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Professional Ethics

5/19/2014
Limkokwing university

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Table of Contents
SOCIAL NETWORKING ............................................................................................................................ 3
Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................... 3
Literature review ........................................................................................................................................... 4
1. Meet New People .................................................................................................................................. 5
2. Find Old Friends ................................................................................................................................... 5
3. Chat the Day Away ............................................................................................................................... 6
4. Join Interest Groups .............................................................................................................................. 6
5. Blog for Your Friends and Family ........................................................................................................ 6
6. Create Photo Albums and Share Photos ............................................................................................... 7
Discussion ..................................................................................................................................................... 8
Findings ........................................................................................................................................................ 9
Issues found in research .............................................................................................................................. 11
Cyberstalking and location disclosure ........................................................................................................ 11
Social profiling and 3rd party disclosure .................................................................................................... 12
Invasive privacy agreements ....................................................................................................................... 12
Preteens and early teenagers ....................................................................................................................... 12
Law enforcement prowling the networks .................................................................................................... 13
Social Network issues Solutions ................................................................................................................. 14
Recommendations ...................................................................................................................................... 17
From a Rights Perspective ........................................................................................................................... 17
From a Fairness Perspective ................................................................................................................... 17
From a Common Good Perspective ........................................................................................................ 17
From a Virtue Perspective ...................................................................................................................... 18
Summary and Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 19
References ................................................................................................................................................... 20
APPENDIXES ............................................................................................................................................ 22

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SOCIAL NETWORKING
Abstract

Social Networking can define as a network of social interactions and personal relationships.
Social networking can be a useful tool for keeping in touch with friends and family but when it is
used to substitute it for actual face to face contact it can be a dangerous thing. You can't lie;
social networking is a very large part of our lives. In September 2011 Facebook registered 800
million users. Social networking can have good effects on people and help them out but it can be
used inappropriately and can have very disastrous effects on people friends that you want s
lives. Social networking may have some cons but if used properly it can be a very useful device.
When used properly it can help you stay in touch with people you wouldnt normally be able to
like friends or family overseas. Instead of having to call or write a letter you can just talk over
the internet. It may not only be family or friends that you want to talk to, there might be someone
that you like but dont have the confidence to talk to them. We also can build up our confidence
over the internet and not worry about stumbling over your words. One of the arguments that
people who are against social networking is that it can reduce face to face contact but if we use it
well then It can actually increase it. We also can organize many things very easily compared to
other ways like over the phone. Things like Face book can be very helpful if used right but that
can be the problem.[2][4][6][1]

Keywords :[social network ,ethical issues ,professional ethics] .



4

Literature review
In our opinion, information technology now become a famous medium and channel as
the social networking in our country. For example the using of facebook , twitter and internet
has become the new self-service delivery channel that allows banks to provide information and
offer services to their customers with more convenience via the web services technology. An
understanding of corporate customer acceptance of Internet banking can assist banks to assess
the real business value of Internet banking implementation. This study examines four benefits
and three barriers that influence corporate customer adoption. [2]

The four benefit factors are information quality, information accessibility, information
sharing, and transaction benefits. The three major barriers are related to trust, legal support, and
organization barriers. Information quality and transaction benefit factors are far more important
than other in discriminating Internet banking users from non-users. In addition, information
sharing and distrust of the web are two drawbacks of Thai Internet banking adoption.


The uses of social networking and Internet technology is as a new self-service delivery
channel, they have to enhance acceptance from corporate customers. This does not seem to be
merely a matter of getting corporate customers to recognize benefits, but banks probably need to
lower barriers to Internet banking adoption to provide actual benefits to corporate customers.

Meanwhile, the other social networks have come a long way since the implementation of
the idea several years ago. Social networking sites such as Friendster, Facebook and MySpace all
had a big part in making social networks what they are today. They have all evolved since then
and become something more than what they were back then.[3]

Now you can do so much more with a social network than just meet people and send
messages. You can create photo albums, add videos, listen to your favorite music, find old
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friends and so much more. Even the profile pages have evolved. Many social networks let you
change the colors of your profile and even add backgrounds and change the layout.

1. Meet New People

This is the main reason social networks were created, so people can meet and find new
friends. On just about every social networking site you can browse the network and meet new
people. We can find people of every kind from all over the world. Or we can just focus on
meeting certain types of new friends.

Find friends in a certain niche or make as many friends as you can. How you do it is up to
you. Everyone had their own way of making online friends.

2. Find Old Friends

We have probably lost contact with someone in your life. Now's your chance to find them
again. Could be a friend from high school, someone you used to work with, or just about anyone.
Using social networking sites we can type in the name of our friends and find them, if they're
on that site.



