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EE480.3 Digital Control Systems

Part 9. Frequency Response Method - using the bilinear transformation

Kunio Takaya

Electrical and Computer Engineering

March 26, 2008

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Contents

 1 CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN III 3 2 Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion 10 3 Phase Lead or Lag Compensator 17 4 DIGITAL CONTROLLER DESIGN 3 22 5 PID Controller Design 56

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1 CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN III Bilinear Transformation

Consider integration based on trapezoidal rule. y(k)
y(k-1)
x(k)
x(k-1)

T

Let the integrated area to k be y(k). Then, using the area to k 1 given by y(k 1), the approximated area under the curve is

y(k) = y(k 1) + T [x(k) + x(k 1)]

2

3

y(k) = y(k 1) + T [x(k) + x(k 1)]

2

Taking the z-transform,

 Y (z) = (1 − z −1 )Y (z) = Y (z) = X(z)

z 1 Y (z) + T [X(z) + z 1 X(z)]

2

T (1 + z 1 )X(z)

2

T

1

+ z 1 z 1

2

1

We let integration in the Laplace transform 1 s equal to the

integration in the z-domain.

1 s = T

2

1

+ z 1 z 1

1

4

Then, we deﬁne the bilinear transformation,

s =

2

1

1

z + z 1

T

1

=

2

z

1 + 1 .

T

z

Since this is a new mapping function between s-domain and z-domain, we use w instead of s. The bilinear transformation deﬁnes w-domain as

 2 1 − z −1 w = T 1 + z −1 = 2 z − 1 w = T z + 1 ⇔

2

z

1 + 1 ,

T

z

w

z = 1 + T 1 T w

2

2

whereas the Laplace s-domain relates to the z-domian by

z = e sT

Both mapping functions make the stable system poles be jzj < 1.

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MATLAB function for the bilinear transformation is bilinear and corresponding impulse invariant transformation is impinvar. The following program shows the transformation applied to

%

z=[];

p=[-1,-2];

T=0.1;

K=2;

csys=tf(K*poly(z),poly(p))

s=2/(s+1)(s+2)

s-domain:

G(s) =

2

(s + 1)(s + 2)

[numd,dend]=bilinear(K*poly(z),poly(p),1/T)

roots(numd) pbl=roots(dend)

 plot(pbl,[0,0],’rx’); axis([-1,1,-1,1]); axis square; hold on; [numd,dend]=impinvar(K*poly(z),poly(p),1/T) roots(numd) piv=roots(dend) plot(piv,[0,0],’bx’); axis([-1,1,-1,1]); axis square; hold on;

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The impulse invariant transformation is

G(z) = 0.0172

z

(z 0.9048)(z 0.8187)

The bilinear transformation is

G(z) = 0.0043

(z 1) 2

(z 0.9048)(z 0.8182)

The poles are very close to each other, though the zeros are dissimilar.

Exercise: Transform the following continuous time system to its Bilinear Transform. Sampling frequency is 10 samples per sec, or T = 0.1.

E(s) =

1

s(s + 1)

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Nonlinear frequency relationship

2

1

z 1

T

1 + z 1

z=e jωT

=

=

=

=

2

T

2

T

1 e jωT

1 + e jωT

e j ωT

2

(e j ωT e j ωT )

2

2

e j ωT

2

(e j ωT + e j ωT )

2

2

j T tan ωT

w

2

2

Thus, ω w has a nonlinear relation ship with ω given by

ω w =

T tan ωT

2

2

8

. In the relationship between s-domain and z-domain, z = e sT , analog frequency is deﬁned by s = whereas digital (discrete

time) frequency ω d is deﬁned by e jω d = e jωT . Therefore, ω = ω T d .

