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CH.Vishnu chaitanya V.SaiChand

3rd year CSE 3rd year CSE

Sri Sarathi Institute Of Engineering and Technology

Krishna .Dist,
Andhra Pradesh.

 Abstract

 Introduction to WCAROE

 Related Works

 Navigation Task

 Wearable Computer System

• GPS Module

• Compass Module

• Video System

 Software Operation

 Trails

• Trail 1 - Long Distances

• Trail 2 - Large Data Set

• Trail 3 – Urban Setting

 Observations

 Conclusion
 References

ABSTRACT direction finding and measuring

distance. The wearable computer
using for the navigation is not very
heavy, it’s well into the backpack, and
To date augmented realities are
runs for long periods (over ten hours of
typically operated in only a small
operation) due to its size.
defined area, in the order of a large
room. This paper reports on our
investigation into expanding
augmented realities to the outdoor
environment. The project entails
This paper begins with a description of
providing visual navigation aids to
related work and the navigation task,
users. A wearable computer system
and highlights some problems we wish
with a see-through display, digital
to overcome. The second section
compass, and a differential GPS are
describes the wearable computer
used to provide visual cues while
system used in the trials. This is
performing a standard orienteering
followed with a description of the trials
task. This paper reports the out comes
we performed with the system and
of a set of trails using an off the shelf’s
observations obtained from using the
readable computer equipped with
custom built navigation software
package,”map in the hat”

Navigation is the process which guides

movement between two points, and
enables the navigator to know exactly
where they are at any given time.
Navigation involves position finding,
workers, to allow hands free viewing
of manuals in awkward locations.
Augment reality has been used for
1. Introduction Heads up Displays for aviation,
A new physical form of a portable assistance for surgery, architecture
computer has emerged in the form of a visualization, and maintenance work.
wearable computer. Instead of the This augmented reality work can be
computer being hand-held, it is characterised as requiring precise
attached to the user on a backpack for tracking in small operating regions. A
belt, as illustrated in Figure 1.allowing few researchers are investigating large
the user to view data in head area augmented reality. Most notable is
the work of Steven Feiner With
Touring Machine project. The Touring
Machine allows users to walk around
the Columbia campus and access
information via a tracked see-through
display and a hand-held display. The
three main themes of the their work are
as follows: 1)presenting University
contextual information visually
connected to the physical world, 2)
supporting a relatively large area in
Mounted display (HMD). The which the user is able to walk around
application we are investigating is the in, and 3) combining multiple display
use of such a wearable computer and interaction technologies. The work
with augmented realities in an presented in this paper extends this
outdoor environment concept to a new application, terrestrial
(WCAROE) system to support navigation.
navigational tasks, or as we like to call 3 Navigation Task:
it, “map-in-the-hat." Navigation is the process which guides
2 Related Works: movement between two points, and
Wearable computers have been used to enables the navigator to know exactly
supply online manuals for maintenance where they are at any given time.
Navigation involves position finding, next waypoint must be determined.
direction finding and measuring The direction is usually assessed by
distance. A typical navigation task is to use of a magnetic compass. Typically
navigate from point A to point B the navigator picks a prominent object
through a set of waypoints W1..Wn. (such as a tree) which lies on the
Figure 2 shows an example of a magnetic bearing, and walks towards
topographical mapplotting this task it. Once it is reached, another object
with five waypoints (W1…W5). The which is on the same bearing is
user starts at position A and initially selected, and the process is repeated.
navigates to position W1. Once the 3.3 Distance:
user reaches waypoint W1, the user When planning a route, the distances to
then navigates to position W2. This be traveled between waypoints are
process continues until the waypoint determined in case position finding is
W5 is reached. From there, the user prevented due to poor feature
navigates to the final position B. visibility. When actually navigating,
3.1 Position Finding: measuring distance can be performed
Position finding is typically done by by pacing or time calculations. Pacing
reference to a map. A scaled plan of a is a practical distance measuring
portion of the earth's surface. Since the technique for people on foot. Time can
earth's surface is curved, there is be used to check distance traveled
always some distortion on a map, due when movement is continuous and
to the type of projection used. The does not involve the crossing of many
amount of distortion is usually not obstacles. This is sometimes referred
significant to a map user. Maps can be to as “dead reckoning”.
used to locate significant features, 3.4 Problems in Traditional
from which location can be Navigation:
determined. This can be difficult in
Navigation using the above means can
close country (such as jungle),
be quite difficult and requires
featureless country (such as desert), or
considerable training and
at night.
concentration. Time and attention
3.2 Direction Finding: spent on navigation means less
When planning a route or navigation attention is paid to the task
leg, the distance and direction to the environment.
3.5 Global Positioning System: The core of the wearable computer

