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GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT

Unless
specified,
all
citations
are
from
29
CFR
1910.178.

Training
Program
Content:

Forklift
operators
shall
receive
initial
training
in
the
following
topics,
except
topics
that
GSI
can
demonstrate
are
not
applicable
to
safe
operation
of
the
truck
in
(each)
GSI
workplace.
The
employee
must
pass
the
forklift
test
with
a
score
of
80%
or
higher
and
have
an
observation
completed.
Once
the
Forklift
Certification
sheet
is
completed,
the
employee
is
designated
as
a
forklift
operator.

Operating
instructions,
warnings
and
precautions
for
the
types
of
trucks
the
operator
will
be
authorized
to
operate.

There
will
be
several
specific
safety
warning
or
safety
precaution
labels
on
the
forklift.
The
labels
pictured
on
the
next
several
pages
are
examples
of
some
of
the
labels
you
may
see
on
a
forklift
at
your
facility.
All
safety
warning
or
precaution
labels
for
each
particular
forklift
must
be
covered
in
detail
during
training.
GSI
shall
see
that
all
nameplates
and
markings
are
in
place
and
are
maintained
in
a
legible
condition
(a)
(6).
Clean
or
replace
the
labels
if
you
cannot
read
the
words
or
see
the
pictures.
When
cleaning
the
labels
use
a
cloth,
water
and
soap.
Do
not
use
solvent,
gasoline,
etc.
GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT

The
two
warning
labels
below
both
warn
persons
not
to
stand
or
ride
on
a
load
or
pallet
on
the
forks
and
not
to
stand
under
the
forks.
These
warning
labels
are
located
on
the
mast
of
the
forklift.
Unfortunately,
the
label
on
the
right
is
not
readable
and
does
not
provide
persons
with
the
safety
information
they
need.
Unreadable
labels
are
a
violation
of
OSHA
regulations.

The warning label to the left is found on the mast of a


forklift. It means �NO HANDS�. It is warning
persons not to place hands in this area i.e., do not
touch, lean on, or reach through the mast or permit
others to do so.
GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT

This label to the left warns that only trained and


authorized personnel may operate this machine. For safe
operation, read and follow the operation and
maintenance manual furnished with this lift truck and
observe the following warnings.

Labels
on
different
forklift�s
may
not
be
the
same.
You
must
read
and
understand
the
labels
for
the
specific
forklift
you
will
be
operating
before
you
operate
it.

Differences
Between
the
Forklift
and
the
Automobile

Although
many
employees
selected
or
assigned
to
operate
powered
industrial
trucks
are
licensed
to
drive
automobiles,
there
are
enough
differences
between
these
two
types
of
vehicles
and
their
operation
to
require
additional
knowledge
and
skills
to
operate
a
powered
industrial
truck
safely.
For
example,
industrial
trucks,
compared
with
cars,


Have
limited
forward
visibility
when
carrying
a
large
load.
There
are
other
blind
spots
as
well.

Have
rear
wheel
steering
and
front
wheel
drive;

When
turning,
the
rear
end
swings
in
a
circle
around
the
drive
wheels
(front
wheels).

A
forklift
is
less
stable
when
turning
because
the
front
drive
wheels
support
most
of
the
load.

Less
steering
control
when
turning,
especially
when
the
forklift
is
loaded.

The
steering
and
drive
mechanism
makes
it
difficult
to
stop
quickly
and
dangerous
to
swerve,
for
example,
to
avoid
a
pedestrian.

forklifts
operate
equally
well
in
forward
or
reverse
but
steer
differently
in
each
direction.

Have
different
centers
of
gravity
and
balance;

Have
different
control
configurations;

Can
carry
heavy
loads
with
the
weight
concentrated
at
one
end
of
the
vehicle.
GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT

Forklift
Controls
and
Instrumentation

Direction Control
Lever.
Horn
Steering Wheel
Accelerator Pedal
Ignition Switch
Service Brake Pedal
Transmission Inching
Control Pedal
Lift Control
Tilt Control
Side shift Attachment
Parking Brake
Name Plate
Headlight Switch
Instrument Panel
-Direction
Control
Lever.
Mounted
on
the
steering
column.
Push
the
lever
forward
for
FORWARD
direction
of
travel.
Move
the
lever
to
the
center
position
for
NEUTRAL.
Pull
the
lever
back
for
REVERSE
direction
of
travel.

-Transmission
Inching
Control
Pedal.
Some
forklift�s
are
equipped
with
this
option.
The
purpose
of
the
inching
control
pedal
is
to
provide
precise
inching
control
at
slow
travel
speed
with
high
engine
rpm.

