
i(qv#-0.014)
@ul<<"VUPC
r
i(qvaF-0.212)
COUK<"MNOATFC'';
i(qvaF-o.293)
cout<<'VWOAO"i
etse
cout<<,,ct
;
eoroxy(s2,15);pnnt(
Lae
= );
i(l|mrhs<o.0)cour<<'!"rconven
bn(r'abs(ltdstrst)i
eotoxr(52,16);pinq
Rd.y
= ");soroxy(65,16);p.inr(,'%.51!"_rdar;
sotoxy(52.17);pinr(
Rdayl
= );soroxy(65,t7):pdnr(aZ.5tf',rdayl):
go'oxlr52,l8):Arnlfl
tuly -
l:gorory(65,t8ripnnln
oo.5||.btyJ:
8o'ott(52.1c):pdnrfi
S-val@ -
i
l:gorory(65.t9,:pnnr{l
o/o.5tf
.6ky-
soloxy(52-20);print(thilen -
'');goloxy(65,20);pri.r(.%.
jlf
,phitend.);
eoroxy(52
j21)rpiid(lhnele ho.
=
")rgoroxy{65,21)ipi (,,%.51f,.ansl_hot;
soroxr(52,21)ipdnr(
Lim MaB =
"):gotoxy(65,21)iprinr("%.21f
',tindagnn0);
sotoxy(52,22);prinq
Mooro Mas =
''):Eoro\t(65.22).prinr
("%
2t f .mnm.g),
sorox)(52,24).prinrt( Rel Hun
=
):Boroxy(65,24);p nrr(,%..2tf
.phm)i
eobxr(s2.25);pinr("Tmp@rG=
'il.sotoxy(65,25);pnnrft
%.2tf
,plempl:
Sotory(5,28r.pnnr( s{s/r, nmrm/n}lou l/t, h@id{o/b, !.mptdd j
day(e/D prinr(p)
rdse(q)
li
{
201
)
'
]
)
rvhile(nex|sl=V');
Eolory(50,29):@ur<<"NwCalcnlaion? ;
gorox(77,29}nexts=g.rch(I
clsto;
]
while(oexrsl=1r);
gorox
l0,l0)r@ut<<"Allal Hanz'; gcrch0;
)
void inpurdaretiee(void)
{
goroxi20,2);coul<<
"Enrcr
L@dTinc & Dare,,j
eoroxy(r0,4)icoul<<'ObscpadonNo. :
;ciD>ocnr;
Soloxy(10.6)icoul<<'Day :,,lcin>>datei
goroxy(
10,8)icoul <<
"Mon$ :
!!;cjn
>>monlhi
Soloxy(10,10);cour<<"Yeo :iiicin>>ycdj
gotoxy(10,12);cour<<
,Lo.g.(+
lor East) :
icin>>plongr
goloxy(10,14);cout <<'jlkt.
(+ for Nonn) :,icin >>ptari
eotoxy(I0.|6);coul<<
"Alritude abovc Sa :
;cjn
>>p.lli
gotoxy(
10, I 8)icout<<
'Esiim Tenperarurc :
"icin
>>plenp;
gotoxy(
10,20);cour<<
"Estih Huidirt :
,,;cin
>>ph!m;
prcs=1010.0;
*0.0;
)
{
i(l.apch*k(inr(year)))
nohthdayslll-29.01
clse mo hdayslll=28.0;
ld.te=dak
Jmo.lh=donth JydFyear;
zonlin=plong/15.0;
i((b iDlong(anrinD0.5)
.
2ondmioubl(tons(zondn+L0))i
entihdouble(lons(zontin));
lhorf houF (min+*d60.0y60.o)-a
im:
i(lhour>=24.0)
{
lho!Flhour24.0;
ldri--ldale+1.0;
204
i(ldltohonthdayslin(lnonlhl.0)l)
{
ldaiFl.0:
lmonth=ldonth+ L0i
i(lmonrDl2.0)
{
lnonlh=I.o;
lyeFlyea$l ,0;
]])
ir0hour<0.0)
{
lhourFz4.0;
ld.re=ld.r.-l -0;
i(ldar.< | .0)
{
lhonth=lmo.th- L0i
i(lmo h<I.0)
{
tnonth=I2.o;
lyerlyed-l .0;
)
ld.tFnotrthd.rslint(lm@thr.0D;
tl
ndalFlda!.xtnonrh=lmonth:tlyclycari
tdouFlhour+d.ltltlin(lyed-1620.0)1/]500.0;
i(ttbour>=]1.0)
{
iihoui=fihou,24.0;
lldaie=ndalqfl .0;
i(ndapmonthdlyslin(rttDoiIh)l)
{
ll<ratFt.o;
tltlon!!=rnonlh+ 1.0;
i(n nonrh>12.0)
{
tlnofih=I,o;
. ttyeaFilJear+ L0;
)])
J
{
dt_new_n@n(dar..nontnrE);
soroxy(5,I
rsout<<ill.w Moon
";pdnt(!D -
%lfrnjd);
pdnr('
or
"od%dfld',in(mdare),ii(Mnonfi
),in(@y$r));
mdare=doublc(lo.s(mdate));
morth<oublc(long(nmonth);
myerdoubl.(lone(Myed));
pr d(" ll.'!drl6d:vdd (TD)',int(MlFu),inl(t:min),int(m*));
pint(' or eidrl6d:94d (uD",irr(ulrow),in(ain)jn(M));
6*aunou.r(uinfi 8e.r'60.0/60.0y24.Ot&lL{in(mrrd- I 620.0)l/8400.0i
IiBrcdculadonoi s.rinln0;
209
i(ho!P-24.0)
iqhoul<0.0)
ni.{hou'double(loneGou)))160.0;
s.c=(min-donble(lone(min)))r60.0;
min=double(lons(min));
*c=double(lonc(s*));
houFdolble(lonc(hou));
,
t
sun_$o; non *(1;
brim=rGs+4.0.(lr,ns-hssy9.0:
Soroxy(2,5);cout<<"(LT)
olSun s.t :
";conve'l
hms{ltss);
goroxr(52,5)i@ut<<", Bel Tine :
;convcn
hn<bl'n):
gorox(30.5);@ul<<', Moon St :'iconven-hm(lrnti
goloxy(2,6)icour<< (LT) orsun Rkc : "ponven_hns(hsti
sotoxy(10,6);cout<<.
