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The verb

A part of speech that expresses existence, action, or occurrence.


Remember question one for identifying subjects? "What's going on (or being described?" Ans!er that
and you'"e found your "erb. And #i$e a subject, a sentence has got to ha"e one%
&et's #oo$ at a fe! more examp#es'
&assie ran into the burning bui#ding.
(he beag#e stepped on its ears.
What's going on in these sentences? A coup#e of dogs are doing stupid things) but !hat they are doing
is the "erb**in this case, &assie ran and the beag#e stepped . +oth sho! action.
,ot the idea? -o! #et's #oo$ at "erbs that are a #itt#e different. .ome "erbs don't sho! action. /nstead,
they #in$ the subject to some other information' these are ca##ed, big surprise, #in$ing "erbs . 0ommon
#in$ing "erbs are "to be" forms**such as, is, am, are, !as, !ere**and the "erbs appear, become, fee#,
#oo$, seem. 1xamp#es are'
.he !as fond of her anima#s.
2ierre is a fine beast.
.he #oo$s #i$e she has been in a fight !ith a cat.
/t fee#s damp in the grass.
/n identifying the "erb, you a#so need to #oo$ for the he#pers, since they are considered part of the
"erb. (he he#pers (a$a auxi#iaries inc#ude' is, am, are, !as, !ere, been, has, ha"e, had, do, does, did,
may, can, might, sha##, !i##, shou#d, cou#d, !ou#d.
/'"e mar$ed the comp#ete "erb in the fo##o!ing'
/ !as bar$ing before brea$fast.
3e shou#d ha"e #et me out of the house.
/ tried to !ait for him to get up.
3e shou#d not ha"e stayed in bed so #ong.
/ bar$ed and !aited unti#. . . .
/ guess you can figure out !hat happened at the end of this #itt#e story. /t's an a##*too*frequent part of a
dog's #ife. . . . +ut about the "erbs.
-otice !hat is not inc#uded in the "erb in numbers 4 and 5' to !ait and not. Words !ith to in front of
them are ne"er a part of the "erb, e"en though they #oo$ suspicious#y #i$e "erbs. Words #i$e not,
a#!ays, just, ne"er, and on#y are not part of the "erb.
Remember ho! a sentence can ha"e more than one subject? /t can a#so ha"e more than one "erb, as
you see in number 6. 7ne other thing' no !ord !ith an "*ing" ending can e"er be the "erb !ithout a
he#per' / bar$ing) she running? -o !ay%
Pronouns
Subjects and objects
8irst #et's #oo$ at case**that is, the difference bet!een the subject and object forms of the pronouns.
We $no! !hat subjects are, and objects are those !ords that come at the end of prepositiona#
phrases (among other things. 9ou probab#y a#ready $no! the differences, but just in case, here's a #ist
of the forms'
Subject Object
/ me
you you
he him
she her
it it
!e us
they them
(he on#y thing you need to $no! is that these forms can't be s!itched around. /f the !ord is a subject,
it must be a subject form) if it's an object . . . !e##, you get the idea. 0onsider the fo##o!ing'
o 2eggy and me bar$ed at the garbage truc$.
o Her and me fought o"er the bone.
.ome of you are probab#y thin$ing, "What's !rong !ith these?" /n spoken English, you'## hear things
#i$e this e"ery day. +ut in written English, you need to ma$e sure your forms aren't mixed up. (he
correct "ersions are "2eggy and I" and "She and I," since the !ords are the subject of the sentence.
Nothing in the object #ist can be a subject**ever% 9ou !ou#dn't say, ":e bar$ed" or "me fought"**un#ess
you !ere trying out for a (ar;an mo"ie.
(he same goes for objects of prepositions. 9ou can't use a subject form in a prepositiona# phrase.
o .ma## 0at fetched the paper for her and I.
o 2eggy ran after <ohn and she.
"8or /"? "After she"? (hese can't be right, since both are in the subject #ist) but, they're used as objects
of the preposition. (he correct "ersions are "for me" and "after her." 9ou shou#dn't ha"e as much
troub#e !ith these because you don't hear them misused quite as often in this !ay. +ut watch out for
"just bet!een you and I." (hat phrase gets a #ot of use**e"en though "/" can't be an object. /t's "just
bet!een you and me"%
With "to be" verbs
-o! !e get to the stuff that !i## sound odd to you. Remember !hen !e ta#$ed about "to be" "erb
forms? Any time a pronoun comes after one of these "erbs, the subject form is required.
o /t is I.
o /t !as they.
o /t is he.
