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ZONE SUBJECTED TO TEMPORARY OR SUSTAINED LOADING

Juozas Valivonis1, Tomas Skuturna2, Mykolas Daugeviius3

Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Saul tekio ave. 11, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lithuania

E-mail: 1juozas.valivonis@vgtu.lt, 2tomas.skuturna@vgtu.lt, 3mykolas_d@yahoo.com

Abstract. The article presents the results of the research carried out on the reinforced concrete beams under bending

strengthened in the tensile zone with carbon fibre composite. The beams under bending were subjected to short-term

and sustained static loading. The duration of sustained loading was 400 and 863 days. A total of four series of beams

with different reinforcement ratio and loading duration were tested. Experimental research showed that sustained

loading reduces the load-carrying capacity of the beams. Prior to long-term testing of the beams, the load-carrying

capacity of control beams subjected to short-term static loading was measured. The decrease of the strength of the

beams was caused by a long-term creep effect of concrete in the compression zone as well as plastic shear deformations in the bond of concrete and carbon fibre. To calculate the bending capacity, the built-up bar theory enabling estimation of short and long-term deformation capacity in the bond of concrete and carbon fibre was applied.

Keywords: bending capacity, bond shear stiffness, long-term load, creep effect, distribution of deformations.

where: Af, As1, As2 the area of carbon fibre reinforcement, steel bar reinforcement in tension and compression;

ff, fy strengths of carbon fibre and tensile steel reinforcement; x the height of the compression zone; h the

height of strengthened beam; d the effective depth of

reinforced concrete beam; f, s2 deformations carbon

fibre composite and compressed steel reinforcement; Ef,

Es2 the elasticity modulus of carbon fibre composite and

compressed steel reinforcement; 1, G reduction coefficients of the compression zone 1 =0.650.85 and

G =0.4).

1. Introduction

Methods enabling calculation of the load-carrying

capacity of a beam are based on the balance of resultant

forces caused by internal effects and external actions.

Therefore, two methods can be distinguished that are

most frequently used: the method of balance of internal

and external forces (An et al. 1991; GangaRao 1998;

Toutanji 2006; Alagusundaramoorthy et al. 2003; Pham

2004; Lu 2007; Bencardino et al. 2007; Capozucca 2002)

and the method based on the theory of built-up bars (Valivonis 2007; Mariukaitis et al. 2007; Skuturna et al.

2008; Benyoucef et al. 2006, 2007).

If the first method is applied to determine the loadcarrying capacity, according to ACI 440.2R-08 it is

measured by creating balance of forces in respect to the

weight centre of the compression zone cross-section

(Fig 1):

x

x

M R = As1 f yd d 1 + f A f f f h 1 .

2

2

(1)

M R = As1 f yd ( d G x ) +

,

+ A f E f f ( h G x ) + As 2 Es s 2 ( G x as 2 )

(2)

14, the condition for balance of forces is:

818

capacity of flexural members shows that strengthened

beams can fail in the compression zone, in the horizontal

section by peeling off a strip of carbon fibre together with

a layer of concrete or when carbon fibre composite rupture in the middle of the beam span when the limit

stresses of carbon fibre composite are reached (Bulavs et

al. 2005; Leung 2003; Maalej 2005; Mar iukaitis 2009;

Ramos et al. 2006; Saxena et al. 2008; Thomsen et al.

2004). As research of other investigators shows, strengthened beams fail in the compression zone when the ratio

of the width and height of the beam is close to 1 (Gao et

al. 2007).

The bond of carbon fibre composite and concrete in

strengthened structures is not stiff. When subjected to

loading, due to shear deformations, the composite in the

bond moves in respect to concrete. Due to this, the efficiency of strengthening reduces (Skuturna et al. 2008).

Therefore, the guide for the design ACI 440.2R-08 indicates that the force of carbon fibre composite is reduced

by multiplying by coefficient f 0.85 .

members when the bond is stiff; Tc bond shear force is

calculated according to the formula (

1986):

l p cosh

(4)

1

Ec,eff (t ) Ac,eff

(5)

1

E fe A fe

=)

,

+

=

(

(6)

a2

,

Ec,eff (t ) I c,eff

b Gc,eff t

c (t )

) (

c (t )

(7)

where: Ac,eff, Ec,eff (t), Ic,eff the area of effective reinforced concrete cross section, the effective elasticity

modulus, the effective moment of inertia; b the width of

cross section.

