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Grammar Tutorial ::: Genitive Case / *| 4 /

ShaShThii vibhakti
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Genitive Case / *| 4 (ShaShThii vibhakti): Genitive Case or *| 4 (ShaShThii vibhakti) of
noun-form represents the "whose" of the sentence. In other words genitive case represents the genitive in the
sentense.
Study the following sentences. These are in genitive case.
I / English T / Sanskrit Notes
1. Son of Dasaratha.
1
dasharathasya putraH
Person or thing whose
relationship with another
is being expressed.
2. Krishna's friend.

*1
kRRiShNasya sakhaa
3. Rise of sun.
1
suuryasya udayaH
4. Water of river.
q
nadyaaH jalam
5. Whiteness of moon.
7g
chandrikaayaa dhavalataa
6. Heat of fire.
7
agneH jvaalaa
7. Vrihaspati is the teacher of Gods.
1
devaanaa.n guruH bRRihaspatiH
8. Demons are the desciples of
Sukracharya.
H1 *
shukraachaaryasya shiShyaaH
asuraaH
9. Women's jewellary.
|
naariiNaam aabharaNam
10. This is my opinion.

etat mama matam
11. Ganapati has four hands.
c 1
gaNapateH chatvaaraH hastaaH
In sentence 1 above, if we ask the question "whose son?", the answer that comes is "Dasaratha". So,
"Dasaratha" is the genitive in the sentence and the noun-form is in genitive case or ShaShThi vibhakti. Similarly
in sentence 4, if we ask the question "whose water?", the answer that comes is "river".
So, answer that comes from the question "whose" is the genitive in the sentense and is always in genitive
case.Followings are the rules where genitive case is used.
Grammatical Rule
The word denoting a peron or thing whose relationship with another is being expressed will be in genitive case.
Grammar Tutorial ::: Genitive Case / *| 4 / ShaShThii vibhakti... http://sanskrit.samskrutam.com/en.grammar-tutorial-noun-form-cases-S...
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In sentence 1 to 11 the words expressing relationship to someone or something are in genitive case.
Besides the above rules there are few more special rules where genitive case is used. Followings are the
examples of these.
I / English T / Sanskrit Notes
12. Among Pandavas Dharmaraja
(Yudhisthira) is best.
7 *
paaNDavaanaa.n dharmaraajaH
jyeShThaH
Comparision in group.
13. Among trees coconut is the best.
H *
vRRikshaaNaa.n naarikeraH
shreShThaH
14. There is no comparision of Arjuna.
1 1
arjunasya tulaa naasti
Use of words (tulaa),
(upamaa) etc., for
comparision.
15. Beauty of Rama.
1
raamasya upamaa
16. To the south of the school huge
banayan tree is there.
q1 H

H
vidyaalayasya dakshiNaat ekaH mahaan
vaTavRRikshaH
Expressins direction or
location in relation to
another using words
(puraH), 1
(purastaat),
(purataH), 0
(agrataH), *
(pRRiShThataH),
(adhaH), 1
(adhastaat) etc.
17. In front of the teacher students are
standing.
H1 *7
shikshakasya puraH chchhaatraaH
tiShThanti
18. Child is playing behind mother.
1 H|
maatuH purastaat shishuH kriiiDati
19. Water flows below ground.
1 / c
bhuumeH adhastaat/adhaH jala.n
barttate
20.To the north of the village hospital
is there.
01 c c 1
graamasya uttaraat chikitsaalayaH asti
Grammatical Rule
If a comparision in a group is being made then the word expressing the group will be in genitive case (or
alternatively in locative case).
In sentence 13 above the sentence means - coconut tree is best "among the trees". So, the word trees is in
genetive case (or alternatively locative case) as it represents the group in which coconut tree is best. Similarly
in sentence 12 the word "pandavas" is in genetive case.
Grammatical Rule
If words (tulaa), (upamaa) etc., expressing comparision are used then word expressing the person or
thing being compared will be in genitive case.
In sentence 14 the word "Arjuna" is in genitive case as this is being compared with the use of word or tulaa.
Sentence 15 also follows the same rule.
Grammatical Rule
If the words (puraH), 1 (purastaat), (purataH), 0 (agrataH), * (pRRiShThataH),
(adhaH), 1 (adhastaat) etc., are used to express direction or location of an object in relation to another,
the word expressing the object will be in genitive case.
Grammar Tutorial ::: Genitive Case / *| 4 / ShaShThii vibhakti... http://sanskrit.samskrutam.com/en.grammar-tutorial-noun-form-cases-S...
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In sentence 16 the word south or H (dakshiNaat) is used to express location of the banayan tree in relation
to the school. So, the word school is in genitive case. Similarly in sentence 18 the word behind or 1
(purastaat) expresses the location of the child in relation to mother. So, the word mother is in genitive case.
Sentences 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20 follow this rule.
Genitive Case (*| 4 / ShaShThii vibhakti)
Word

Gender

Singular

Dual
q
Plural

Similar Words
Boy
/ baala
M - 1
baalasya

baalayoH

baalaanaam
-
Creeper
/ lataa
F - 1
lataayaaH

latayoH

lataanaam
-
River
| / nadii
F - 1 q
nadyaaH
|
nadiibhyaam
|
nadiinaam
-
Fruit
/ phalam
N - 1
phalasya

phalayoH

phalaanaam
-
Grammar Tutorial ::: Genitive Case / *| 4 / ShaShThii vibhakti... http://sanskrit.samskrutam.com/en.grammar-tutorial-noun-form-cases-S...
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