/ to#d you this !ou#d sound funny**but it's correct% .o, a## these years you'"e been saying, "/t's me" and
"/t's them," and you'"e been !rong. Right or !rong, / can't bring myse#f to say, "/t is /." "/t's me" sounds
more natura#. (he best thing to do !hen you !rite yourse#f into a construction #i$e this is to rethin$ and
re!rite in a different !ay. (/f anyone te##s you other!ise, just say "it !as I" !ho to#d you.
With "than" or "as"
Another common pronoun mista$e happens in sentences !here you use "than" or "as" to compare
peop#e or things'
o 2eggy is sma##er than I.
o (he cat do!n the street is meaner than she.
o 0ats are as smart as they.
9ou !ant to use "me," "her," and "them," don't you? 9ou cou#d, but that !ou#dn't be right. (he subject
form of the pronoun always comes after "than" or "as." Why? (here's an understood "erb in the
construction.
o 2eggy is sma##er than / (am.
o (he cat do!n the street is meaner than she (is.
o 0ats are as smart as they (are.
9ou can see !hy the object form !on't !or$' "me am," "her is," and "them are" are just p#ain !rong%
1"en though you probab#y hear these $inds of sentences used incorrect#y, !hen you're !riting you can
get them right if you remember that understood "erb.
Relative pronouns: who, whom, whose, that, and which
/n addition to renaming another !ord (#i$e a## pronouns, relative pronouns often introduce added
detai#s in your sentences. (hey can a#so be used to as$ questions. &oo$ at the fo##o!ing'
1. .ma## 0at is the one who is a true grammar hound.
2. 2eggy is the cat whom e"eryone #o"es to pet.
3. Whose ba## is that?
4. .he is the one that / #i$e.
5. / !ant to $no! which cat tramp#ed the f#o!ers.
(hese !on't cause you too much troub#e most of the time. <ust remember' !hen you !rite about
people, use "!ho," "!hom," and "!hose." When you !rite about things, use "!hich." "(hat" can be
used in either case.
9ou may, ho!e"er, ha"e troub#e !ith who and whom. Who is a subject form, and whom is an object.
&i$e the subject and object forms !e ta#$ed about ear#ier, you can't s!itch these around. &et's ta$e a
c#oser #oo$ at t!o of the sentences you just read'
1. .ma## 0at is the one who is a true grammar hound.
2. 2eggy is the cat whom e"eryone #o"es to pet.
/n number =, "who" is the subject of the re#ati"e c#ause) in number t!o, "whom" is the object. "8ine,"
you're thin$ing, "but ho! do / $no! !hen to use '!ho' or '!hom?'" 9ou'"e got a 6>?6> chance of
getting it right, but you can better the odds if you'## do the fo##o!ing !hen you find a sentence #i$e one
of those abo"e'
1. :ar$ the spot !here "!ho" or "!hom" shou#d go.
2. &oo$ at the group of !ords to the right of that mar$.
.ma## 0at is the one @@@@@is a true grammar hound.
2eggy is the cat @@@@@ e"eryone #o"es to pet.
3. .ince "!ho" or "!hom" introduces a re#ati"e c#ause, there shou#d be a subject and a "erb in
that group of !ords.
@@@@@is a true grammar hound.
@@@@@e"eryone #o"es to pet.
4. I there is no subject, "!ho" is the right choice. /t is the subject form and becomes the
subject of the c#ause.
. . . who is a true grammar hound.
5. I there is a subject, "!hom" is the right choice. /t is the object form.
. . . whom e"eryone #o"es to pet.
-o! that's not so hard, is it?
Rele!ives
Rele!ive pronouns are intensifiers that refer bac$ to the doer of the action (the subject. 9ou $no!
the !ords' myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.
We often say things #i$e, /'## do it myse#f, ".he'## fix it herse#f," etc. (here's rea##y no prob#em**except
when you use a reflexive in place of a subject or object form. -e"er !rite (or say something #i$e,
".end it either to my secretary or myself." Aeep that in mind, and you shou#d be o$ay.
2ronouns are #itt#e !ords, but they're often troub#esome. (hat's !hy !e'"e spent so much time on
them. +ut enough, a#ready%
"esson no# $
$# %ui& test
'# (ocbular)
*# Student +ssa)
,# -o..ents
/# Word 0or.s
1# 2etric conversion
3# Interesting 0acts
4# %u 5nswers
$ 6 %ui&
.e#ect the best !ord to comp#ete the sentence. Ans!ers in section B.