More of our friends are on sites like MySpace and Facebook than you realize. Join up,
create a profile and start your search. When we create your profile, don't forget to mention all the
schools you went to so our friends can find us too.
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3. Chat the Day Away

Most social networks have forums. This is where we can post our thoughts, questions
and opinions. It's also where you can communicate with a group of friends that all have the same
interest or problem. There's usually a variety of forums to choose from. Which forum you post in
all depends on what we're looking for.

If we are looking to discuss a certain topic, then we also would post in the forum that's
set up for that particular topic. Maybe we're just looking for a discussion to get into, browse
around and find something we like, then join in.

4. Join Interest Groups

Many social networks offer groups. If they don't have a group you like, we can usually
create one of our own. Groups are just that, groups of people. They all joined the group because
they all had something in common.There can be groups on anything. Maybe you have a child
with autism and we want to talk to other people who have children with autism, join a group.
Then we can talk to other people and also get news and alerts about autism. If there isn't already
a group on the network, create one.[2]


5. Blog for Your Friends and Family

Almost every social network offer us a blog. Here you can write about any number of things.
Keep friends updated on your life or write about your concerns and accomplishments. A blog can
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be as personal, or impersonal, as you want it to be. When we add photos to your blog you take it
to a whole other level. People love to see what they're reading about, that's why newspapers hire
photographers. The way your blog looks can be changed too.

6. Create Photo Albums and Share Photos

Add all the photos (On MySpace : On Facebook) and break them into albums. Not all
social networks offer photo albums, but many do. Sometimes the social network will only let us
add a certain number of photos to our profile. Photo albums are a great asset to your social
network profile. People love to look at photos. They may stay on your profile, or come back
later, just to look through your photos. It's also a good idea if we have family that are far away
and we want them to be able to see your family photos. Some social networks even offer the
ability for us to turn your photo album into a slideshow.

In other perspectives, the social networking also spread into general business communication
among people in Malaysia through the Information Technology such as internet, blog and web
site application . But I can see that , generally most businesses in Malaysia are still less ICT in
their business operations, let alone use the Internet as one of the marketing arm of their business.
There is a lot of business if based products and services are still done manually. In this case there
are weaknesses in the ordinary course of business that can be addressed Internet businesses.[2]








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Discussion

Internet offers a wide open market to entities businesses or anyone who has products and
services that can offer to Internet users around the world. The question that arises when This is
how to create an Internet business that is capable of generate profits. Thereby, the writing is
trying to peel the perception of Internet Business successful. In addition, the writer will examine
the steps in creating a Internet business.

Besides, people may feel they are being social but online interaction is no substitute for face to
face contact. Facebook is a tool. I compare it to a car: you can drive to isolate yourself from
others or you can drive to meet people. If you use Facebook to increase face-to-face contact, it
increases social capital. It can help people but only if you do the right thing. This can be a really
bad thing about social networking, it can promote loneliness. People will feel as though they are
being really social but really they are becoming lonelier. [1]

Meanwile , development of information and communication technologies, especially Internet at
today has a lot to contribute in the development business. Function The most important Internet
as a platform for business entities to carry out business activities without barriers of cost, time
and place. Clearly the Internet offers many additional facilities to the business. In all businesses,
the need for technology that can facilitate business activities is important. Reforms that can be
The Internet has a lot of change and create a business model make the advantages of the Internet
as the most important asset in helping success of a business.

There has conducted business online which today is known by various names such as e-business,
Internet Marketing, E-Commerce or Internet Business. According to a study conducted by
Internet World Stats, most Internet users use the Internet as a source of information and
entertainment only. But apart from that, the Internet also offers many opportunities and d value
to the business that can provide high returns if well managed. [9]



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Findings

In a sense, the Internet offers a wide open market to entities businesses or anyone who has
products and services that can offer to Internet users around the world. Do we know the meaning
of technology . Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques,
crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific
function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures.
Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and
adapt to their natural environments. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas:
examples include construction technology, medical technology, and information technology.

In global , technology can provide many benefits to communities around the world to get
information as well as informative. Technology through human work can be completed quickly
and swiftly. Even communication technology will bridge the gap between countries, we can
access many places to get information.[2][4][6]

These perspectives can be used to evaluate business value along two viewpoints, internal
and external. The internal view means that the e-banking distribution channel is considered as a
resource providing efficiency, effectiveness, market expansion, and competitive advantages to
the financial service provider.