M@nRi* :';.on!en hms(lrfrti
)
{
goloxy{2,3)rcour<< Lar-';
soroxy(8,3);coNert
dms(fabs(pla0)r
i(plat<o.o)
pinr('s'); dse
gobiy(20,3)cout<< t ns.
":eoloxy(2?,1)i@nved-dns{fabs(!long));
ifulonc>00)
pnnt( E
);
dF
goloxy(40,1):cout<< TZon ":
sobr'(48,);
i(enrim<o.o) cout<<"i; le
sotoxy(49,1);prinq
%2.01f,fab(2ontim))i
Eotoxy(2,4);p.int('LMT
vo2d:%2d:%2d,int(hou).int{nin).inr(sc);
8otoxy(]5,4)jprin(
(%2d l2dl%4d) UT",in(date).in(month),in(yed))i
soroxy(31,4)roNed_hns(lhout;
soroxr{42,4);print(
(%2dl%2d7o4d), JD = ",in(ldal),ii(looftn),int(lyeat);
sotoxr(60,4)iprint(
%.61f
jd)i
sotoxy(6s,3)rcour<<
TDr
iconve
_hm((lhour);
Sotoxy(22,8)rout<<
s u n":soroxy(40,8
) rcour<<
Moon
j
Soloxy(2,Io);cour<<
Geoc. rong,
;
goroxt{2,l l
)imur<<
Ged- Iilir.'i
aotoxy(2,12);@ur<<"Cee.
Disi.";
go!oxy(2,14);@uK<'Gc@. RA:";
sotoxy(2,15);couK<
ce. DELT
;
soroxy(2,I6):@ur<<
Hou Anelc:"i
Soroxy(2,IE)Fout<<
Top. RA:":
goloxy(2,19)i6ur<< Top. DEL|"i
gotoxy(2,2o);coul<<"Top- HAf
;
8otory(2.22)tcout<<"AIfi
udel';
2t0
gobxy(2,21);cout<<"Azimut
;
gotory(2,24);cout<< Semi-Dia:
;
)
i{(.Y.400)l=0)
{
if(n%100)==0) k=0;
le i((n%4F0) k=1;
)
)
double
julimdate(doubl yrdouble mndouble dcdouble ft)
{
i(mn<X
yr=yFlrm.=ni+12:
)
a=(doubl.
(long (yrl100.0)));
b=2-a+(double (ron8 (./4.0)));
jd=(doublc (lon8 ( 165.25'('r+47 I 6.0))))+(double
(lo.s
{10.6001'(mn+1.0))))+d.tb-1524.5+fi i
)
{
l=(jde-245 I 545.0)/36525.0;
epsilon=21.0+(26.0+2 l-a48/60.0/60.0-(46.815/1600.0)'t'
(0.00059/3600.0rf 1'+(0.00t813R600-0)1.r1;
elons=29?.85016+445267.1 I 1481-0.0019142*l'l+t*t'l/I89474.0'
smon=35?.52?72+15999.05014.r-0.0001601'lir-t.r.r/300000.0
mmob=134,96298+477198.867398't+0.00869721'l+t't'VJ6250 0i
mng=91.27 I 9l +483202.01t538rr,0.0016825{1.t+l*1*r/32?2?0.0
lnod=125.04452-l9l4.t l626l1l+0.0020708.11r+rrr*t450000 0
fo(i{;i<61;i++)
{
derbsi=delhsi+(nur obrlil[5]+nur_oblti]t6l1r).sin((nur_obltill0l.loig+
nur,obltiltlheom+nur_obllill2l.ndom+nu obltiltll'nale+
nut_obllil[4]'lnode)1Pvl 80.0):
delrapsi+=((nur_obltill?l+nul_obrlilt8lh0{co(nui obltiltoiielone+
nul_obltiltll*smom+nulobllill2li@oE+nut_obltjl13l'nar8+
nur obllill4rhode)'PYl80-0));
)
delrasi'=(1.0(t0000.0.t600.0));
<leftaepsi'1 1.041 0000.0'3600.0));
elsilon=epsilor+dellaepsii
2l!