-Service
Brake
Pedal.
Push
down
on
the
brake
pedal
to
slow
or
stop
the
forklift.
Release
the
brake
pedal
to
allow
the
forklift
to
move.

-Accelerator
Pedal.
Push
down
on
the
pedal
to
increase
engine
rpm
(speed).
Release
the
pedal
to
decrease
engine
rpm.

-Parking
Brake
Lever.
Pull
the
lever
back
to
engage
the
parking
brake.
Push
the
lever
forward
to
release
the
parking
brake.

-Lift
Control.
To
lower
the
forks
push
the
lever
FORWARD
smoothly.
Whenever
the
lever
is
released,
it
will
return
to
the
HOLD
or
center
position.
Lifting
or
lowering
action
will
stop.
To
lift
the
forks,
pull
the
lever
BACK.

-Tilt
Control.
To
tilt
the
mast
forward,
push
the
lever
FORWARD
smoothly.
When
the
lever
is
released,
it
will
return
to
the
HOLD
or
center
position.
Tilting
action
will
stop.
To
tilt
the
mast
back,
pull
the
lever
BACK
smoothly.
GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT

-Side
Shift
Attachment
(if
equipped).
Push
the
lever
FORWARD
to
shift
the
carriage
to
the
left.
When
the
lever
is
released,
it
will
return
to
the
HOLD
or
center
position.
Side
shifting
action
will
stop.
Pull
the
lever
BACK
to
shift
the
carriage
to
the
right.

-Horn.
Push
on
the
horn
button
to
sound
the
horn.
-Headlight
Switch.
Push
on
the
switch
to
turn
the
headlights
on
and
off.
-Instrument
Panel.
Depending
on
the
type
of
forklift
there
may
or
may
not
be
indicator
lights

for
the
following
things:
Engine
oil
indicator
light,
alternator
indicator
light,
diesel
engine
start
preheat
indicator
light,
diesel
engine
water
in
fuel
filter
indicator
light,
fuel
level
gauge,
engine
coolant
gauge,
transmission
oil
temperature
gauge,
service
hour
meter,
choke
control,
electrical
disconnect
switch.

REMEMBER:
The
controls
pictured
and
explained
in
this
guide
may
be
different
from
those
on
the
forklift
you
will
operate.
You
must
read
and
understand
the
controls,
instrumentation
and
operating
instruction
sections
of
the
owner�s
manual
for
the
specific
forklift
you
will
be
operating.

Engine
or
motor
operation


Always
make
sure
the
transmission
is
in
neutral
before
starting
the
engine.

Always
make
sure
the
parking
brake
is
engaged
before
starting
the
engine.

Always
have
your
foot
on
the
pedal
brake
when
starting
the
engine.

If
the
forklift
is
of
the
liquefied
petroleum
type
make
sure
to
inspect
the
gas
fuel
lines
and
fitting
for
leaks.
Inspect
the
tank
for
secure
mounting.
#Iftheforkliftisdieselpowereditmaybenecessarytousepreheat(dependingonsurroundingai
rtemperature).
#Neveroperatethestarterformorethan30seconds.Operatingitlongerthan30secondscouldcau
sethestartermotortoburnout.
Fuel Level Indicator
Latch for
securing the
tank.
Fuel Valve. To turn on turn the valve counterclockwise. To turn off
turn it clockwise. Always close the fuel valve first to allow the engine
to run until the fuel in the line runs out and the engine stops. Then turn
the ignition switch to the OFF position.
Fuel Line
Fitting
Fuel Line
Always read and understand
any warning labels.
GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT

Steering
and
maneuvering

While
negotiating
turns,
speed
will
be
reduced
to
a
safe
operating
level
and
the
turning
of
the
steering
wheel
will
be
in
a
smooth,
sweeping
motion.
Except
when
maneuvering
at
a
very
low
speed,
the
hand
steering
wheel
will
be
turned
at
a
moderate,
even
rate.
Slow
down
for
turns
and
drive
at
a
slow,
steady
pace.

Visibility
(including
restrictions
due
to
loading)

-The
driver
will
be
required
to
look
in
the
direction
of,
and
keep
a
clear
view
of
the
path
of
travel.

-A
forklift
operator
should
drive
in
reverse
if
their
vision
is
obstructed.
-Where
general
lighting
is
less
than
two
lumens
per
square
foot,
auxiliary
directional
lighting
shall
be
provided
on
the
truck.
A
60-watt
household
lamp
is
rated
at
875
lumens,
so
two
lumens
per
square
foot
is
probably
pretty
dark.

Fork
and
attachment
adaptation,
operation
and
use
limitations.