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frequency range in ω, ω d and ω w

ω

ω d

ω w

=

=

=

0 ω ω s

2

= 2πf s

2

0 ω d = ωT π

0 ω w = T tan ωT

2

2

= π

T

T tan π

2

2

=

This means that one zone of periodic frequency axis produced by

π

sampling, ± T in s-domain, corresponds to 0 ω w < in the

frequency axis of w-plane. The frequency axis is the imaginary axis . Therefore, the inside of the unit circle in z-plane is mapped into the entire LHP in the w-plane. Thus, we can see that the Routh-Hurwitz stability criteion becomes applicable if bilinear transformation is applied to a discrete time transfer function in z-transform and converted to w-domain.

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2 Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion

+

K

z+1

z(z-1)  - Test the stability of this closed loop system. Determine the range of K that keeps the system stable. The open loop transfer function is

G(z) = K

z + 1

z(z 1) .

 2 z − 1 w = T z + 1 G(w) = K

z + 1

z(z 1)

w

z = 1 + T 1 T w

2

2

z= 1+ T w
2
1− T w
2

11

= K

= K

1 + T w

2

1 T w

2

+ 1

1 + T w ( 1 + T w
1

2 w

T

2

2

1 T

2

w 1)

1 T w

2

(1 + T w) T

2

2 w

The characteristic equation is

1 + G(w) = 1 + K

1 T

2 w

(1 + T w) T

2

2 w

= 0

( T ) 2 w 2 + T (1 K)w + K = 0

2

2

12

w

w

w

2

1

0

( T ) 2

2

T

2

(1 K)

K

K

0

0

Therefore, 0 < K < 1 is necessary for the system to be stable.

Routh Hurwitz stability criterion

When the characteristic equation is given by

b n w n + b n1 w n1 + ··· + b 1 w + b 0 = 0

13

w

w

w

w

.

.

.

n

n1

n2

n3

b

b

c

d 1

.

.

.

n

n1

1

b n1 b n2 b n b n3

c 1 =

b

n1

d 1 =

c 1 b n3 c 2 b n1

c

1

b

b

c

d 2

.

.

.

n2

n3

2

b n4 ···

b n5 ···

c

d 3

.

.

.

3

b n1 b n4 b n b n5

c 2 =

d 2 =

b

n1

c 1 b n5 c 3 b n1

c

1

The number of sign changes in the ﬁrst column gives the number of unstable poles.

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Example

An open loop transfer function

yields

G(z) = K

z + 1

(z 1) 2

G(w) = K 2 (Tw) Tw 2

The characteristic equation is

T 2 w 2 KTw + 2K = 0.

w

w

w

2

1

0

 T 2 2K −KT 0 2K 0

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Since the number of sign changes is 2, this system is always unstable regardless of the value of K. This system is the same as

analog system,

instability.

1 2 . So, the unity gain feedback always results in

s

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3 Phase Lead or Lag Compensator

A discrete time phase lead/lag compensator is designed by using

the bilinear transformation that maps the inside of the unit circle

in z-plane to the entire LHP of w-plane. The phase lead/lag

compensator is designed in w-domain utilizing the techniques available for continuous time compensator design, then map it back to the z-domain by the bilinear transformation. The ﬁrst order w-domain compensator is given by analogy to s-domain as

D(w) = a 0

17

1 +

w

ω

w 0

1 +

w

ω w p

A pole is at w = ω w p and a zero is at w = ω w 0 . 18 Phase lead compensator: ω w p > ω w 0

Phase lag compensator:

ω w 0 > ω w p

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Substituting w = 2

function,

z 1

T z + 1

for w in the compensator transfer

D(z)

=

a

0

 2 z − 1 1 + T z + 1 ω w 0 2 z − 1 1 + T z + 1 ω

w p

= a

0

 2 z − 1 ω w 0 ω w p + ω w p T z + 1 2 z − 1 ω w 0 ω w p + ω w 0 T z + 1

=

a 0 ω w 0 ω w p T (z + 1) + 2ω w p (z 1)

ω w 0 ω w p T (z + 1) + 2ω w 0 (z 1)

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Thus,

K d

z 0

z

p

(ω w 0 T + 2)

(ω w p T + 2) ×

= a 0 ω w p

ω w 0

= K d z z 0 z z p

z

+ ω w 0 T 2 ω w 0 T + 2

z

+ ω w p T 2 ω w p T + 2

= a 0

ω w p (ω w 0 T + 2)