)
{
gmr4c6-0r{41.0+50.5484V60.0y60,0+(6640184-812866'si+0.093104'st'st-
0.0000062rst'srlsr)6600.0r
east4@=eEst
Erc{lltsi'cos(epsilon'PUl 80.0yt 5.0i
smstzrc-lGmrzro/24.0ldoubl{long(8tui4b24-0)))'24.0r
gdure1Gastu
o/24.0!doubL(loos(ssrz'o24.0)))'24
0;
if(smEm<o-o)
8rnst4'o+=24.0;
i(gnsldo>24.0)
gott4to-=24.0i
i(s6rzerc<0.0)
gaslzco+=24.0i
i(easrzerc>0.0)
gastzdo-=24.0;
smstcun_Cnstrcro+frac124,01
I 002? 3 ?909I5
i
gasrcuFsdzero+firc'24.0* 1.00273?90935;
i(snslcuP24.0)
snslcun-=24
0i
i(emslcun<0.0)
Smslcud+=24.0i
i(sastcud>24.0)
eastcuft-=24.0i
i(gastcuft<0.0)
sostcud+=240;
lostcllFgnncd+plong/15.0i
l4rcuFedlcur+Plong/15.0i
i(lastcuPla.0) lastcun-=24.0;
i(lostcud24.0)
lnsrcud.=z4 0;
i(ldlcm 0O' ls(c!r-240i
ii(lmsbu<0.0)
lhsr.!nt=24.0;
)
void convcn dmndouble c@d)
{
cdesdouble(lone(coord)):
cmin=(coo'd{ds)i60.0;
c*clcmin'dolble(1o.8(cmio)))'60.0:
pnd( %3dooz2dn"/o2ds,in(cde8),in(cnin).in(cscc));
)
void conven bn(double cood)
{
cdes=double(loneGoord));
cmin=Good{dee)i60.0;
csc=Lcmid.double(lons(cmin)))t60
0i
prinr (
o!2dhoo)dn'
o2dr".,ntrcdegl,inlr(min).rnl,
cscc\):
)
void sun cood(double)
{
fplFfopen( v$pean.txt', t
)i
// LO,\]GITUDE OF EARTH
fodi=o;i<6:i+)
{
tehp=o.oi
fo{=0j<lnellilj++)
2t2
{
fs@f(fpt'%lf
yolf y.lf,&sx,&bx,&c);
rmr=lmF4.cd(bx+c.1);
)
slong+{tmp.po*{!i):
)
slonrslong/l 00000000.0;
slong=jon8. | 80.0/PIi
slong=Glon
g/360.Odouble(longGlons/360.0)));
slongl=360.0 slone+-180.0
i(slone<0.0)
dong+=360.0;
i(slons>350.0)
slong=slong-360.0:
// L.firurL OF EARTH
fo(i=0:i<2;i+)
ro(=oj<adlilj+)
I
[sco(fpr,"%lf
yolf
%lr,&ax,&bx,&c);
temp-aeosrdrco(bx+c0t
)
slai+=Cemprpov{t,t);
)
slat=*IaU100000000.0j
slatl-(t80.0/PI);
fo(i=0ri<sli+)
to{=0i<dsrflil;j+)
{
fs.n{&rr,"o/,lf %lf.4lf'.&a,&bx3c);
r.mpaettp+u'cos{bx+cn);
)
sdst=sdsl+renp*pow(,i);
)
sdsi=sdst/100000000.0r
dst=sdsr. 149597E70.0:
slo.g=slong+dclt!si{20.4898/sdrry3600.0i
elph!=sin(slons.Pvl80.0).6s{.Filon+Pyl 80.0);
slph!-slph!-tdGlal'Pvl 80.0).ein(.plilon.Pvl 80.0);
salpha=slphd(@s(slong.Prl 80-0));
lalpha=aran(salPha). I 80.0/PI:
i(Glong>90.0)&&Glorg<2?0.0)) sglphaFl8o.oi
if(slong>2?0.0) salpha+=150.0i
elpha-salphe/15.0;
i(s.lph*24.0) salpha=elph.'24.0:
sha=lastcur-salph!;
2t3
iisha<o.0)
sdelb-sinGlarrPvl80-0f
cos(epsilon'PI/180 0)l
sdelta=ldclls+cos(sla1+
PV l 80.O)'sin(ps ilon'Pv l 80 0)'si.Glons'PI/
1 80 0)
i
dlta=6inGdlla)' I 80.o/Pl
salphap=elpha+.lcladpha
elr- sin$laf P! I 80.o
"
sinrsdelrap'PI/ I 80.0 )
rosulat'PL I 80 0r.on sdehtp'PV
I 80.0)rcos(sba*15.0'Pvl 80.0):
salt=asinGalt)' I 80.0/PI;
i(sw=l)
{
;Ffra l .oz(r&(eh+l o.v(sali+5.1 l
))'Pvl80
0)fe8l 0(271 0+teoF))!(prs
/l0l0.o);
s.cb-nn{olarrPul80
0Is'n(!d.l!lp'PU180
0,'sinleli'Pv!80
0):
tela=$etd(cos(cdelbp'PVl
80 0/'(olleht
PLI 80 0r,:
seela=acos(seela);l
80 0/Pl;
sdcltrsde liap+srcfi'cos{seela
*
P l/ 1 80 0);
slDr=sh!-(sefi*sin(seetai
Pl/ I 80.o)ho(sdelta/u/180
0)/ I 5'0i
l
I sdehFsdelk:
shFsha,
l
idh=sinLplat'PUl80O)'iirsdelt,r.Pt/lSOOFcos(pldfPLlS00rrcoil3dcltat'PI/
180.0)'cos(shd'15.0'Pvl80
0):
satFdin(s.lr)'
180 o/PIi
*lr+=r,c6ermar4erur+tnle/1000
0D' 180 o/PL/l 5 0
sa6=s,n(rd.ld.
pU
I 80 O Fsid
ptalr PI/ I 80.0)! sintsallr Pl/ | 80 0):
sm=szn/Gos(platrPvl80
o)'co(elt'Pl/180
0))l
sad=acos(saar)1
180 o/PI;
it(shdF=o 0)
s@=180 0i
ehe
itlshaF=12o)
el* i(shd<I20)
s*nidi.=Gn(ydsf
l 80.0/PIi
)
void moon c@d(do!ble)
{
fDk2=foDcnf
elP2000 ur'."r):
sumv=o.o,suntp=0
0lsumvtp=0 0isunvppp-0
0:
fo(i=0ii<2l8ii+)
I r(mfl rDu2.'%[
0/"1r 0/0lf
q.lf
%lf
"
0lf ,&
\,&!lpo'&!lp l.&alp2 &alpl
&'ly'l
sMFsuov+v.sin((atpof
atpl
rr+alp2r1.r/10000.0
+alp3iPo*(i,3Y1000000 0
2t4
+alp3'pow(!4)/100000000.0)rPI/180.0);
)
fo{i=oji?44;i+f)
{
fed(fpa2,"o4lf%lf%lf',&v,&rip0,&alpl);
smlT=s@vpf v'sitr((alpot.lp l'l)'Pvl 80.0);
)
fo(i=oii<154;i+r)
I
fsc f(tptt2,
r6lf
%lfo/o1t',&v,&alp0,&alPi );
sumlpp=sumvpfi
v's n((alpo+llPlil)iPI/l 80 0)i
)
fo(i=0ii<25;i++)
I
lsconi(fpu2,
9'lf ?'lf
eolf'.&v.&slP0.&alpI)i
s!mwpp-smvppF
!