Aside from the legal issues, some commentators have examined the ethicality of social
media usage by employees and responses from employers (Valentine et al.2010). The question is
important for a number of reasons, not least because if dismissal is seen as unfair, it has the
potential to generate discontent within the workplace. Two issues have been identified as
important in considerations of the ethicality of employees using social media. These are first, the
subjects which are discussed on social media by employees and second, the balance between the
wider rights of individuals and the more specific explicit and implicit expectations of behavior at
work which could be upheld through employment law.[3]


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In the first case, Valentine et al. (2010) find that dismissing a blogging employees more
likely to be considered ethical if the subject of the blog is work-related than if it is non-work-
related. However, a key factor to be considered in both kinds of blogging is the moral intensity
of the content. The concept of moral intensity covers a range of factors, including the potential
consequences of the comments made, for example the likelihood of an employees comments
harming the company and the scale of any harm.

One distinction between high and low moral intensity activity online might be between
employees using social media to sound off about certain aspects of their employment and
employees making deliberately defamatory comments about their employers. As Richardson
(2007) has noted, many work bloggers explain that the purpose of their blog is not to maliciously
attack their employers, but rather to provide them with a space to vent when they become
frustrated with work. The blog represents a free space in which they can express their feelings
about work.[9]









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Issues found in research
Cyberstalking and location disclosure

With the creation of Facebook and the continued popularity of MySpace, many people are giving
their personal information out on the internet. Most users are not aware that they can modify the
privacy settings and unless they modify them, their information is open to the public. Sites such
as Facebook, Myspace, and Twitter have grown popular by broadcasting status updates featuring
personal information such as location. Some applications border on cyberstalking. This has
redefined the role of Internet privacy as overlapping with that of security.
Some applications are explicitly centered on cyber stalking. An application named "Creepy"
can track a person's location on a map using photos uploaded to Twitter or Flickr. When a person
uploads photos to a social networking site, others are able to track their most recent location.
Some smart phones are able to embed the longitude and latitude coordinates into the photo and
automatically send this information to the application. Anybody using the application can search
for a specific person and then find their immediate location. This poses many potential threats to
users who share their information with a large group of followers.[4]
Facebook Places, is a Facebook service, which publicizes user location information to the
networking community. Users are allowed to check-in at various locations including retail
stores, convenience stores, and restaurants. Also, users are able to create their own place,
disclosing personal information onto the Internet. This form of location tracking is automated
and must be turned off manually. Various settings must be turned off and manipulated in order
for the user to ensure privacy. According to epic.org, Facebook users are recommended to: (1)
disable "Friends can check me in to Places," (2) customize "Places I Check In," (3) disable
"People Here Now," and (4) uncheck "Places I've Visited.".[5] Moreover, the Federal Trade
Commission has received two complaints in regards to Facebooks unfair and deceptive trade
practices, which are used to target advertising sectors of the online community. Places tracks
user location information and is used primarily for advertising purposes. Each location tracked
allows third party advertisers to customize advertisements that suit ones interests. Currently, the
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Federal Trade Commissioner along with the Electronic Privacy Information Center are shedding
light on the issues of location data tracking on social networking sites.[5]
Social profiling and 3rd party disclosure

Social profiling allows for Facebook and other social networking media websites of filtering
through the advertisements, assigning specific ones to specific age groups, gender groups, and
even ethnicities
Data aggregation sites like Spokeo have highlighted the feasibility of aggregating social data
across social sites as well as integrating it with public records. A 2011 study [6] highlighted
these issues by measuring the amount of unintended information leakage over a large number of
users with varying number of social networks. It identified and measured information that could
be used in attacks against what-you-know security.
Studies [7] have also pointed to most social networks unintentionally providing 3rd party
advertising and tracking sites with personal information. It raises the issue of private information
inadvertently being sent to 3rd party advertising sites via Referrer strings or cookies.
Invasive privacy agreements
Another privacy issue with social networks is the privacy agreement. The privacy agreement
states that the social network owns all of the content that users upload. This includes pictures,
videos, and messages are all stored in the social networks database even if the user decides to
terminate his or her account.[9]
Preteens and early teenagers
The most vulnerable victims of private-information-sharing behavior are preteens and early
teenagers. There have been age restrictions put on numerous websites but how effective they are
is debatable.[need quotation to verify] Findings have discovered that informative opportunities
regarding internet privacy as well as concerns from parents, teachers, and peers, play a
significant role on impacting the internet users behavior towards online privacy. Additionally,
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other studies have also found that the heightening of adolescents concern towards their privacy
will also lead to a greater probability that they will utilize privacy-protecting behaviors.[2] In the
technological culture that society is developing into, not only adolescents and parents
awareness should be risen, but society as a whole should acknowledge the importance of online
privacy.
Law enforcement prowling the networks