With GPS, the user applies a similar system used in our experiments is the

technique to those traditionally used, Phoenix2 wearable computer [Phoenix

except for the addition of accurate Group,]. With current research, the

positioning information. The user no computer system has become a lot

longer has to decipher their current more complex, with extra peripherals

position from the landmarks plotted and more batteries, making it

against the topographical map or impractical to mount everything

through the use of dead reckoning. The comfortably on a belt. Therefore, a

user knows within the accuracy of the backpack was used to allow us to carry

GPS their current location, thereby all the needed components, see Figure

greatly enhancing their ability to plot 1. The central computer is Phoenix 2

their current position on a map. Wearable Computer, a Aztec RDS3000

3.6 Automatic Navigation Aids: deferential Perceiver Module (RTCM-

104 output.) The electronic compass is
A significant portion of military field
Precision Navigation TCM2. The Sony
activities involve position situational
PLM-100 dual color personal LCD
awareness. Time spent looking at a
monitor is the see-through device. The
map and compass is time not spent
remainder of the section will describe
looking at the environment (e.g. to
the following components: the GPS
detect the enemy). Soldiers usually
module, the differential GPS module,
have their hands full carrying a
compass module, the video system,
weapon, and so they must pause to
and the power supply.
check a map or compass. A “head-up”
configuration for navigation, provided
it does not obscure normal vision,
would considerably improve task
There are two current technologies
GPS Module:
employed to assist in this navigation
The GPS module is a receiver which
task they are traditional “map and
uses the 24 NAVSTAR satellites
compass” and the use of GPS.
installed by the US Department of
4 The Wearable Computer
Defense, allowing units to accurately
System: determine their position on the Earth.
The module contains an onboard The video output system is based
microprocessor which computes around the Sony PLM-100 display
position using the carrier waves unit, which contains two color LCD
transmitted by each of the satellites. displays mounted on a head brace
Unfortunately, the GPS system used by which holds the display unit in front of
civilian systems has been crippled by the user's eyes, see Figure 1.
the US government to deliver background. By adjusting the screen
approximately 100 meter accuracy. A settings, it is possible to see-through
much greater accuracy may be the display.
achieved using a differential GPS The display unit uses an NTSC input,
(DGSP) unit. DGPS corrects the and so a converter is employed to
purposely inaccurate GPS data to convert the VGA signal from the
ensure that the position information computer to an NTSC signal.
output by the GPS is accurate to a
more acceptable error. 4.1 Software Operation:
The main purpose of the software is to
Compass Module: use the output from the hardware
TCM2 Electronic Compass, which devices, such as the GPS and compass,
uses a magneto-inductive to produce navigation information
magnetometer, involves no moving which is displayed to the user, see
parts. The compass can compute Figure 3.
heading, pitch, and roll information.
With the compass mounted on the
user's head, our navigation system can
measure accurate direction
information. The compass contains a
microprocessor which smoothes the
output values, and detects when the
values are being distorted by other
magnetic fields. The unit outputs data
Fig.3 User’s screen view
contains orientation and magnetic field Fig. 4. View of cursor when 1400
distortion information. meters

Video System:
From the waypoint maximum from the starting position.
Because the display has a battery life
To use our system, the user must first
of only 2.5 hours, this trial only tested
enter a list of waypoints in the form of
a start, middle and end waypoint.
WGS84 latitude and longitude
The navigation system provided
coordinate points. These coordinate
accurate bearing and distance
points are stored in a data file and are
information to the first waypoint.
read into the navigation software when
Deviations while walking were needed
it starts up.
to be undertaken to avoid construction
The display shows information such as
works, and the navigation system
where the user is located, how many
behaving accordingly. The DGPS
satellites are currently being tracked,
signal was lost upon reaching the
the status of the differential
destination waypoint, thus accuracy
information, and steering instructions
was 40 meters. The DGPS signal
to the target. The size of the diamond
returned after a few minutes, and the
cursor increases as the user approaches
accuracy increased to 15 meters.
the waypoint. The above figures show
5.2 Trial 2 - Large Data Set:
diamond cursor size when the user is at
The second trail was with a more
the following distances from the
numerous set of waypoints for a
waypoint: Figure 4 - 1400 meters,
navigation task; six waypoints were
Figure 5 - 700 meters, and Figure 3 –
selected. They were all derived from
100 Meters.
survey markers and were within a
5. Trials:
kilometer of each other.
We performed three field trials of our
The first three waypoints were within a
navigation system to test the system in
30 meter radius of each other. These
a realistic outdoor setting. The trials
points were under a set of high-tension
tested three different conditions:
power-lines, and this may have been
5.1 Trial 1 - Long Distances: the cause of the poor accuracy. The
The first trial was between waypoints a forth waypoint was 400 meters to the
large distance apart with obstacles east. A nearby fence proved to be an
between them, such as buildings to obstacle. Walking alongside the fence
force us to deviate from the prescribed for the distance worked, the bearing
bearing. This trial included waypoints was then at right angles to the fence,
roughly a distance of 1.7 kilometers
and distance correct, to about 5 meter and low light. - As with most wearable
accuracy. computer systems, the power
management proved to be a major
5.3 Trial 3 - Urban Setting: concern of our system.

This trial was performed at a location

where we were given waypoints we Conclus
have not seen before. A series of five ion
waypoints were visited, all within 200
With this system, we have
meters of each other and in a city
demonstrated a hands free navigational
environ, and walking around the city
aid to a person. The use of a wearable
buildings was used to assess how the
computer system with a see through
GPS would perform in an urban
head mounted display provided a
setting. This was not expected to be
functional platform to develop our
easy for the GPS.Initially, no GPS
signal was procured due to the
buildings and trees prevalent near the
university in the city, but three
satellites were obtained with a DGPS ces
fix by standing in an open parking lot. Azuma, Ronald T. Survey of

6. Observations: augmented reality. Presence:

Teleoperators and
By using the wearable computer
Virtual Environments.
system with map-in-the-hat software, a
To be published. Bass, Len, Kasabach,
number of observations were made.
Chris, Martin, Richard, Siewiorek,
They are as follows:
Dan, Smailagic, Asim and Stivoric
-Periodically the user needed to stop
John. The design of a wearable
moving to settle the compass to get
proper information.
- The see-through display has a control
to adjust the back lighting of the
screen; this adjusts how opaque the
screen becomes.
- The waypoint diamond marker is
very hard to see in extremes of bright