|
sin(alpo-alp I
i
t)t PVI 80 0li
)
mton{=218.11665+481267.88134't-13.2581'l/10000.0
+
1 .856'po*(!3u 000000.0-1 .514'pos{tjy1000000{0
0
+sum!4Gur?+swvppl+sMvppp't'i/l 0000.0)/1000 0i
nrois=(nloD936o.o-(long
(mlo.s,/360.0)))1360 0;
sumu=o,0tsumup=o.0rsunupp{,0isunuPpp=o
01
sunr=o.0;sumrFo.0isumrtp=o.0;suntppp-o.0i
lb(i=0ri<l88ri++)
r iscanfi fok2.'/'lf t'll"/.lf %lf %lf
'
%lf ,&v.&.1p0,&alp
l
,&alp2
&alpl.&'lp4 ):
!mu+mu+vt
sin(alPo-aipl
'r
falp2'r't/l0000 0'alpJ'pov'1t.J
y'
t000000 0
+alpl.pov(!4y100000000-0)'Ptl
80 0)i
)
fodi=0;i<64ii++)
{ f$anf( lol12,i%lf'l"lf
e"lf
.& v,&tlpo.&olP I )
suNup=sumufi!
rsml(
tlpo+alp l'r )r Pl/ l 80 0)
)
r fscanll tDk2.
'/"la
%lf
"/.1f
,&v,Aalpo.&alp
|
):
sumuip=smupp+vtin(alPo+alpI'0'PI/l
80 0li
)
I l*anfi fDr2."%lf %ll
c,6lf
,&t,&dpo.&dp
|
)
sunu;pp'sumuppF
vrnn(.lpo'llpl'0'Pl/l
80 0):
I
;hFsumu+GuouCsunupplt+smupPp1irVl0000.0yl000
0;
fo(i-0;i<l54ii++)
I Gcsnf(fplr2,
%lf
"/.lf
%lr9"lf 90lt
9"lf .&v.&alD0.&alDt,&.102,&alp3,&dlp4)i
snrsmrr'cosriltpO
alpt'l+;lp2'rt/lO0o0o'
Jpt'po*rt l/10000000
+alp3xpowt,4yl00000000.0)'Pv180.0)r
2t5
]
fo(i=o;i<l l4ii+)
{
fs.d(fpL2,'%li
%lf %lf'3v.&rlp0,&alpl );
suotFsuDr/*rcos((alpolalPl
rl)'?tl
80 0).
)
fo(i=oii<68;i+)
I fscdf(fp$2,'/"lf
o/.lf
%lf'.&v.&alp0,&alpI):
vmDp=suffpPrvtosl
alp0+tlp l
rt
l'PI/
l 80 0),
l
fo(i=oii<9:i+)
r fsdfi fDk2."!/olf./olf
%lf'.& v.&tlPo.&.lp l)i
)unrppp
runrtpp{'coe(dlpo'alpl't'Pl
180 oli
)
md{-li5O0O.5 7+sunr sudrsr
suffpp'l_sumrPpptl't
| 0000 0:
nla{=(ml5r/l60.o{lonc
(hla/160 0)))'160 0i
'"i.""',-O
OOOrolla-O.O0OOt019'sin(225
O'47?lo8
o'lf
PUI80 0)):
mhr+-={.d o0o0l754'sin(l83
1+481202 0r0'Pl/!
80 0))i
ndst+=(o o708rcos((225.0+a?7198
e'rl'PVl 80 0))
maipha=sin(mton8'PUlSOofcskFilon'Pvl800)i
- -
nrn;ha- malDhard(mlal'Pt/l
80 0t'sin(cPsrlon'PUl80
0)'
mal;ha=ialpha(@(mlong'u/180.0));
maloha=.iu(maLlha)+
I 80 o/PI
-ri,,ir.no'go
oraai.r.ng<
u o o I I
mdlpha-
_1800:
iftmbn;27o
or
nalPha+-1600:
if(mh*24.0)
frba_-24 0;
inmhi<o.or
dha+=24 0i
m;?lk=$n(mltr
I
Pv l80 ofcoslpsrlorr
PV lao 0):
--^
^
-
-i"iu=na.r. -'Lmr"t'pvrtOO)tsin('psilontPVlSO
O)rsininlonsrPl/1800):
nrdelh=asin(mdella)'l
80 o/Pl:
rulphlp=malpha+dell4lPhai
mha=hh.nelraatPha;
-lii
'iil""iJ"
er'i do ol'"'t.aerl!pr
Pr/ r 80 o,
"os(l)rar'Pv
r80 0)'co(mderbP'
Pl/l8o.o)'cos(mnar
lt 0rPyl80
0l,
malr=6in(malt)1
180 o/Pli
i(sr=l)
;rcfr( 1.oz(bn(nal(+
l0 la mah s lt)fPl/l80oDft283
042730
remfl))'(tr
drcfFmefr/60
0;
216
mcela=sin(!lar*PI/180.0)'sin(mdcliaprPvl80.0)1si.(mall'PV180.0);
