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GPON Technology

C
CPE customer premises equipment
D
DBA dynamic bandwidth allocation
E
EPON Ethernet passive optical network
F
FTTB fiber to the building
FTTC fiber to the curb
FTTD fiber to the door
FTTH fiber to the home
FTTO fiber to the office
FTTW fiber to the Wi-Fi
G
GEM GPON encapsulation mode
GPON gigabit-capable passive optical
network
I
ISP Internet service provider
N
NSP network service provider
O
ODN optical distribution network
ONU optical network unit
OLT optical line terminal
P
PON passive optical network
P2P Point-to-point
P2MP Point-to-multipoint
S
SNI service node interface
T
T-CONT transmission container
TDMA time division multiple access
U
UNI user network interface
W
WDM wavelength division multiplexing
Principles
The GPON technology uses the P2MP architecture of a standard PON network. A GPON network consists
of an OLT, ONUs, and optical splitters. The following figure shows the GPON network architecture.
The GPON technology uses different upstream and downstream wavelengths to transmit data bidirectionally over a single optical fiber.
Wavelength/Center
Wavelength (nm)
US 12901360/1310
DS 14801500/1490
Bandwidth (Gbit/s)
US 1.244
DS 2.488
Protocol
Line NRZ/FSS
Link ATM/GEM
Maximum Logical Reach (km) 60
Maximum Physical Reach (km) 20
Nominal Reach (km) 20
Split Ratio 1:641:128

DS center wavelength: 1490 nm

US center wavelength: 1310 nm
GEM port
T-CONT
T-CONT
Optical splitter
OLT
Data is broadcast in downstream direction. ONUs receive the
desired data according to GEM port IDs.

1
3
2 1 2 3

1
3
2
1
2
3
Data is transmitted in TDMA mode in upstreamdirection. In this mode,
multiple timeslots are allocated to an uplink. ONUs transmit data based
on allocated timeslots. This prevents data conflict.

A GEM frame is a GPON service transmission unit with a length of 125 s. All data is encapsulated into
GEM frames for transmission.

DA
SFD
Preamble
Inter-packet gap
SA
Length/Type
MAC client data
FEC
EOF
5
b
y
t e
s

TDM data
Ingress buffer
Mapping Ethernet frames to GEM frames Mapping TDM data to GEM frames
TDM packets enter a buffer queue and are encapsulated
to GEM frames in a fixed number of bytes for transmission.
The GPON system transparently transmits the TDM
packets.
Ethernet frames are mapped to GEM frame payloads.
Each Ethernet frame is mapped to one or multiple GEM
frames.
A GEM frame supports only an Ethernet frame.

A GEM port is the minimize unit for
carrying data.
A T-CONT is an upstreamservice flow
control unit.
A GPON port on an ONU contains
multiple T-CONTs.
A T-CONT contains multiple GEM
ports.

Item XGPON1
Wavelength (nm)
DS: 15751580
US: 12601280
Center wavelength(nm)
DS: 1577
US: 1270
Rate (Gbit/s)
DS: 9.953
US: 2.488
Power budget (dB)
Class N1: 1429
Class N2: 1631
Class E1: 1833
Class E2: 2035
Maximum fiber distance (km) 60
Maximum differential fiber distance(km) 40
Split ratio 1:64
Frame structure XGEM
The PON technology is being evolved at NG PON1 and NG PON2 phases.
NG PON1 provides higher rates based on the TDMA PON technology. The NG PON1 phase involves XGPON1 and XGPON2.
XGPON1: provides asymmetric 10G PON transmission with a downstream rate of 9.953 Gbit/s and an upstreamrate of 2.488 Gbit/s.
XGPON2: provides symmetric 10G PON transmission with a downstreamrate of 9.953 Gbit/s and an upstreamrate of 9.953 Gbit/s.
NG PON2: ITU-T has already used TWDM PON as the NG PON2 standard.
GPON
XGPON1
NGA1
NGA2
2010 2011
ODN reuse
ODN reuse is not obligation
XGPON2
TWDM-PON, stacked, 40G,
GPON Standards and Protocols
US
1. ONU data is mapped to GEM ports.
2. ONUs transmit data to the OLT based on T-CONT requirements.
3. The OLT restores GEM port data and transmits the data to its service
processing units.
IFgpon
IFgpon
IFgpon T-CONT
GEM port
GEM port
ONU 1
ONU N
T-CONT GEM port
OLT
IFgpon
IFgpon
GEM port
ONU 1
ONU N
GEM port
GEM port
IFgpon
F
i l t e
r
F
i l t e
r
GEM port filter
OLT
DS
1. OLT data is mapped to GEM ports.
2. The OLT broadcasts GEM port data to all ONUs.
3. ONUs receive the desired data according to GEM port IDs.
DBA report
BW map
Timeslot
T-CONT
T-CONT
T-CONT
Scheduler
ONU OLT
Control plane
Data plane