The characteristic of the bond shear stiffness Gc,eff (t)

can be calculated according to the formula:

fe

110 2

Ec (t )

Ecm

(8)

M crc

460

,

M R ka

s1

=)

Gc.eff t

load-carrying capacity of the composite layer without

using the reduction coefficients, it is suggested to apply

the built-up bar theory. This theory reflects the real work

of strengthened structures since it takes into account slip

of the composite layer caused by shear stresses due to

which the load-carrying capacity of strengthened elements decreases. Besides, it is not necessary to take into

account the reduction coefficients when the structures are

subjected to short-term and sustained loading.

where: Ec(t) the elasticity modulus of concrete is calculated according to EC2; Ecm the secant modulus of concrete; fe reinforcement ratio of carbon fibre composite;

s1 reinforcement ratio of steel reinforcement in tension

zone; Mcrc the cracking moment; MR the load-carrying

capacity of the beams with external carbon fibre reinforcement when the bond between carbon fibre composite

and concrete is stiff is calculated according to the formula

9; ka coefficient which evaluates the type of anchorage

of external reinforcement (when external reinforcement

over supports ka =1; when carbon fibre reinforcement is

not additionally anchored).

make calculations the cross-section of the beam is divided into two separate members (Fig 3).

The bending moment:

(3)

819

M 0 Tc a ,

0.5l

calculated:

c

MR

lp

EI

sinh

c (t )

P a lp

Tc

M R f cd b x d 0.5 x

Es 2 s 2 As 2 d as 2 A f E f

+

composite carbon fibre reinforcement are given in Table 1.

Experimental research on the second series of beams

was carried out under short-term loading. Beams of all

other series were tested under both short-term and sustained loading.

The reinforced concrete beams were tested on the

testing stand (Fig 4). The length of the beam span was

1200 mm. One hydraulic jack was used to create loading.

The loading was increased by stages. The beam testing

scheme is show in Fig 5.

(9)

af .

as2 distance to centroid of compressive steel reinforcement; af distance to centroid of carbon fibre composite.

3. Specimens and methodology of the experimental

research

4 series of beams were produced for experimental

research. The project size of the samples was

1002001500 mm. The compression and tension zones

of the first series of beams were reinforced with 26

reinforcing steel bars. The compression zone of the second series was reinforced with 26 reinforcing bars and

the tension zone was reinforced with 28 reinforcing

bars. The compression and tension zones of the third

series of beams were respectively reinforced with 28

and 212 reinforcing steel bars. The compression zone of

the fourth series of beams was reinforced with 26 reinforcing bars and the tension zone was reinforced with

214 reinforcing bars.

Carbon fibre of B8C and B12C series beams was

glued up the supports. Carbon fibre in B6C and B14C

series beams overlapped the supports. The cross-section

area of carbon fibre reinforcement in all series of beams

was the same.

Series

Beam

code

fc,

(MPa)

Ec,

(GPa)

38.27

34.1

ff,

(MPa)

Ef,

(GPa)

fy,

(MPa)

fyu,

(MPa)

358

460

Af,

(cm2)

4800

231

4800

231

4800

231

As,

(cm2)

Asc,

(cm2)

0.6784

0.6784

1.038

0.57

0.167

2.26

1.01

3.08

0.6784

B6.1C

B6.2C

1

B6.3Ct

0.167

B6.4Ct

B6.5

B8.1C

2

B8.2C

35

31.3

B8.3

557

638

0.167

B12.1C

B12.2C

3

B12.3Ct

32.1

32.27

318

B12.4Ct

B12.5

B12.6

4800

231

456

B14.1C

B14.2C

4

38.27

34.1

B14.3Ct

B14.4Ct

B14.5

32.87

358

460

0.167

31.45

820

Nineteen reinforced concrete beams were tested in

order to define the influence of short-term and sustained

loading on the work of strengthened beams.

Characteristic points of the work of beams can be

distinguished in the charts of the bending moment and

deformations of the beams subjected to short-term loading. The research shows that the modulus of elasticity of

carbon fibre under tension is ~ 7 times bigger than the

modulus of elasticity of concrete. Therefore, external

carbon fibre reinforcement in a reinforced concrete member restricts deformations of concrete under tension. This

means that the cracking moment significantly increases in

a reinforced concrete member with a restricted tension

zone in comparison with non-strengthened beams. The

first refraction point of the graph (Fig 8) characterises

appearance of vertical cracks.

made: beam deflection and displacement of carbon fibre

composite in respect to concrete, deformations of the

external carbon fibre reinforcement, deformations of

concrete in the compression and tension zones, the cracking moment, the character and the width of the increase

of cracks were also recorded.