nft la=merdcos(ndellarPvl80.0)'@s(mlt'PUl80
0));
i(fah6(nela)<= 1.0)
I
goroxy(45,20)i@ut<<"
meeta=acos(mela)' 180.(VPIi
mdehFnddiap+@t'1cos{mera*Pvl
80 0);
(@t'sii(6ela'rvl80.oycos(mdehe'Pl/180
0)yls 0i
malFsin(plarrPvl80.0)'sin(ndehd'Pl/180.0)+cos(plal'PVl80
0)*co(hdcllai
?v180 0)rcos{mhdll 5.0'PYl80 0)i
nralt=ain(mah)'l 80 o/PI;
nalt+=(aco(eMj(enej+hik/1000
0))x 180.0/PI);
]
cour<<'.eb
geater lhan I
i
)
{
hdeluFndellapi
; a,m-si1(m,lelrar'Pl
lSOo)_s,n{plat'Pl
l80ofs'n(moh'Pl
l800r:
nDzm=mdnv(cos(olaf
PVI 80 0lrcos(mah'PVI
80 0)li
nd=lcodmaa)r
180 o/PI;
i(nha-12.0)
nazm=160.0:
i(mla<12-0)
mm=1600_n@;
nrmidia=(n6<Vmdsr)'
180 o/PI;
..r,r,="."u.otrtio"o'pr rtOOttsrn(eps'lon'Pl
l80 0)rpos(l
0_
po$,lsi;(epcilonrPl,I80 0)'rn(slong'Pl/l80
0' 2 0) 0 t)))
ii;i'iriio",tr.o.po",rsinrcp'it.n'Pvl80
0)rs'n{slon8'PVl
80 0) 2 0) 0 5)li
iii=.co(iii)'l
80.0/PI;
mele hor=90 o.Dhil.mdai
aii*rir.:-.*.iai*z
zf oqplatrPl/l
80 0ycos{l)hil'ddt'Pvl80
0):
rda; l=l0 t'.os(plal'PVl80
0,/.osohilcmda'PVl80
0)i
217
i((dnon8<90.0)&&(slon8>100.0))
ddone-nlon8+360.0_slon8;
dclong=mlong'5lon8;
Bky lal'tan(phitehda'PVl
80 o)+delonsi
l
doubl modtunc(double
xY)
I
xFxy/l6o:
\y=(xy{double 0on8(xY
rr)f
160:
iltxy<0)
loid paBlx(double hhdoublc dd)
t
ol,llliililt;lli*"""pr/r80.0!emai)rr80.0/pri
ll,l"'lili-""t.r',t,
t
"o',r'PVr80
0)-r'Ih'sinr'r
0'|prar'Pr/I80
0rvl600
o:
;-eniin'vntuu'pt
rro or inor' hre'{nrplar'Pl
180 0) on':
yy ro\tuu'Pl/l80
o)'hit'.os(plar'Pl/180
o)/con:
rho=po*(xx's+ty'y)
0 5)'.mtji
i.rJom=aurt'pr'co"rphrPVl
80 0f sidhh'PI/l
80 0)v
"'
*'
- --i""ltaa'priitooFpG'cos{PlatprPtl80olrcosthh'Pl/1800)))
delrMlPhal=(l
80 0/Pl):
hp=hh_deltaalphal
i;i;i|$,ili;t4r",
to'r'{sin(dd+ur
80 or-Pie'sinuratp'Pvr
80 o))'/
" "'
_*
aoirOa'er'lad
Of @s'hb'Pl
lso otspie'cos'pldp'Pvl80
0)l\'
dehapr=(180o/PI)i
hp/-15.0:
loid dr-new-roo.(doublcdoubledoublc)
yy=ya.+(monLh_l
O+dak/lo Oir'l2 0i
traY-tYY_20000f
12 3685,
ir(kar'0ni)aoou61.
06ng ltar)))-
t.o;
e|s raF(dotblc oons
(ksY)));
L--l,ay/1216
85i
;;=1"'
;';93;ggiijliil['31ffi
3"'ff.i::.i:.i:::*,
-.""-."ar.""ii
lSu-zq
toSl5o7'kav
0 0o000l4't4'r*'
*""":l'j'#:,!';i"*::'r;;:.8
r 6ei528'
kav'o
o I 07582'
ree' reF. ooo0 I 2r8
'_ '
.@.Le.r;co
0ooo00058r
r.re'leerrec)i
218
forg nodf6c(160.?lo8+390.67050284rtoy'0.00161I81rcc're'
0.00000227'powtle .3)-0.00000001
l'por(1e.
4)):
omes=modtun(124.??46_
I 56175588'kav'000206?2'l.e'tc.
0 000002I5'po$(tee3)l:
eFl.0-0.002516're-o.00000?414nei
msur<PV180.0);moon.-(Ptl80-olr!re'1Pvl8o.0);ones'1PU180
0);
oe--0.,r0?2.sin(mmoo.)+0.