All forklifts will have a �lift truck nameplate� that provides


model identification information for that particular powered
industrial truck. OSHA regulations (29 CFR 1910.178 (a)
(6) requires the user (GSI) to ensure that all nameplates and
markings are in place and are maintained in a legible
condition.
GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT

A
key
piece
of
information
is
the
rated
capacity
of
the
forklift
with
attachments.
In
the
case
of
this
forklift,
a
backrest
has
been
added.
This
means
that
the
rated
load
capacity
of
the
forklift
has
decreased
from
5000
pounds
to
4620
pounds.
This
means
that
this
particular
forklift
can
lift
only
4620
pounds
to
a
height
of
82
inches
(not
quite
seven
feet)
if
the
center
of
gravity
for
the
load
is
24
inches
from
the
backrest.
See
Vehicle
Capacity
on
the
following
page
for
a
further
explanation.

OSHA
requires
that
if
the
forklift
is
equipped
with
front-end
attachments
other
than
factory-installed
attachments,
the
truck
be
marked
to
identify
the
attachments
and
show
the
approximate
weight
of
the
truck
and
attachment
combination
at
maximum
elevation
with
the
load
laterally
centered.
This
requirement
is
demonstrated
on
the
previous
page.

Remember:
Always
check
the
forklift�s
nameplate
to
determine
the
lift
capacity
of
your
particular
forklift.

Always
keep
the
forks
separated
as
widely
as
possible
for
additional
stability.

WRONG
RIGHT!
GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT

A
SPECIAL
WORD
ABOUT
USING
THE
FORKLIFT
AS
A
MANLIFT

It
is
specifically
prohibited
to
use
the
forklift
as
a
manlift
unless
the
appropriate,
manufacturer
designed
attachment
is
used.
This
type
of
an
attachment
takes
the
form
of
a
cage
with
appropriately
designed
guardrails,
flooring,
safety
harness,
safety
rope
attachments/anchor
points.
You
may
not
have
someone
stand
on
the
forks
and
then
raise
them
into
the
air.
You
may
not
put
a
pallet
on
the
forks
and
then
have
someone
stand
on
the
pallet
and
raise
them
into
the
air.
You
must
use
the
approved
attachment
with
all
appropriate
safety
precautions
in
place.
Vehicle
Capacity

Model Number
Serial Number
Type of forklift. In this
case, LP meaning
liquefied petroleum gas
powered.
Warning label stating that if
you are not properly trained
you may not work on or
operate the forklift.
STD. MACH
CAP. 5000LB
AT LOAD CTR
�A� 24 IN
AT FORK HGT
�B� 173 IN
Diagram
showing load
center �A� and
fork height �B�
This
blow-up
of
the
nameplate
has
some
information
that
is
self-explanatory
(warning
label,
model
number,
serial
number
and
type
of
forklift).
Some
other
information
is
not
quite
so
self-explanatory.

To
properly
understand
how
STD.
MACH
CAP
5000
LB
(standard
machine
capacity
5000
pounds),
AT
LOAD
CTR
�A�
24
IN
(at
load
center
�A�
24
inches)
and
AT
FORK
HGT
�B�
173
IN
(at
fork
height
�B�
173
inches)
relate
to
each
other
you
must
not
only
understand
what
those
phrases
mean,
but
how
to
use
the
diagram
above
that
shows
load
center
�A�
and
fork
height
�B�.
GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT

Standard
machine
capacity
in
this
case
is
5000
pounds
(without
attachments).
If
the
center
of
gravity
for
the
load
being
lifted
or
moved
is
at
load
center
�A�
i.e.
24
inches
away
from
the
backrest
of
the
forklift,
then
it
is
safe
to
lift
a
5000-pound
load
to
a
height
of
173
inches
(slightly
over
14
feet).
As
the
center
of
gravity
for
the
load
moves
farther
away
from
the
backrest
of
the
forklift,
you
will
not
be
able
to
lift
the
load
as
high
and
still
keep
the
FORKLIFT
stable.

It
is
critical
for
the
forklift
operator
to
always
check
the
nameplate
of
the
specific
forklift
they
are
operating
for
its
capacity.
Failing
to
do
so
could
cause
the
operator
to
raise
a
load
that
is
too
heavy,
too
high
and
tip
the
forklift
over.