For sustained bending of beams the equipment

(Figs 6, 7) which ensured a stable level of loading during

the whole period of the research was used. The places of

concentrated forces were the same as in control beams.

To achieve the effect of sustained loading the beams were

loaded up to the level of 0.6MR of the load-carrying capacity. During the testing, similarly as with beams under

short-term loading, deformations and beam deflection

were measured here. At the end of sustained testing the

beams are unloaded and each sample is subjected to

short-term loading until it reaches the capacity loading.

20

18

Bending moment [kNm]

16

14

12

10

8

6

-1

-2

-3

0

-0.2

-0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Deformations [ 10]

-1 composite layer under tension; -2 the layer with

steel bar reinforcement under tension; -3 concrete in

the compression zone

troppus gniraeB

A-A

troppus gniraeB

It has also been found out that carbon fibre reinforcement in the tension zone influences increase of

cracks, limits the development of cracks, therefore, the

width and height of cracks do not increase. Carbon fibre

is glued to reinforced concrete beams with epoxy adhesive. When adhesive deforms, carbon fibre composite

slips horizontally and causes stresses in concrete. Due to

these stresses, additionally to vertical cracks, horizontal

cracks appear in concrete (Fig 9). Research shows that

these cracks interconnect and in separate zones damage

the bond between carbon fibre composite and concrete.

When the bond is damaged, increase in steel bar deformation significantly grows (Fig 8 refraction of the graph).

Later, depending on how carbon fibre composite

was anchored, beams failed by peeling off carbon fibre

composite (Fig 10) or carbon fibre rupture (Fig 11).

The research conducted shows that the load-carrying

capacity of the strengthened beams subjected to shortterm loading compared to the beams without external

reinforcement increases. The load-carrying capacity of

B6 series beams increases more than 3 times; the loadcarrying capacity of B8 series beams increases more

than 70 %; the load-carrying capacity of B12 series

beams increases more than 50 % in comparison with the

beams that were not strengthened (Table 3).

0.52

tellap thgieW

0 .52

0.52

0.52

0.52

0.52

821

sre yal

PR FC

s ma eB

s mae B

0 .52

0.52

0.52

ultimate deformations at which the load-carrying capacity

is lost are reached faster.

25

20

the site of bond of carbon fibre and concrete in the

tension zone

15

10

B6.1C

B12.1C

B14.1C

-0.25

-0.20

-0.15

-0.10

0

0.00

-0.05

Deformations [ 10]

zone of concrete

25

fibre composite

20

15

10

B6.1C

B12.1C

B14.1C

0

0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

Deformations [ 10]

composite layer under tension

0.22

Deformations [%]

0.21

Experimental research revealed that the higher reinforcement ratio of steel bar reinforcing, the lower the

strengthening effect of carbon fibre composite. The

maximum strengthening effect is reached when steel bars

reinforcement ratio is low. Experimental research showed

that the best strengthening effect was reached in B6C

beams since the strength qualities of concrete and composite were more used because higher deformations were

reached (Figs 12, 13). Research also showed that when

members are considerably reinforced, carbon fibre fixed

in the tension zone is not fully used (Figs 12, 13).

The sustained bending tests revealed that the intensity of creep deformations in the compression zone of

concrete is higher than in the tension zone. It has also

been found out that under sustained loading deformations

in the tension zone at the steel bar reinforcing level are

bigger than the composite layer deformations (Figs 14,

15). This enables us to make a conclusion that the composite layer under tension displaces in respect to rein-

0.20

0.19

0.18

0.17

-1

-2

0.16

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Days

Fig 14. Distribution of creep deformations in the layers under tension in the beam B12-3Ct: -1 composite

layer under tension; -2 the layer with steel bar reinforcement under tension

was 0.6MR depended on reinforcement ratio of steel bar

reinforcing. When beams B 6.3Ct and B6.4Ct are loaded

until the level of permanent load is reached, the steel

reinforcement under tension reaches yield stresses. When

beams are unloaded, residual deformations in the layers

under tension are measured (Fig 16, Table 2).