2) = a 0 ω w p (ω w 0 +

 2 ) T ω w 0 (ω w p + 2 ) T

ω w 0 (ω w p T +

=

=

ω w 0 T 2

ω w 0 T + 2 =

ω w p T 2

ω w p T + 2 =

ω w 0 2

T

2

ω w 0 +

T

ω w p 2

T

2

ω w p +

T

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4 DIGITAL CONTROLLER DESIGN 3

Frequency Response Method K z - z 0 ZOH d - T z - z p  G(s)            +

Design a phase lead or phase lag compensator

D(z) = K d z z z z p 0

such that the (open loop) system satisﬁes a given phase margin of φ m 100ζ so that the (closed loop) system has damping ratio of ζ.

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Since the frequency response method based on phase margin and gain margin established in the Laplace domain (s-domain) is used here, the frequency response of D(z) combined with a plant transfer function G(z) with ZOH must be transformed into w-domain by using the bilinear transformation. Because, the stable region of the z-plane that is the inside of a unit circle, is mapped into the entire LHP (Left Half Plane) of the w-plane.

The parameters K d , z 0 and z p of the ﬁrst order phase lead/lag compensator are determined in terms of a 0 , ω w 0 , ω w p deﬁned in the w-domain.

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Calculations of Frequency Response in w-domain

In order to obtain frequency response (Bode plot) in w-domain, do the following steps.

1. Find the transfer function in the z-transform,

G(z) = (1 z 1 )Z G(s)

s

2. Calculate the frequency response G(e jωT ) for 0 ωT π with a proper step size. Record the actual frequncy scale of 0 ω ω s =

3. Calculate corresponding frequency ω w to the frequencies used to calculate G(e jωT ).

π

T

ω w =

T tan ωT

2

2

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4. Make a frequency response table to help drawing the Bode diagram.

 ω jG(e jωT )j G(e jωT ) ω w ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· . . . . . . . . . . . .

5. Draw the Bode Diagram, both for jG(e jωT )j and G(e jωT ) using the frequency scale of ω w , not ω. This process is often called as frequency pre-warping.

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Design Approach Digital controller design to determine D(z) by the frequency response method uses phase margin φ m as a key parameter.

Design is to make the phase margin of the open loop trnasfer function D(w)G(w) have a speciﬁed phase margin φ m at a frequency ω w 1 .

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Finding the new cross-over frequency ω w 1 requires several conditions to be met, and also requires “try and error” until a satisfactory value is found.

We are designing (determining)

D(w) = a 0

1 +

w

ω

w 0

1 +

w

ω w p

where, a pole is at w = ω w p and a zero is at w = ω w 0 .

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Characteristic Equation of the Closed Loop Systems

The only mathematical condition required at ω w 1 is

D(w 1 )G(w 1 ) = 1 (180 + φ m ) = 1 (+180 + φ m )

For magnitude,

jD(w 1 )j jG(w 1 )j = 1

For phase,

jD(w 1 )j =

1

jG(w 1 )j

D(w 1 ) + G(w 1 ) = 180 + φ m

θ = D(w 1 ) = 180 + φ m G(w 1 )

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Mathematical Design Formula for Phase Lead/Lag Compesators

The phase margin of the open loop trnasfer function D(w)G(w) satisﬁes a speciﬁed phase margin φ m at a frequency ω w 1 , if the parameters a 1 and b 1 of

D(w) = a b 1 1 w w + + a 1 0

= a 0

where,

are set to satisfy

w ω 0 = a 0

a

1

1 + a 1 w

a

0

1

+ b 1 w

and

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= a 0

1

+

w

ω

w 0

1 +

w

ω w p

w ω p =

1

b

1

a 1

b 1

=

=

1 a 0 jG(w 1 )j cos θ

ω w 1 jG(w 1 )j sin θ cos θ a 0 jG(w 1 )j

ω w 1 sin θ

where, θ = D(w 1 ) = 180 + φ m G(w 1 ). The DC gain a 0 must be known from other criteria such as steady state error e ss or DC gain.