t724l.selsi!(ns!i)+o.016061sin(2.0'ndoo.)r
perF(o.ol039rsin(2.0rfaq)+o oo739tceersin(nnoon-nsui)'
o.005l4,eee,sin(msu+moon));
pr+=(0.0020S'po{ce,2 0)'sin(2-o'Et!.}o
0o l I t'si'(mmn'2
0'taq)
0.00057.sin(mnoon+2.01raq))i
@r+=(0.000561ee'sin(2.0xmmoon+nsun}
0.00042{sin(3.0*hm@n)+o
00042'ee\in(nsu!+2
0*fdd)r
pe*=(0.00038'e*;sin(hsun-2.orfds)_0
00024teee'sin{2
0hmoon_nsui)-
0.0001?'sin{omes));
Fr+1'0.00007'sin(mmoon+2
o'msd)+{
00004'sin{2 o'mhon-
2.0.fa)+0.00004.si.(3.0'osun))i
De.F(o.00003'si.(omoon+nsun_
'
20.Lre)+0.00001+!n(2.0'mmoon+20'fare))
eeft I-O.O0OO3!n
nmoon-nsu
2 0'fargh0
00001"in(mmoon_
msun+2 o.fes))i
Fr+=Co.00002'sin(nmoon_msun
2 0rlarg)_
'
000002'\i l.o'mmoonrsun,'O00002'sn
40'mdoon)):
ol=(299.77+O
lO?408{kay_O 009l?3rteettee);al
*=(PI/1
80 0ll
a2=(25 1.88+0,016321'kay)ra2'=(PI/180.0)l
a11251.83+26.6t1336rkay)i.lr=lPul80
0):
a41140.42+16.4
I 2478'kayl.a4'1PUl
80 0)
a5{84.66+1E.206239ik.y)ra5'1Pvl
80 0)i
16=1 141.74+5l.lOl7?l
rkav):a6r=lPl/180
0)l
a7=i207 l4+2
4tlTl2tkayl:r7+1Pl/180
0):
a8-l I54.84+?.106860'kov),i8'=(PUl80
0):
r9=i14.52+27
26l2torkayr.Jq.=tPVl
80.0),
slo=l207 l9+0.121824'lavl:alo'=(PUl80
0),
rl l=(291,14+l
84a379'tot)
tl l'=tPl/180 0)l
al2=i16r.72+24
laSl54rkry),a12'=(PVl80
0l
,ll={219.56+25 tllo99ikav)
allr=(PVl800):
ar4il3l.55+l
592518'kav);al4'=(Pl/I80
0):
addcrj Oo0l25.s,n(al ,,
addq+{ 0001
65
|
sin(t2)i
addc*=O.O00r64tsrn(.1),
addfr=o.000126'sin(aali
iddcr+=o.oool ro'sinl15J;
addc+=0.000062tsin(46)
d&cr-0000060'sin(a7)i
iddcne0000056'sin(aEI
addcir=0.0OOO47rsin(ag):
.ddcr=0.000042rsin(al0):
addr-0.000040'sn(.1
l)i addc*=0.000017'5in(al2)i
addcP -O
oOOOJt'siral3\:
addcrjo 000021'sin(514)i
mjdanjd+pe*addcr
z-rdoubldlongrMjd+osDr:
2t9
I(24299161.0) e=z; el$
{
alph<doublc(lon8((2-186nt6.25y3652425))):,
@-z+ L0+6lph-(doubl
(lons (ddv4.oD);
I
cldouble (lons ((bbj22.1y365.25)Di
dd=(double
(lo4 (355.25'@)));
e<double
(lon8 (GMdY30.60{ l)));
md.rFbbnd-(doublc
(lo!s (30.600
l'c))Fr:
i(a<14.0) !)modn+l.o: clsc mmodh+13.0;
i(montF2.o) myf<4?16.0: els mlta-rc47l50i
nnrhor-{mdar-double(!o4(md!tc)))r24.0i
uho@houtsd.liatlin(myedl620.0)l/3600.0;
min=(mhour-doubqlone(mhout))'60.01
ms6=(ubin.doublc(lons(minD)160
0i
unin=(unoudoubl(lons(uhou)))160
0:
Na=(uin-doubqlons(unin)))'60
0;
)
{
i(s@>600)
i(min=60.0)
{
mi"{ 0:
hou.H;
i(houP=24 0)
{
houFo 0i
dare+;
i(daenonthdaYslint(nonthl'0)l)
{
datFloi
mo.ll|++;
i(nonth>120)
{
nonth=1o;
v6rr:
lt )))
)
{
nin=00;
if(ho!P=24.0)
{
houFo-o]
220
dtt'+t;
iqdnl'd.ddryltin(0.dl.Ol)
( dGl.0;
noiliFli
r{rr{r,r12.0)
{
lro tsl.o;
yaftsl-;
l)))
t ning-no;
,
void iE_tordvoio
{
i(no|t',-24.0)
i{d'r.>tuothdrylti!ft nornlFl,Ol)
{
dnFr.oi
mb+)i
t{montlFl2 0)
{
ftGl.oi
rttfi
))l
rcIilLno
{
rld*.ri
i{d"p@|tdry{i'(dl.0I)
.
{
dGr.q
n|odrh++;
i(mdb-12.0)
I
moortsl.o;
.ll
l(3l!-'d)
@no
)
I
qEodD-12-0)
(
nofl.0;
l
Doll_ctee{i
2l
i(|enrd)
s.t6i8_n0i
l
{(3c<1.0)
{
eF59.0;
i(bll<!.0)
{
diF59.0i
hdc-;
i{hom!.0)
(
hou-23.0;
dr!+_;
i{d@<I.0)
t
nto'fi_;
i(r!.dtKt.0)
I
!to#12.0i
l.
)))'
uu**Il!(.*.orlt
lcnioLn0i
l
t
nin-i
i&Din<!,0)
{
DiF59.0i
i{ho8<t.0)
I
bou!23.0;
i{dab<r.0)
I
!erl-:
i{no!.h<lo)
I
dlo!tFI2.o;
,..
drrc!.d!dry.(in('dLl.0)1i
dr!&io
22
t
iqbou<I,0)
(
!dF23r;
&l}-i
i{de<I.0)
t
mo!&-;
iftud<t.0)
t
e.dhl2.q
tqr-;
-.
d.|ddrF[i!{DoodFl.0l;
,,
*!i|{:
)
{
i{d.G<t.0)
{
i{Dolut<l.0)
{ mrtsl2.q
tlt.F.i
,
.
dd'nonrhdlyltidnondlt.0)l
l
{
f.c.0.0;
lo(|qFt
ttqtt<Jcnn+)
i
j<Fjdr.,r4.()rr
Eo.rr 4 6*r
jdFjd+ddrar[a{Ee.