Vehicle
Stability

Definitions

-Center
of
Gravity

the
point
on
an
object
at
which
all
of
the
object�s
weight
is
concentrated.
For
symmetrical
loads,
the
center
of
gravity
is
at
the
middle
of
the
load.
-Counterweight

the
weight
that
is
built
into
the
FORKLIFT's
basic
structure
and
is
used
to

offset
the
load�s
weight
and
to
maximize
the
vehicle�s
resistance
to
tipping
over.
-Fulcrum

the
FORKLIFT�s
axis
of
rotation
when
it
tips
over.
-Grade

the
slope
of
a
surface,
which
is
usually
measured
as
the
number
of
feet
of
rise
or
fall

over
a
hundred
foot
horizontal
distance
(the
slope
is
expressed
as
a
percent).
-Lateral
Stability

a
FORKLIFT�s
resistance
to
overturning
sideways.
-Line
of
Action

an
imaginary
vertical
line
through
an
object�s
center
of
gravity.
-Load
Center

the
horizontal
distance
from
the
load�s
edge
(or
the
fork�s
or
other
attachment�s
vertical
face)
to
the
line
of
action
through
the
load�s
center
of
gravity.
-Longitudinal
Stability

the
FORKLIFT�s
resistance
to
overturning
forward
or
rearward.
-Moment

the
product
of
the
object�s
weight
times
the
distance
from
a
fixed
point
(usually
the
fulcrum).
In
the
case
of
a
FORKLIFT,
the
distance
is
measured
from
the
point
at
which
the
truck
will
tip
over
to
the
object�s
line
of
action.
The
distance
is
always
measured
perpendicular
to
the
line
of
action.
-Track

the
distance
between
the
wheels
on
the
same
axle
of
the
truck.
-Wheelbase

the
distance
between
the
centerline
of
the
vehicle�s
front
and
rear
wheels.

Determining
the
stability
of
a
forklift
is
simple
once
a
few
basic
principles
are
understood.
There
are
many
factors
that
contribute
to
a
vehicle�s
stability:
the
vehicle�s
wheelbase,
track
and
height;
the
load�s
weight
distribution;
and
the
vehicle�s
counterweight
location
(if
the
vehicle
is
so
equipped).
GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT

Whether
an
object
is
stable
depends
on
the
object�s
moment
at
one
end
of
a
system
being
greater
than,
equal
to,
or
smaller
than
the
object�s
moment
at
the
system�s
other
end.
This
principle
can
be
seen
in
the
way
a
seesaw
or
teeter-totter
works:
that
is,
if
the
product
of
the
load
and
distance
from
the
fulcrum
(movement)
is
equal
to
the
moment
at
the
device�s
other
end,
the
device
is
balanced
and
it
will
not
move.
However,
if
there
is
greater
moment
at
one
end
of
the
device,
the
device
will
try
to
move
downward
at
the
end
with
the
greater
movement.

Longitudinal
stability
of
a
counterbalanced
forklift
depends
on
the
vehicle�s
moment
and
the
load�s
moment.
In
other
words,
if
the
mathematic
product
of
the
load
moment
(the
distance
from
the
front
wheels,
the
approximate
point
at
which
the
vehicle
would
tip
forward)
to
the
load�s
center
of
gravity
times
the
load�s
weight
is
less
than
the
vehicle�s
moment,
the
system
is
balanced
and
will
not
tip
forward.
However,
if
the
load�s
moment
is
greater
than
the
vehicle�s
moment,
the
greater
load-moment
will
force
the
truck
to
tip
forward.

The
easiest
way
to
understand
the
last
two
paragraphs
is
to
look
at
and
understand
The
Stability
Triangle.

35
A
B
C
Vehicle Center of
Gravity (Unloaded)
Center of Gravity
of Vehicle and
Maximum Load
(Theoretical)
Stability Triangle -Figure 1
1.
When
the
vehicle
is
loaded,
the
combined
center
of
gravity
(CG)
shifts
toward
the
line
B-C.
Theoretically,
the
maximum
load
will
result
in
the
CG
at
the
line
B-C.
In
actual
practice,
the
combined
CG
should
never
be
at
line
B-C.
2.
The
addition
of
additional
counterweight
will
cause
the
forklift
CG
to
shift
toward
point
A
and
result
in
a
forklift
that
is
less
stable
laterally.
GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT

When
a
vehicle�s
load
center,
falls
within
the
stability
triangle,
the
vehicle
is
stable
and
will
not
tip
over.
If
the
vehicle�s
line
of
action
or
the
vehicle/load
combination
falls
outside
the
stability
triangle,
the
vehicle
is
unstable
and
may
tip
over
(see
Figure
2).

Stability Triangle -Figure 2


36
Load CG
Vertical
Stability
Line
(Line of Action)
Combined CG
Truck CG
Load CG
Combined CG
Vertical
Stability
Line
(Line of Action)
Truck CG
The vehicle is stable This vehicle is unstable and
will continue to tip over
Pre-Ops
Inspection

Industrial
trucks
shall
be
examined
before
being
placed
in
service,
and
shall
not
be
placed
in
service
if
the
examination
shows
any
condition
adversely
affecting
the
safety
of
the
vehicle.
Such
examination
shall
be
made
at
least
once
daily.
Where
industrial
trucks
are
used
on
a
round-the-clock
basis,
they
shall
be
examined
after
each
shift.
Defects
when
found
shall
be
immediately
reported
and
corrected.