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Veriﬁcation (check)

 D(jω w 1 ) = =

Thus,

ja 1 ω w 1 + a 0

jb 1 ω w 1 + 1

=

1 a 0 jG(w

)j cos θ

 j 1 ω w 1 + a 0 ω w 1 jG(jω w 1 )j sin θ j cos θ − a 0 jG(jω w 1 )j ω w 1 + 1

ω w 1 sin θ

jG(w 1 )j × j(1 a 0 jGj cos θ) + a 0 jGj sin θ j(cos θ a 0 jGj) + sin θ

1

 D(jω w 1 ) 2 = = =

1

jGj 2

1

(1 a 0 jGj cos θ) 2 + (a 0 jGj sin θ) 2

(cos θ a 0 jGj) 2 + sin 2 θ

1

2

2a 0 jGj cos θ + a 0 jGj 2

2

jGj 2 1 2a 0 jGj cos θ + a 0 jGj 2

1

jGj 2

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For phase angle,

D(w 1 )

tan D(w 1 )

=

=

=

=

1 + j a 1

a 0 ω w 1

1 + jb 1 w 1

tan 1 a 0 ω w 1 tan 1 b 1 ω w 1

1

a

tan tan 1 a 0 ω w 1 tan tan 1 b 1 ω w 1

1

a

1 + tan tan 1 a 0 ω w 1 × tan tan 1 b 1 ω w 1

1

a

a

a 0 ω w 1 b 1 ω w 1

1

1 + a

1

a 0 ω w 1 × b 1 ω w 1

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Substituting,

a 1 ω w 1 = 1 a 0 jGj cos θ jGj sin θ

and

b 1 ω w 1 = cos θ a 0 jGj sin θ

tan D(jω w 1 )

=

2

sin θ(1 2a 0 jGj cos θ + a 0 jGj 2 )

cos

2

θ(1 2a 0 jGj cos θ + a 0 jGj 2 )

= tan θ

Thus, the compensator D(w 1 ) satisﬁes

jD(w 1 )j =

1

jG(w 1 )j

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and

D(jω w 1 ) = θ

Range to choose ω w 1 for Phase-Lead Case

This formula based method is straightforward and works well as long as the choice of ω w 1 is proper. The range of frequency ω w from which ω w 1 should be chosen is speciﬁed by the following conditions for phase lead compensators.

1. θ = D(w 1 ) = 180 + φ m G(w 1 ) > 0 requires to choose ω w 1 to satisfy a phase condition

G(w 1 ) < 180 + φ m .

2. Since jD(w )j > a 0 , jD(w 1 )j > a 0 . Then, ω w 1 should satisfy a gain condition,

jG(w 1 )j =

1

jD(w 1 )j <

1

a 0

3. In the transfer function D(w), a 0 , a 1 and b 1 must be all

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positive as ω w 0 = a 0

compensators. Referring to

a 1

and ω w p =

1

b

1

a 1 ω w 1 = 1 a 0 jGj cos θ jGj sin θ

and

.

sin θ > 0 for phase lead

b 1 ω w 1 = cos θ a 0 jGj sin θ

.

the numerators must be positive as well.

1 a 0 jGj cos θ > 0

and

1

a 0 jG(jω w 1 )j > cos θ

cos θ a 0 jGj > 0

> a 0 jG(w 1 )j

This condition is written for jG(w 1 )j as

jG(w 1 )j < cos θ

a

0

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<

1

a 0 cos θ

Thus,

jG(w 1 )j < cos θ a 0

,

which is more restrictive than the condition derived from the

gain, jG(w 1 )j <

1

.

a 0

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Range to choose ω w 1 for Phase-Lag Case

The range of frequency ω w from which ω w 1 should be chosen is speciﬁed by the following conditions for phase lag compensators.

1. θ = D(w 1 ) = 180 + φ m G(w 1 ) < 0 requires to choose ω w 1 to satisfy a phase condition

G(w 1 ) > 180 + φ m .