r62{.0)y(36{oo.z.o}
Drrrdo;
{Ciutiednq.t.r,Dodd...O.0}:
tF(dlt24s
15,.5.0yJ652J.0
8id_.te!(!tI
t
0d+245t5a5.0)865250'q
E_cod(r)
223
nmFsin({50_c/60.0).Pv180.0)-
sin(plar.PVl80.0.)rsinGdeltap.Pvls0.0):
denn<os(!lat.Ptl80.0)ico(sd.ltap'PI/180.0)i
i(rab(nmr/dcm)+ | .0)
{
h6s?c6(Ntu/d.m)'160-0/Pl;
moFsalpha!-plong/l
5.o-Cmstzb;
mode=tuor-h8svl5.0;
hlwo-mnor+hstt 5.0i
i(onoKo.o)
@or+24.0;
if(tuoF24.o) mor:24.0;
i(none<o.o)
noner=24.oj
i(nonc>2a.0) none-=24.0;
i(ntwo<o.0)
m$o+=24.0;
i{mtwc>24,0 dwo:24.0
sbs=smstzoo+nlqor
1.002?3790935:
brwo-nlwo+delratlin(tyer-1620.0)l/1600,0;
jd=juliandar(year,monrbdare,mr$o/24.0);
r=(jd-2451545.0y365250.0:
caph=ns+ptone/l
5.0-etphp.
axrs=asinhin(ptarr pt/
| 80.0f s,n(sdelrap.pt/t 80 0)
+co{ptal.Pvl80.0).cos(sdetr.p'pt/r
80,0),
cos(ph'
l5.0.Pllt 80.0)i 180.0/ptj
dexm=t(attss+50.0,60.0t1(osutar'ttl
80.0)
.codsd!lrap.Pt
t80.0frn{caph.
t5 Orpt l80OrJ t.0.
!cs=hlwo+detrah;
)
urss=utss-delar[in(lrtr-
1620.0)]/3600.0;
!tss+=(acos(emdj/{cmj+hrrc/l
ooo.0rr
I 80.o/pl)/l 5.or:
rmcnBt24
0,
I
fo{lcnr=l
Jcnr<4
Jcnr+)
I
jd=jutimdde{yea,,oonthdare,ner:
jde-jd+det'a(in(yeaFl
620 o, tt )ilo.o. 24 o
).,
stjd=juliddarciy.tu
honoldale,o.0r,
nlsUd-2451
545.0)46525.0i
F(jd+2451545.0y365250.0;
214
nmFsinc(so
0/60 of?V l 80 0)-
sin(;lar'Pvl80
o)rsin(sdl$prPVl
80 0);
dem=o(iL'Pvl80
0)t@s(sdel6P'Pvl80
0)i
iflfab(nud/d.M)<=
1.0)
I
hN=@s(.w/d@)rl800/Pl;
mot=sdphaFplonS/l
5 o-gnstzdoi
nontmot'h4Yl5
0;
ntwetuot+hlsJl5,0;
i(dot<o 0) nnot+=24 0i
i(l@1>24-0) nnor*24 0;
i(mon?<o 0) mooe+=24 01
i(oon>z4 0) mone'=24 0;
i(nt*o<0.o) mtwo+=24.0i
i(olwo>24.0)nt{o-=24 0;
slsrgmsldo+mon
tl
00273?90935:
none=mone+dltarlin(lyed-1620.0)l/3600
0i
jd=juliedate(y.e,6odhdat,mo.e1240);
F(jd-2451545-0Y365250,0a
su._coodc):
@ph=srsr+plotrg/l 5.oelphap;
altsFbincid(Pl51Pvl80.0)isinGdellap'Pt/l
80 0)
+cos(!
lat'Pl/ 1 80.0)'cos(sdellap'Pv
l 80 0)
'@s(qph'
15.01PUI80 0))' I 80 o/Pli
ddlan{(all.$50.0/60.o/(cos(plat'PI/180.0)'
.os(sdehap'PI/l 80.0Xsin(phx l5-04PU180.0))yl 5.0;
ulsFhone+delrmi
)
ulsFursFdellallin(ly.aFl 620.0)V3600.0i
uts!+=(aco(e@y(eoaj+hite/1000 0))' I 80.0/PD/15.0)i
rac=drsd24.0;
,
llsR$r+4nlrm;
i(hsr<o.o) hs.F24-0i
i(lts!>24.0) Itsr:24.0;
)
fo(lcnt=l
Jcnt<4jcil+)
{
jd-j'iiedardyeu,nonrhdate,f.e);
jdFjd+dllarlini(yed-1620.0)l(3600.0'24-0);
nutarion0;
stjd=juliedlle(]dJnonthdat,0.0)i
st=Grjd-245 t 545.0y3652t.0;
sid-1imc(sr)i
t=(jde,245t545.0y36525.0;
225
mooi coord(i),
llii'i--.Ji. i:s'pv
r ro.or-'i"olat'Pvr
80 o
''srd
mder@P'Pr't
I 80 0):
dem<os{plaf
Pl/l 80 Of ds{mdelcp'Pv
l 80 0):
ifffabslnw/deM)'=
I o)
{ hass=a@s(num/domrrl80o/PI:
'
Dnor{alph.Fplong/15.0_gnseeroi
mone{nol-has/15
0;
mtwr.fuol+h6J15.0;
i(rndol<o
0) nnol+=24
0;
i(mtoP24
0) mnot-=24 0i
i(mone<o 0) nonar=24.0;
i(mone24
0) nonc'=24
0i
i(mrivo<o
0) ntqcF24.oi
i{mt{o>24
0)mt*o-24
0:
sts!=sstzeGrmlm'
1.00273?90935i
mlwoattu+deltarlin(lve{-1620
0)l/3600 0;
jd=jdiandat (ye&,mo hdlt,mtwoz4
0);
r=(jd-24s1545.0)/36s25.0;
eph=qrs+plone/l 5.0-malPhoP,
dlr t
-6rn(simelar'Pv180.0)'5in(ndelup'Pvl80
0)
_
c;.{pisr Pvl80 0fLo)(nddlap'Pul80
(
'cos(eph'15
o'Pvl80 0))'l80 cvPl
d.linn=(ali5e0.l25y(cos(plat'P/180
0)
'cos(ndelap'Pvl80
0)'sin(@ph'15
o'Ptl800))y15 0:
!ts=mtwo+dellaml
I
uhs+(acos(cruj(eMl+h,td
l000.0J f
IE0 0/Pl/l5 0)i
)
ltns=utns+aniin;
i(xms<0.o) ltmsts24.o;
i(1lme24.0) llme=24.0;
for(lcnFl
Jcnr<4Jcnt++)
{
jd-juliedate(y@,monthdat,fiac)i
jd.=jd+d.lhrlin(y.d-I620.0)l(3600 0'24 0);
stdjuliddaG8q,monthd.lc,0.0);
st=Gtjd.2451545.0Y16525.0i
t=(ide-2451545.0Y3652s.0;
nllrsin(o.125'PV180.o)-sin(llatrPVl80.0)'sin(ndctaprPVl80
0);
226
d.m=@s(ptar'PvlE00)'6(md't!prPvl80
0);
,nfabsrnutr/d.M)<=I0)
I has=aco(nln/dem)|
t80 o/PI:
nnotralPhaFplong/l
5 Gghstudi
none=mnot'hddl5
0i
d{erurot+hds/15.0;
i(mot<0 0) motl_24
0;
i(moP24
0) 6nol'=24
0i
iflmoc<o 0) noneF24 0;
i(none24
0) mone'=24
0i
i(mtwo<o 0) ntsoF24.oi
i(mlso>24 0)ntsF24
0:
$mFcmsrzso+mone'1
002?3?90935i
mo;mon.rd.lollint(lved_I620
0)l/36000:
jd=juli6datdv@,hon$3ate,6rwc'/24
0)i
t=(jd-245r 545.0)/35525.0;
n@n @od(t);
caph=shr+plors/I 5.0-halPhapi
alimr-asin(<in(plaFPl/l80
0lrsinlndehap'PVl
80 0l
+.odplat'PVl8o-o). codmdeltaprPvl80
0)
tcos(eph'15.0*Pv180.0))rl80
otrli
deliaml(al$4 12t(codpkePvl80
0)
1@(4d.ltap'ryl8O.0)'sin(caph'
I 5-0'PUl80 0))y15 0;
urrcmonrdcltm;
)
ulett((a@s{enaj/(cmaj+hldl000
0))r 180 o/Pl)/l 5 0);
liEcatmr,z4.0i
l
rtrutmfrzonlmi
i(xnr<o.o) ltmr+=24.0;
i(ltmr>24.0) llmr=24,01
)
void dGplay_sord(void)
{
il(slar<o) sd= S'i ele sd=N i
Sotoxy{16,1olconv.rt
dn{ilons);
eotoxy(16,I
I);conven_dos(fabs(sla0)r
soroxy(16,12)iprini('
%.21{Xm dn);
i("dclb<o.o) sdrs, ele sd'N r
gotox(l
6,1 4);@nv..t_bn{salpha);
sotoxy(16,
I 5)iconve't_dms(fab(sdelra))i
ifid.lllp<o.ol d S: le sd=N;
soloxy(l
6,1 6)i@nven_hft s(sho);
gotoxy(l
6, I 8);mnrcn_hnB(sdph,p):
227
gobxy(l 6,1 9);conven-dns(fabs(sdelap));
iotoxy(16,20);co.v.d-hds(sha)i
coroxv{ 16,21)i@nren
dmstsla)i
;oblt(I6.22
):@ven
d6l rabslsalt
Di
i(elr<0.oJ
sdrBi.ls.
$:Ai
lobxr(I6,2axprinrn'/..a1rd
nin .sFidia'4
0)i
I
loid dhplay-mcooid(void)
{
i(mtat<o.o)
sobx,{l6,l0r.on(n
dns(TlongI
sobry(16.1
1),.onven-dns(labs{darr)l
!dnd(
',6c".sd),
eoroxv16.12,:Dnntt(
% 8lf ,mdst/em!j)
&Fmdsr:
;tmd;lia.o.or
sd=s', cl*
ed=N i
.oloxytl6,l4),on!cn
hms(nralphal,
;otoxy(16.1
5,.cDnven
dms{fabs(mdelta))
soro\y(36,1
6)lconven-hos(rnht)
gorory(16,18).on!en
hm(m.lphapli
,fidelkD<oo)
sd=s: else
sd=N i
e;ro\ril6.l9
r;mnven
dms(fabnmdeltaPr',
sobxy(36,20r:@Ncn
hm({abs(mha)):
Robxv(16.22);conEndd{rabi
mdlU:
;ftmah<O.oj
sdrB ebe
sd= Al
SotoxY(
]6.21}:@nven
dms(m@':
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APPENDI'(.U
ANCIENT,
MEDIEVAI,
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EARLY
2OM
CENTTTRYMODELS
23r
2!2
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234
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236
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APPENDIX.III
PHYSICAL
MODELS
211
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254
APPENDIX-IV
OBSERVATIONAL
LIJNAR
CALENDAR
OT'
.
PAKISTAN
200G2007
AND
ITS
COMPARISON
WTIE
TSE
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APPENDIX-V
F'UTURECALENDAR
DATA
FOR TFE OESERVATIONAL
LUNAR
CAIEIIDAR
FOR
PAXTSTIN
BASED
FOR
COORDINATES
OT KARA'CEI,
PAKISTAN
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I,()NGITUDE6/3'
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