GSI
requires
that
all
equipment
operators
perform
a
pre-operational
check
of
the
equipment
they
will
be
operating.
Check
the
following:


Approach
the
forklift
visually
checking
for
fluid
leaks.

On
a
battery
powered
forklift
inspect
the
battery
for
damage,
corrosion
or
loose
connections.

On
LP,
diesel
or
gasoline
powered
forklift�s,
check
for
fuel
tank
damage
or
leaks.

Start
the
vehicle,
with
the
vehicle
in
neutral
or
park
and
the
parking
brake
set.
Do
not
operate
the
vehicle
if
the
vehicles
steering
wheel
has
been
�tagged
out�.

Check
the
wheel
chocks
(if
applicable).

Inspect
and
check
for
damage
to
the
mast,
carriage,
forks,
overhead
guard,
backrest
and
hydraulics.

Check
the
tires.

Check
the
fire
extinguisher
(if
applicable).

Be
sure
that
all
headlights,
taillights,
clearance
lights
and
spotlights
are
in
good
working
order
and
are
clean.
If
the
vehicle
has
reflectors,
they
need
to
be
in
place
and
clean
as
well.

Check
the
steering
wheel
for
excessive
play.
GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT


Check
the
horn
for
proper
function.

Check
the
front
and
rear
turn
signals
and
brake
lights
(if
applicable).

Check
the
brakes
for
proper
function
(including
the
parking
brake).

Check
the
vehicle
for
body
damage.

Ensure
license
plate,
permits,
seals
and/or
placards
are
displayed
and
current
(if
applicable).

Check
fuel
level
and
all
gauges
for
proper
operation.

Check
and
adjust
the
seat
as
necessary.

Check
to
ensure
the
seat
belt
is
in
proper
working
order.
Keep
the
vehicle
free
of
trash
at
all
times.

Check
to
ensure
that
the
nameplate
and
warning
labels
are
in
place
and
legible.
Contact
your
supervisor
immediately
upon
discovering
problems
with
your
forklift.
If
at
any
time,
a
forklift
is
found
to
be
in
need
of
repair,
defective
or
in
any
way
unsafe;
the
forklift
will
be
removed
from
service
until
it
has
been
restored
to
a
safe
operation
condition.
All
repairs
shall
be
made
by
authorized
personnel.

Besides
ensuring
you
will
be
operating
a
safe
vehicle,
the
pre-ops
check
helps
prevent
you
from
being
accused
of
causing
damage
you
did
not
cause.
If
you
fail
to
report
damage
to
the
vehicle
and
it
is
noticed
later,
you
will
be
held
responsible.
Motorized
and
non-motorized
equipment
that
is
in
an
unsafe
condition
must
not
be
used.
Refueling
and/or
charging
and
recharging
of
batteries

1.
Storage
and
handling
of
fuel
shall
be
in
accordance
with
NFPA
regulations.
The
actual
text
in
1910.178(f)
provides
NFPA
citations
for
gasoline,
diesel
and
LPG.
2.
Fuel
tanks
shall
not
be
filled
while
the
engine
is
running.
Spillage
should
be
avoided.
3.
Spillage
of
oil
or
fuel
shall
be
carefully
washed
away
or
completely
evaporated
and
the
fuel
tank
cap
replaced
before
restarting
engine.
4.
No
truck
will
be
operated
with
a
leak
in
the
fuel
system
until
the
leak
has
been
corrected.
5.
Open
flames
shall
not
be
used
for
checking
electrolyte
level
in
storage
batteries
or
gasoline
level
in
fuel
tanks.
6.
Changing
and
charging
stored
batteries
a)
Battery
charging
installations
shall
be
located
in
areas
designated
for
that
purpose.
b)
Facilities
shall
be
provided
for
flushing
and
neutralizing
spilled
electrolyte,
for
fire

protection,
for
protecting
charging
apparatus
from
damage
by
trucks
and
for

adequate
ventilation
for
dispersal
of
fumes
from
gassing
batteries.

c)
A
conveyor,
overhead
hoist,
or
equivalent
material
handling
equipment
shall
be

provided
for
handling
batteries.
d)
Reinstalled
batteries
shall
be
properly
positioned
and
secured
in
the
truck.
e)
A
carboy
tilter
or
siphon
shall
be
provided
for
handling
electrolyte.
GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT

f)
When
charging
batteries,
acid
shall
be
poured
into
water;
water
shall
not
be
poured
into
acid.
g)
Trucks
shall
be
properly
positioned
and
the
brake
applied
before
attempting
to
change
or
charge
batteries.
h)
Care
shall
be
taken
to
assure
that
vent
caps
are
functioning.
The
battery
(or
compartment)
cover(s)
shall
be
open
to
dissipate
heat.
i)
Smoking
shall
be
prohibited
in
the
charging
area.
j)
Precautions
shall
be
taken
to
prevent
open
flames,
sparks,
or
electric
arcs
in

battery
charging
areas.
k)
Tools
and
other
metallic
objects
shall
be
kept
away
from
the
top
of
uncovered
batteries.