The FBI has dedicated undercover agents on Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, LinkedIn. The rules
and guidelines to the privacy issue is internal to the Justice Department and details aren't released
to the public. Agents can impersonate a friend, a long lost relative, even a spouse and child. This
raises real issues regarding privacy. Although people who use Facebook, Twitter, and other
social networking sites are aware of some level of privacy will always be compromised, but, no
one would ever suspect that the friend invitation might be from a federal agent whose sole
purpose of the friend request was to snoop around. Furthermore, Facebook, Twitter, and
MySpace have personal information and past posts logged for up to one year; even deleted
profiles, and with a warrant, can hand over very personal information. One example of
investigators using Facebook to nab a criminal is the case of Maxi Sopo. Charged with bank
fraud, and having escaped to Mexico, he was nowhere to be found until he started posting on
Facebook. Although his profile was private, his list of friends was not, and through this vector,
they eventually caught him.[6][8]
In recent years, some state and local law enforcement agencies have also begun to rely on social
media websites as resources. Although obtaining records of information not shared publicly by
or about site users often requires a subpoena, public pages on sites such as Facebook and
MySpace offer access to personal information that can be valuable to law enforcement.[1] Police
departments have reported using social media websites to assist in investigations, locate and
track suspects, and monitor gang activity.[5][11]

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Social Network issues Solutions
The massive proliferation of social media has become extremely popular among information
users. They have greatly influenced the way users access and use information in all aspects of
their lives, thus becoming a global phenomenon for constant debates. The various social media
sites have created an information explosion with access to information becoming more
liberalized than ever before. To avert an ethical crisis, there is an urgent need for libraries to
reorient their goals, objectives, strategies and policies to identify these ethical loopholes and seal
them for the benefit of their users, before it is too late.
Social media providers expect users of their services to adhere to some basic standards of ethical
behavior but the mechanisms of enforcing compliance remain weak. For example, Facebook has
statements of rights and responsibilities and a user privacy policy that govern their relationship
with other users who interact with their social media platform and provides interaction guidelines
with others. The policy also demonstrates how Facebook collects and uses clients' content. The
content owner is required to grant Facebook exclusive, transferable, sub-licensable, royalty-free,
worldwide license to use their content. However, this intellectual privacy license in theory ends
when a client deletes the content or the account unless the content has been shared with others,
and they have not deleted it. Lundsay (2010) argued that social media is a challenging matter,
because it crosses over so many ethical issues and compliance issues but like any other ethics
and compliance issue, it can and must be proactively managed. UNESCO (2008) stated that
promoting ethical aspects and principles that espouse creative multilingual content and universal
access to information and communication should be encouraged among users and service
providers. The policies to enhance ethical values in social media environments should be able to
provide a commitment to the free flow of information.
Once information is out of the hands of the contributor, there are limited guarantees that even if
it is deleted from the contributor's account the information becomes permanently unavailable
because it is likely to have been accessed by other users who would still be keeping it. The
responsibility of ensuring compliance is largely entrusted to the user by social media owners.
They rely on client trust and good will in an attempt to protect other people's rights and to
enhance safety. However, there are no explicit ways of ensuring only legitimate users register to
use their platform. In addition, they have no ways of verifying the integrity, honesty, reliability,
and accuracy of the information. Some social media sites like Twitter, do not require e-mail
verification or identity authentication. User policy guidelines of major social media platforms
explicitly indemnify service providers from liability in the event of any litigation arising out of
breach of rights of their users or other parties. Some information stored by Twitter is
automatically collected, while other information is provided at the user's discretion. Social media
also acknowledges that the information they store from users may not be accurate if the user has
created a fake or anonymous profile.
The social network environment reveals several gaps that leave room for infringements on users'
legitimate rights as a result of service providers' inaction, technology inefficiencies, predatory
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behaviors, lack of government policy intervention, exclusive rights of providers and user abuses
or outright users' criminal behavior. The acts of commission and/or omission of social media
environments that are of ethical concern to librarians include compliance with policy provisions;
users involvement in policy making ethical processes; enhanced government policy
interventions; compensation when users' rights are violated and guaranteed prohibition of
illegitimate access, copying and alteration of users' information. Many social media users have
no mechanisms of verifying or authenticating e-mail and identities of users; while some client
information is collected without their consent nor do they guarantee bug-free, safe and secure
information flow environments.
All social media service providers require users to indemnify them from any liability arising
from use of their platforms and do not seem to have any means of verifying the integrity,
reliability, accuracy, and authenticity of information provided by clients. There is growing
evidence of rampant inappropriate behavior on social media platforms. Oriedi (2011)observed
that some sportsmen have used their Twitter and Facebook pages as platforms to ventilate their
anger, write insane comments and sites attacking fellow players and coaches, while, Collymore
(2010) alluded that no one is safe on social media, because some people use it to spread rumors,
release naked pictures, or just poke fun at a celebrity.Lundsay (2010) further observed that social
media can also be misused in many ways such as wasted work time; misuse of company
resources; risk to company computer systems, network or data; disclosure of confidential or
other non-public information; disparagement or harassment; conflicts of interest; espionage or
fraud; privacy; and personal reputation damage.
The uptake of social media has raised questions about their potential to facilitate deception,
social grooming and the creation of defamatory content, amongst others (Bahney, 2006; Fox
News, 2007). One popular form of this argument takes a position which holds the view that what
makes an action right or wrong is its ultimate consequences. From this perspective, the emphasis
in social media technology design should be on achieving the greatest good for the greatest
number, and developers of social networking sites are seen to have ethical responsibilities for
ensuring that their designs are oriented towards achieving the desired informational goal.
Social media developers appear to hold a user oriented view. They make social networking sites
for people to play with. Although they choose, or are compelled, to regulate particular aspects of
interaction through privacy and acceptable user policies, such approaches are targeted at the
members of sites in terms of what they can and cannot do, and what might be done with their
data. In this case, the ethical focus switches to what people should do and expect in terms of their
ethical obligations and rights. Such normative views of ethical attribute agency to humans, while
information technology is seen as an object in their hands which may be fashioned in ways that
are ethically acceptable or not.
A human-centric approach to social networking is a valuable line of inquiry, it does mean that
minimal attention is given to the role of technology in shaping such spaces and interactions. For
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example, Kim and Yun (2007) showed how the functions and features of Cyworld shape user's
relationships with themselves; Kendall (2007) describes how the technological features of
Livejournal reveal the tensions in social interactions; and Boyd (2008) deals with how the
Facebook News Feed application caused concern about exposure and invasion of privacy among
information users.


