2. Since jD(w )j < a 0 , jD(w 1 )j < a 0 . Then, ω w 1 should satisfy a gain condition,

jG(w 1 )j =

1

jD(w 1 )j >

1

a 0

3. In the transfer function D(w), a 0 , a 1 and b 1 must be all

positive as ω w 0 = a 0

a 1

and ω w p =

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1

b

1

.

sin θ < 0 for phase lag

compensators. Referring to

a 1 ω w 1 = 1 a 0 jGj cos θ jGj sin θ

and

b 1 ω w 1 = cos θ a 0 jGj sin θ

.

the numerators must be negative as well.

1 a 0 jGj cos θ < 0

and

cos θ a 0 jGj < 0

1

a 0 jG(jω w 1 )j < cos θ < a 0 jG(w 1 )j

This condition yields,

jG(w 1 )j >

a 0 cos θ > cos θ

1

a

0

Thus,

jG(w 1 )j >

1

a 0 cos θ .

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This is more restrictive than jG(w 1 )j > 1

a

0

39

.

Design speciﬁc to Phase lag Compensator

The ﬁrst order phase lag compensator can be designed by the formula similarly as in the case of phase lead compensator. However, there is a basic diﬀerence in the principle of compensating for a required phase margin.

Phase lead compensators add a positive phase to increase the phase margin without drastically changing the 0 dB crossover frequency.

A phase lag compensators is used to lower the overall gain to shift the 0 dB crossover frequency to a much smaller value so that a larger phase margin is obtained.

Since the 0 dB crossover frequency ω w 1 is shifted to a lower frequency where the phase response of the Bode diagram is not aﬀected by the compensator, selecting ω w 1 can be done on the Bode

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diagram of G(w) alone without being aﬀected by the compensator. First, ﬁnd a new crossover frequency ω w 1 where the condition,

G(w 1 ) = 180 + φ m + 5

is satisﬁed. 5 accounts for a slight phase angle derease by the phase lag compensator. The rule of thumb to set ω w 0 in the compensator’s transfer function,

D(w) = a 0

1 +

w

ω

w 0

1 +

w

ω w p

=

a 1 w + a 0

b 1 w + 1

is to pick one decade lower than the ω w 1 , i.e.

ω w 0 = 0.1 × ω w 1 .

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For a phase lag compensator, ω w p < ω w 0 .

Thus,

jD(ω w 1 )j = a 0

1 + j ω w 1

ω w 0

1 + j ω w 1

ω w p

a 0 ω w p

ω

w 0

=

1

G(w 1 )

ω w p =

ω

w 0

a 0 jG(w 1 )j =

0.1 ω w 1

a 0 jG(w 1 )j

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Example 8.1 page 294

The servo motor is to control the horizontal (azimuth) angle for pointing a radar antenna. The transfer function is given by

G(s) =

1

s(s + 1)(0.5s + 1)

The z-transform of this system combined with ZOH is

G(z) = 4.0140 × 10 5

(z + 3.5954)(z + 0.2580)

(z 1)(z 0.9512)(z 0.9048) .

The Bode diagram drawn for w-domain with respect to the frequency axis of ω w is shown.

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Magnitude Response 20
0
−20
−40
−60
10 −1
10 0
10 1
Magnitude in dB

Phase Response −50
−100
−150
−200
−250
−300
10 −1
10 0
10 1
Phase in degrees

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Design a phase lag compensator that achieves a phase margin of φ m = 55 for a 0 = 1.

G(w 1 ) = 180 + 55 + 5 = 120

By the Bode diagram, ω w 1 0.36. At this frequency jG(w 1 )j = 2.57 = 8.2dB. Therefore,

ω w 0 = 0.1 ω w 1 = 0.036

ω w p =

0.1 ω w

1

w 1 )j = 0.0140

a 0 jG(

Using these values of a 0 , ω w 0 and ω w p ,

D(z) = 0.3891

z 0.9982

z

0.9993 .

The frequency response after compensation is shown in the frequency axis of ω w .

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