822

30

0.30

0.20

25

20

15

10

5

0.10

200

400

600

0.0

0.1

0.2

800

0.3

Days

Fig 15. Distribution of creep deformations in the layers under tension in the beam B14-3Ct: -1 composite

layer under tension; -2 the layer with steel bar reinforcement under tension

tension

10

1.2

0.0884

0.02575

0.03275

0.0412

0.0326

B6.3Ct: -1 composite layer under tension; -2 the

layer with steel bar reinforcement under tension

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

-1

-2

Series7

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Deformations [ 10]

0.5

102

0.3137

0.0465

0.05675

0.04182

0.042514

capacity of beams after sustained loading decreased. The

biggest decrease in load-carrying capacity was displayed

in the beams which were the least reinforced and it

reached up to 28 %. The decrease of load-carrying capacity in the beams reinforced with 12 and 14 longitudinal reinforcement reached from 4 % to 7 %. This can be

explained by creep deformations of concrete in the compression zone and shear creep deformations of carbon

fibre composite under tension. When the strengthened

beams are unloaded, residual deformations remain in the

tensile and compressed layers. Deformations of specimens increase starting from the residual value when sustained loading test is over and beams are subjected to

short-term loading. Deformations in the layers at each

loading stage are bigger than in control beams at the same

level of loading. Therefore, failure of beams subjected to

sustained loading occurs earlier than that of the beams

tested by applying only short-term loading. The results of

the load-carrying capacity of the beams are presented in

Table 3.

Calculation of the load-carrying capacity of

strengthened beams under temporary and sustained loading was made according to the suggested methodology

which evaluates the stiffness of bond of concrete and

carbon fibre composite (Formula 8) as well as the influence of sustained loading. The results of calculation are

given in Table 3.

20

res,f

with steel bar reinforcement under tension; cr,f , res,f creep

and residual deformations of composite layer under tension.

Deformations [ 10]

102

0.6

B12.3Ct: -1 composite layer under tension; -2 the

layer with steel bar reinforcement under tension

B12.Ct are higher than creep deformations (Fig 17, Table 2). The size of residual deformations of beams B14.Ct

is similar to creep deformations since increase of deformations developed proportionally until the permanent

load was reached and when it was being unloaded, proportionally decreased (Fig 18, Table 2). Whereas, the

increase of deformations in beams B6.Ct was also caused

by yield deformations of tensile reinforcement due to

which residual deformations were significantly bigger

than creep deformations.

823

1.0

0.8

0.51763

0.06375

0.01975

0.2335

0.261

cr,f

0.6

102

0.4

0.2

0.0

-1

-2

0.2845

0.034

0.02275

0.232

0.2575

res,cs

102

cr,cs

Beam

code

B6.3Ct

B12.3Ct

B12.4Ct

B14.3Ct

B14.4Ct

0.5

B14.3Ct: -1 composite layer under tension; -2 the

layer with steel bar reinforcement under tension

12

0.4

Deformations [ 10]

-1

-2

Series2

-1

-2

Deformations [%]

0.40

Series

Code

B6.1C

B6.2C

B6.3Ct

B6.4Ct

B6.5

B8.1C

B8.2C

B8.3

B12.1C

B12.2C

B12.3Ct

B12.4Ct

B12.5

B12.6

B14.1C

B14.2C

B14.3Ct

B14.4Ct

B14.5

M R ,t0 ,exp

M R ,t0 ,calc

M R ,t1 ,exp

M R ,t1 ,calc

(kNm)

15.50

18.00

(kNm)

15.40

15.40

(kNm)

(kNm)

14.6

14.6

1.38

0.99

17.57

17.57

1.11

1.12

17.34

17.34

0.96

0.96

17.22

17.55

11.62

11.78

23.00

28.00

0.99

0.86

10.61

14.76

5.20

15.82

15.63

9.10

18.0

18.0

17.07

17.07

27.70

27.70

0.99

0.97

1.2

0.99

24.00

24.00

1.12

1.12

28.50

coincide with the experimental values.

Calculation results show that if the suggested calculation method is used, the load-carrying capacity of

strengthened beams can be measured quite precisely.

Analysis of results shows that calculation exactness

mainly depends on reinforcement ratio. Calculations of

load-carrying capacity of beams whose reinforcement

ratio is very low or big are not so exact (138 %) than of

beams where reinforcement ratio is normal (112 %).

References

An, W.; Saadatmanesh, H.; Ehsani, M. R. 1991. RC beams

strengthened with FRP plates. II analysis and parametric

study, Journal of Structural Engineering 117(11): 3434

3455. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1991)117:11(3434)

Alagusundaramoorthy, P.; Harik, I. E.; Choo, C. C. 2003. Flexural behaviour of RC beams strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced polymer sheets or fabric, Journal of Composites for Construction 7(4): 292301.

doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2003)7:4(292)

American Concrete Institute (ACI). 2008. Guide for the Design

and Construction of Externally bonded FRP systems for

Strengthening Concrete Structures (ACI 440.2R-08).