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Recommendations
From a Rights Perspective

Do social networkers have a right to privacy? More and more users of Facebook and MySpace
are finding that prospective employers are perusing their sites, despite the fact that they may
conceive of their online presence as personal space. Also, what is a private persons right to
control the images and information about them available on line? David Weisbrot, president of
the Australia Law Reform Commission, which has been investigating online privacy, comments,
Laws designed to protect privacy in the outside world struggle to cope with the issues raised by
online communities. For example, online publication of photo-graphs, which may be sensitive
and revealing, raises new challenges in relation to consent.
From a Fairness Perspective

Some people believe social networking sites offer the ultimate in egalitarianism. When we
interact with others online, we have no real way of knowing whether they are white or black,
male or female, fat or thin, young or old. Will this disembodied quality of the online world lead
to greater fairness, or will we lose the ability to engage concretely with others, and therefore
truly overcome differences?
From a Common Good Perspective

Pope Paul IV described the common good as the sum of those conditions of social life which
allow social groups and their individual members relatively thorough and ready access to their
own fulfillment. Certainly, many people turn to social networking sites to connect with social
groups that share their interests and values. What would the common good look like in this
context? Does fulfillment have the same meaning online as it does in the real world? Are there
ways to structure online communities so that they better promote the common good of their
members?



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From a Virtue Perspective

Many of the interpersonal virtues we value evolved in the context of face-to-face
communication. Honesty, openness, and patience, for example, are honed in the negotiations we
must manage when we meet people in person. What impact will digital media have on these
virtues? What, for example, would honesty mean in the context of a world where people are
represented by avatars? Will other virtues emerge as more important in social networking, where
we can be constantly connected to a large reservoir of others and can shut off communications
easily when we are bored or encounter difficulties














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Summary and Conclusion

In conclusion,we can see that, now a day the social Networking has become very popular
during the past few years, but it can still be very difficult to understand for someone new to
social networking. The open ended nature of social networks add to this. Once signed onto a
social network, having answered a few basic profile questions, it is easy to sit back and wonder
what you are supposed to do next. Most of Social Networking is a nice form of entertainment,
great for meeting people with similar interests, and can be a very effective business technique for
entrepreneurs, writers, actors, musicians or artists.Besides , most of us have hobbies, or things
that we are keenly interested in such as books, television, video games or movies. Social
networks allow us to reach out to others that have the same interest.[10][8]

















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References


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Demos
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13. Gordon, J (2004) Bad things recently Woolamaloo Gazette available
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February 2011














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APPENDIXES


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