Any
other
operating
instructions,
limitations,
warnings
or
precautions
listed
in
the
operator�s
manual
for
the
types
of
vehicles
the
employee
is
being
trained
to
operate.

Check
the
operator�s
manual
for
the
specific
forklift
you
will
be
operating
for
any
additional
items.

Surface
conditions
where
the
vehicle
will
be
operated

Part
of
a
forklift
truck
operator�s
job
is
to
examine
the
surfaces
on
which
they
will
be
driving
to
make
sure
that
they
are
safe
and
strong
enough
to
support
the
weight
of
the
truck
and
the
load.


No
matter
what
the
condition
of
the
surface,
all
traffic
regulations
will
be
observed,
including
authorized
facility
speed
limits.
Inside
a
facility,
the
speed
limit
is
a
normal
walking
pace.

Surfaces
you
should
avoid
or
be
very
careful
on
or
around
include
loose
objects,
bumps,
uneven
floors,
rough
surfaces,
wet/oily/icy
surfaces,
railroad
tracks
and
similar
edges.

The
driver
is
required
to
slow
down
and
proceed
with
caution
on
wet
and
slippery
floors.

Running
over
loose
objects
on
the
floor/roadway
surface
is
to
be
avoided.
GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT

Composition
of
loads
to
be
carried
and
load
stability

Load
shape,
size,
carrying
angle
and
weight
affect
the
stability
of
a
forklift.
Never
exceed
the
forklift�s
rated
load
capacity
(see
section
H
Vehicle
Capacity
in
the
truck
related
topics
section
of
this
guide
for
a
detailed
explanation
on
load
capacity).


Only
stable
or
safely
arranged
loads
will
be
handled.
Caution
will
be
exercised
when
handling
off-center
loads
that
cannot
be
centered
.
One
way
to
help
loads
stay
stable
is
to
carry
smaller
loads.
1.
The
long
or
high
(including
multi-tiered)
loads
which
may
affect
capacity
will
be
adjusted.
2.
Trucks
equipped
with
attachments,
will
be
operated
as
partially
loaded
trucks
when
not
handling
a
load.
3.
If
a
high
lift
is
involved
or
if
the
route
of
travel
is
rough,
you
should
carry
a
smaller
load
to
increase
load
stability.
4.
If
the
load
cannot
be
centered
on
the
pallet
or
carried
close
to
your
drive
wheels,
you
should
increase
load
stability
by
carrying
a
smaller
load.
Only
loads
within
the
rated
capacity
of
the
truck
will
be
handled.
5.
Space
the
forks
as
far
apart
as
possible
as
an
aid
in
keeping
the
load
stable.
6.
Check
the
load
before
traveling
to
ensure
that
it
will
not
shift.
7.
Secure
all
loose
or
slippery
items
before
traveling.
8.
Transfer
loads
on
broken
pallets
or
containers
to
sound
ones
before
picking
them
up.
9.
Wrap
or
strap
loads
made
up
of
individual
items.

The
load
engaging
means
(forks)
will
be
placed
under
the
load
as
far
as
possible;
the
mast
will
be
carefully
tilted
backward
to
stabilize
the
load.

Extreme
care
will
be
used
when
tilting
the
load
forward
or
backward,
particularly
when
high
tiering.
Tilting
forward
with
load
engaging
means
elevated
will
be
prohibited
except
to
pick
up
a
load.

An
elevated
load
will
not
be
tilted
forward
except
when
the
load
is
in
a
deposit
position
over
a
rack
or
stack.

When
stacking,
only
enough
backward
tilt
to
stabilize
the
load
will
be
used.

A
load
backrest
extension
shall
be
used
whenever
necessary
to
minimize
the
possibility
of
the
load
or
part
of
it
from
falling
rearward.
The
rule
of
thumb
is
that
the
load
will
not
exceed
the
height
of
the
mast.
GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT

Load
manipulation,
stacking
and
unstacking

When
working
with
loads,
always
make
sure
the
area
is
clear
of
people,
stop
before
raising
or
lowering
forks,
look
over
both
shoulders
before
backing
up,
never
travel
or
turn
with
the
load
elevated,
lift
a
load
only
high
enough
to
clear
obstacles
and
lower
it
as
soon
as
possible.