Farmington Hills, Mich.

Bencardino, F.; Spadea, G.; Swamy, R. N. 2007. The problem

of shear in RC beams strengthened with CFRP laminates,

Construction and Building Materials 21(11): 19972006.

doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.05.056

Benyoucef, S.; Tounsi, A.; Adda Bedia, E. A.; Meftah, S. A.

2006. Creep and shrinkage effect on adhesive stresses in

RC beams strengthened with composite laminates, Composite science and technology 67: 933942.

Benyoucef, S.; Tounsi, A.; Benrahou, K. H.; Adda Bedia, E. A.

2007. Time-dependent behavior of RC beams strengthened with externally bonded FPR plates: interfacial

stresses analysis, Mechanics of Time-Dependent Material

11(3-4): 231248. doi:10.1007/s11043-007-9045-2

Bulavs, F.; Radinsh, I.; Tirans, N. 2005. Improvement of capacity in bending by the use of FRP layers on RC beams,

Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 11(3):

169174.

Conclusions

Research showed that carbon fibre composite significantly increases the load-carrying capacity of

strengthened members. The effect of strengthening depends on reinforcement ratio of steel bar reinforcement in

the specimens. The lower the ratio of this reinforcement,

the higher the strengthening effect since the strength of

carbon fibre composite is better used. The higher reinforcement ratio of steel bar reinforcement, the lower the

effect of strengthening.

It has been defined that sustained loading influences

the load-carrying capacity of strengthened beams. Under

sustained loading creep deformations of concrete in the

compression zone as well as carbon fibre composite occur and they remain when specimens are unloaded. When

beams are again subjected to short-term loading, deformations increase starting from the residual values. As a

result, the load-carrying capacity of the specimens decreases in comparison with the load-carrying capacity of

the beams loaded only short-term.

A calculation method that evaluates the stiffness of

bond carbon fibre composite and concrete as well as the

influence of sustained loading has been suggested. The

824

Pham, H.; Al-Mahaidi, R.; 2004. Assessment of available prediction models for the strength of FRP retrofitted RC

beams, Composite Structures 66(1-4): 601610.

doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.2004.05.008

Ramos, G.; Casas, J. R.; Alarcon, A. 2006. Normalized test for

prediction of debonding failure in concrete elements

strengthened with CFRP, Journal of Composites for Construction 10(6): 509519.

doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2006)10:6(509)

Saxena, P.; Toutanji, H.; Noumowe, A. 2008. Failure analysis

of FRP strengthened RC beams, Journal of Composites

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doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2008)12:1(2)

Skuturna, T.; Valivonis, J.; Vaini nas, P.; Mar iukaitis, G.;

Daugevi ius, M. 2008. Analysis of deflections of bridge

girders strengthened by carbon fiber reinforcement, The

Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering 3(3):

145151. doi:10.3846/1822-427X.2008.3.145-151

Thomsen, H.; Spacone, E.; Limkatanyu, S.; Camata, G. 2004.

Failure mode analyses of reinforced concrete beams

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doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2004)8:2(123)

Toutanji, H.; Zhao, L. 2006. Verifications of design equations

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Journal of Composites for Construction 10(3): 254264.

doi:10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2006)10:3(254)

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carbon fibre laminates, Journal of Civil Engineering and

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, . . 1986.

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825

Capozucca, R.; Cerri, M. N. 2002. Static and dynamic behaviour of RC beam model strengthened by CFRP-sheets,

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doi:10.1016/S0950-0618(01)00036-8

Fib Task Group 9.3. 2001. Externally Bonded FRP Reinforcement for RC Structures. Fib bulletin 14, Lausanne, Switzerland. 130 p.

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Leung, H. Y.; Balendran, R. V. 2003. Effect of using external

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thickness on interfacial shear stress concentration and failure mode of FRP-strengthened beams, Composite Science

and Technology 65(7-8): 11481158.

doi:10.1016/j.compscitech.2004.11.010

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the joint operation of a CFRP concrete in flexural elements, Mechanics of Composite Materials 43(5): 467

478. doi:10.1007/s11029-007-0044-9

Mar iukaitis, G.; Balevi ius, R. 2009. Stress, Strain and Creep

Analysis of the Layered Composite Structures under Sustained Loading, Engineering structures and technologies

1(3): 123134.

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