DBA
The DBA module in the OLT continuously
collects DBA reports from the ONU and uses
the DBA algorithmto calculate the bandwidth to
be allocated to the ONU.
The OLT issues the calculated bandwidth to the
ONU through a BW map.
The ONU uses the allowed timeslot to transmit
data upstreambased on the BW map data.
OLT
ONU in ranging
state
Start of D/S Frame
Reception of D/S Frame
Transmission of
S/N Response
Actual
reception of
S/N response
Desired
start of the
U/S frame
Assigned EqD
Pre-assigned EqD
Zero-distance EqD
Desired
reception of
SN response
Sstart
U/S BW map containing
a ranging request
ONU
response
time
Pre-assigned
EqD
Start of the U/S
frame for the pre-
ranged ONU
Sstart
Ranging
During the ranging process, the OLT obtains ONU's
RTD.
The OLT specifies proper EqD values for ONUs
based on the RTD to ensure the same logical reach
from all ONUs to the OLT.
Continuous transmit module Burst transmit module
OLT
Data conflict
Burst Transmission
The ONU optical transmit module uses only a preset
timeslot to transmit data upstreamin burst mode.
Burst receive module
OLT
Signal recovery
Continuous receive module
Burst Reception
The OLT optical receive module dynamically and
promptly adjusts power threshold based on received
signals. This prevents signal discarding or signal
recovery faults caused by large attenuation.
The DBA technology uses the dynamic upstream bandwidth adjustment mechanism to effectively improve upstream bandwidth usage.
The ranging technology ensures that all ONU upstream data does not conflict.
ONU 1
ONU 2
ONU 3
OLT

Threshold
The burst optical and electrical technology prevents upstream data conflict and ensures correct data reception.
Service node
Optical splitter
R/S S/R
ODN
UNI SNI
IFgpon
IFgpon
OLT
ONU
ONU
CPE
Type C full backup Type B OLT port backup
IFgpon GPON port Protection scope IFgpon Single GPON uplink port on an ONU
IFgpon
IFgpon
Dual GPON uplink ports on an ONU
An OLT uses two GPON ports as active and standby ones.
If the active feeder fiber is faulty, the OLT automatically switches data to the
standby feeder fiber.
Feeder fibers and GPON ports are protected in this mode. Drop fibers are not
protected.
Both OLT and ONU use two GPON ports as active and standby ones.
Feeder and drop fibers as well as GPON ports are protected in this mode.
All standby ports are idle, resulting in a low bandwidth usage.
GPON lines are protected in type B or type C mode.
IFgpon
2:N optical splitter OLT
IFgpon
ONU 1
IFgpon
ONU N
IFgpon
1:N optical splitter
OLT
1:N optical splitter
ONU 1
ONU N
IFgpon
IFgpon
IFgpon
IFgpon
IFgpon
IFgpon

The GPON technology applies on FTTB, FTTC, FTTD, and FTTH networks based on access nodes.
Service Transmission Principles
Service Multiplexing Principles
Physical Control Block Downstream(PCBd)
Payload
AllocID Start End AllocID Start End
1 100 200 2 300 500
T-CONT 1
(ONU 1)
T-CONT 2
(ONU 2)
Slot
100
Slot
200
Slot
300
Slot
500
PLOu PLOAMu PLSu DBRu Payload x DBRu Y Payload y
Upstream
Bandwidth Map
125 s
DS Frame
US Frame
OLT
ONU N
ONU 1

OLT OLT
ONU 1
ONU 2
ONU 3
ONU 1
ONU 2
ONU 3
ONU N
ONU 1


DBA module
PLI
PTI
Port ID
CRC
GEM payload
PLI
PTI
Port ID
HEC
Payload
TDM fragment
ITU-T G.984.3
GTC layer specifications
GTC multiplexing architecture and protocol stack
GTC layer frame structure
ONU registration and activation flows
DBA specifications
Alarms and performance
ITU-T G-984.1/2/3/4
ITU-T G.984.1
GPON network parameters
Networking requirements for a protection
switchover
ITU-T G.984.4
OMCI message structure
OMCI device management architecture
OMCI principles
ITU-T G.984.2
ODN parameter specifications
2.488 Gbit/s downlink optical port parameter specifications
1.244 Gbit/s uplink optical port parameter specifications
Physical layer overhead allocation
Service Supporting
Data GFP
Voice TDM/VoIP
Video GEM-IPTV
TDM GEM
Format of DBA packets Standard
Ranging Equidistant EqD mode
Bandwidth Efficiency 92%
ONT Management-compliant Protocol OMCI
Data Encapsulation Protocol GEM
Optical Power Budget Class A/B/C
GPON Parameters
Distribution point
FTTH/FTTD
FTTC
FTTB
Distribution point
Macro ONU
Micro ONU
Pico ONU
OLT

Multi-Scenario
@Home
@Move
@Work

Multi-Mode
FTTH, FTTC, FTTB, and
FTTDp
FTTWand FTTO

Multi-Medium
Copper, optical fiber, coaxial
cable, and electric power cable
Wi-Fi and small cell
CO
Residential
Residential
Small cell
Wi-Fi
Business
FTTC
FTTH/FTTD
FTTW
FTTO
FTTDp
FTTB
The GPON technology applies on FTTB, FTTC, FTTD, FTTH, FTTO, and FTTW networks based on service scenarios.


Networking Protection


Technology Evolution


Working Principles


Key Technologies


Networking Applications


Overview


Frame Structure


Acronyms