When
lifting
a
load:
1.
Square
up
on
its
center
and
approach
it
straight
on.
2.
Stop
with
the
tips
of
your
forks
about
one
foot
from
the
load.
3.
Level
the
forks
and
slowly
drive
forward
until
the
load
rests
against
the
mast.
4.
Lift
the
load
high
enough
to
clear
whatever
is
under
it
and
tilt
the
mast
back
slightly
to
a
traveling
position.
If
there
is
a
load
in
front
of
the
one
you
are
lifting,
lift
without
tilting.
Never
lift
the
load
higher
than
needed
to
clear
any
obstacles.
5.
Look
over
both
shoulders
to
make
sure
it
is
safe
to
move
in
reverse.
6.
When
traveling,
always
keep
the
forks
as
close
to
the
floor
as
possible,
usually
an
inch
or
two
at
the
heel
of
the
forks
and
four
to
six
inches
at
the
tips,
with
the
load
resting
against
the
mast.

When
putting
down
a
load:
1.
Square
up
and
stop
about
a
foot
from
where
the
load
will
go.
2.
Drive
forward
until
you
are
about
half
of
the
way
into
the
loading
area.
3.
Stop.
4.
Level
the
forks
and
drive
the
rest
of
the
way
in.
5.
Lower
the
load.
6.
After
the
load
is
seated,
lower
the
forks
slightly
to
keep
from
hooking
the
load
on
pullout.
7.
Look
over
both
shoulders
and
back
out
slowly.
When
stacking
a
load
always
set
the
load
squarely
on
the
stack,
never
raise
or
lower
a
load
unless
you
are
at
a
full
stop,
never
attempt
to
turn
with
your
mast
raised,
always
approach
the
load
straight
on
and
remove
it
by
backing
straight
back.
There
shall
be
sufficient
headroom
under
overhead
installations,
lights,
pipes,
sprinkler
systems,
etc.
Be
cautious
when
unloading
trailers
because
lifting
a
load
off
the
trailer
can
cause
it
to
rise.
This
may
reduce
overhead
clearance
of
the
mast.


To
remove
a
load
from
a
stack:
1.
Stop
straight
on
and
about
a
foot
away
from
the
stack.
2.
Raise
the
mast
until
the
forks
are
at
the
right
height.
Move
forward
slowly
until
the
load
is
flush
with
the
back
of
the
forks.
3.
Lift
the
load
high
enough
to
clear
the
item
below.
Look
over
both
shoulders
and
back
straight
out
to
clear
the
edge
of
the
stack.
4.
Stop
and
lower
the
load
to
the
traveling
position.
5.
Tilt
the
load
back
and
move
out
slowly.
GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT


To
place
a
load
on
a
stack:
1.
Approach
the
stack
slowly
and
squarely.
2.
Lift
the
mast
high
enough
to
clear
the
top
of
the
stack.
3.
Inch
forward
until
the
load
is
square
over
the
stack.
4.
Level
the
forks
and
lower
the
mast
until
the
load
is
no
longer
supported
by
the
forks.
5.
Keep
the
forks
level
so
you
do
not
hook
anything.
6.
Look
over
both
shoulders
and
back
straight
out.
Pedestrian
traffic
in
areas
where
the
vehicle
will
be
operated

1.
Forklifts
will
not
be
driven
up
to
anyone
standing
in
front
of
a
bench
or
other
fixed
object.
2.
No
person
is
allowed
to
stand
or
pass
under
the
elevated
portion
of
any
forklift,
whether
loaded
or
empty.
3.
The
right
of
way
will
be
yielded
to
all
vehicles
and
persons.
4.
A
safe
distance
of
three
(3)
forklift
lengths
from
any
vehicle
or
person
ahead
will
be
maintained
and
the
forklift
will
be
kept
under
control
at
all
times.
5.
Under
all
travel
conditions,
the
operator
will
have
full
control
of
the
truck
and
operate
at
a
speed
that
will
permit
it
to
be
brought
to
a
stop
in
a
safe
manner.
6.
Stunt
driving
or
horseplay
is
not
permitted.
Ramps
and
other
sloped
surfaces
that
could
affect
the
vehicle�s
stability
1.
A
safe
distance
will
be
maintained
from
the
edge
of
ramps
or
platforms
while
on
any
elevated
dock
(truck
dock
doors),
or
platform
or
freight
car.
2.
Never
turn
around
on
a
slope.
3.
Grades
will
be
ascended
or
descended
slowly.
4.
When
ascending
or
descending
grades
in
excess
of
10
percent,
loaded
trucks
will
be
driven
with
the
load
upgrade.
GSI
policy
requires
that
forklift
operators
drive
with
the
load
on
the
uphill
side.
This
means
that
you
will
drive
up
slopes
with
your
load
in
front
and
down
slopes
in
reverse,
unless
you
are
loading
a
trailer.
When
you
are
not
carrying
a
load,
back
up
a
slope
and
drive
down
it
forwards.
5.
On
all
grades,
the
load
and
load
engaging
means
will
be
tilted
back
if
applicable,
and
raised
only
as
far
as
necessary
to
clear
the
floor/road
surface.
Narrow
aisles
and
other
restricted
places
where
the
vehicle
will
be
operated

1.
Fire
aisles,
access
to
stairways
and
fire
equipment
will
be
kept
clear
and
free
of
obstructions.
This
includes
the
forklift.
GROUND HANDLING TRAINING MANUAL Revision 5

Date 10/18/08

FORKLIFT

Closed
environments
and
other
areas
where
insufficient
ventilation
or
poor
vehicle
maintenance
could
cause
a
buildup
of
carbon
monoxide
or
diesel
exhaust

1.
Concentration
levels
of
carbon
monoxide
(CO)
gas
created
by
powered
industrial
truck
operations
shall
not
exceed
the
levels
specified
in
29
CFR
1910.1000.
(I)(1)
At
the
time
of
this
writing,
those
levels
are
50
ppm
and
55
mg/m.
OSHA
has
shut
down
airport
warehouse
forklift
operations
before
for
excessive
CO.
2.
When
working
indoors
make
sure
that
the
ventilation
system
is
adequate
and
working
properly.
Do
not
turn
off
ventilation
fans
or
close
doors
because
it
is
too
cold
inside
or
because
it
is
too
noisy.
3.
Because
carbon
monoxide
is
odorless,
you
can
be
overcome
without
suspecting
that
anything
is
wrong.
Symptoms
include
feeling
weak,
sleepy,
dizzy
or
getting
a
headache.
If
you
develop
these
symptoms,
turn
off
your
FORKLIFT,
get
to
fresh
air
immediately
and
notify
your
supervisor
of
the
situation.
Other
unique
or
potentially
hazardous
environmental
conditions
in
the
workplace
that
could
affect
safe
operation.

1.
Unauthorized
personnel
shall
not
be
permitted
to
ride
on
forklift�s.
A
safe
place
to
ride
shall
be
provided
where
riding
of
trucks
is
authorized.
Unless
a
forklift
has
a
designed
seat
with
a
seatbelt
for
a
passenger,
no
riders
are
allowed.
2.
GSI,
and
therefore
the
operator,
will
not
permit
arms
or
legs
from
being
placed
between
the
uprights
of
the
mast
or
outside
the
running
lines
of
the
forklift.
3.
When
a
forklift
is
left
unattended,
the
load-engaging
means
shall
be
fully
lowered,
the
controls
placed
in
neutral,
the
power
shut
off
and
brakes
set.
Wheels
shall
be
blocked
(chocked)
if
the
truck
is
parked
on
an
incline.
4.
GSI
policy
defines
�unattended�
if
the
operator
is
not
in
or
on
the
vehicle.
The
load
engaging
means
will
be
fully
lowered,
controls
placed
in
neutral
and
the
brakes
set
to
prevent
movement.
5.
Forklifts
will
not
be
used
for
opening
or
closing
any
type
of
door.
6.
An
overhead
guard
shall
be
used
as
protection
against
falling
objects.
It
should
be
noted
that
an
overhead
guard
is
intended
to
offer
protection
from
the
impact
of
small
packages,
boxes,
bagged
material,
etc.
representative
of
the
job
application,
but
not
to
withstand
the
impact
of
a
falling
capacity
load.
7.
Whenever
a
truck
is
equipped
with
vertical
only,
or
vertical
and
horizontal
controls
that
elevate
with
the
lifting
carriage
or
forks
for
lifting
personnel,
the
following
additional
precautions
will
be
taken
for
the
protection
of
personnel
being
elevated.
a)
Use
of
a
safety
platform
firmly
secured
to
the
lifting
carriage
and/or
forks;
b)
means
will
be
provided
whereby
personnel
on
the
platform
can
shut
off
power
to
the
forklift
c)
Such
protection
from
falling
objects
as
indicated
necessary
by
the
operating
conditions
will
be
provided.

8.
Never
push
things
with
the
forks
of
a
forklift.
You
will
cause
damage.
9.
Never
block
doors
or
park
your
forklift
in
such
a
way
that
emergency
equipment
is
blocked.