-7(1' .tudy the Word 8orms in section 6. /t !i## he#p !ith this exercise.
a A# ,ore has a #ot of @@@@@@@@@@ experience.
b ,eorge W. +ush and A# ,ore are both @@@@@@@@@@.
c 3e is not @@@@@@@@@@ acti"e. 3e prefers a #o! profi#e.
d / don't fo##o! @@@@@@@@. Who is running for president?
po#itica##y po#itica# po#itics po#iticians
e What is your @@@@@@@@@@ to him?
f (hat is a "ery @@@@@@@@@@ dress.
g Cid you $no! that honey !i## @@@@@@@@@@ bears?
h (hat house is @@@@@@@@@@ decorated for 0hristmas.
attracti"e attracti"e#y attraction attract
' 6 New Words 0ro. The (ocab -lub
7ur Cai#y Docab 0#ub has #earned se"en ne! !ords this !ee$. 3ere are the se"en ne!
!ords'
9ammer E to ta#$ persistent#y and #oud#y. ("erb
Ab#oom E to be abounding !ith b#ooms (f#o!ers. (adjecti"e
+#indside E to hit unexpected#y from or as if from a b#ind side ("erb
0ease E to bring an acti"ity to an end ("erb
Cisinfectant E a chemica# that destroys harmfu# organisms (noun
1#egy E a song or poem expressing sorro!, especia##y for one !ho has died (noun
8astidious E to sho! or demand excessi"e de#icacy or care. (adjecti"e
* 6 Student +ssa)
We !ou#d #i$e to encourage you to begin discussions and ma$e suggestions about
student essays. (his first essay
!as submitted by :ihai.
(he most embarrassing that i ha"e had / made brea$ !ind in front of my boyfriend. /t !as
"ery specia# because that the first date. +ut my boyfriend so nice he pretend #i$e he didn't
heard and sma## anything. +ut / quite sure he
can heard that because it "ery #ound. 7$. /f he didn't heard that but sme## can't pretend.
And / fe#t ho! hot on my face.
(hat reason !hy / #o"e my boyfriend "ery much. 3o! nice is her?
.ometime he brea$ !ind too. +ut / don't mind because / done it before.
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(he second essay !as submitted by 0ata#in.
7ne of the most embarrassing moments in my #ife !as during high schoo#. /t
!as in a +io#ogy #ab. / !as in front of the c#ass ta#$ing about frogs, ha"ing one
in a container. (he prob#em is that / am scared of them. .udden#y the frog jumped in my
face. / started to run around the c#ass and screaming at the
same time.
/t !as embarrassing for me, because / !as ta#$ing about them, te##ing the students that
they are good, and interesting. Cescribing their 2hysio#ogy and then this happened to me.
/ fe#t rea##y embarrassed and stupid in front of the teacher and the students too.
"esson no# '
$# %ui& test
'# (ocbular)
*# Student +ssa)
,# -o..ents
/# 7orrow 8 "end
1# The 5.erican Than9sgiving
3# Interesting 0acts
4# %ui& 5nswers
$ 6 %ui&
.e#ect the best preposition to comp#ete the sentence. Ans!ers in section B.
a (his jac$et !as made @@@@@ hand @@@@@ 2aris.
b (hey sa! the job ad"ertisement @@@@@ the ne!spaper@@@@@ .aturday.
c / got @@@@@ the bus @@@@@ B'56pm.
d Russia is the #argest country @@@@@ the !or#d.
e Coes she #i"e @@@@@ :ap#e .treet or @@@@@ 6F6 2ine A"enue?
f (he ne! /ta#ian restaurant is @@@@@ that o#d mo"ie cinema.
g 3e usua##y pays for dinner @@@@@ his company credit card.
h / am tra"e#ing @@@@@ 3ungary @@@@@ Apri#.
.ome prepositions !i## be used more than once'
on, by, on, in, !ith, at, to
' 6 New Words 0ro. The (ocab -lub
7ur Cai#y Docab 0#ub has #earned se"en ne! !ords this !ee$. 3ere are the se"en ne!
!ords'
,ibe E to utter taunting !ords. ("erb
3i"e E a container for housing a co#ony of honeybees or a p#ace s!arming !ith busy
occupants. (noun
/nducement E a moti"e or consideration that #eads one to action or to addition or more
effecti"e actions. (noun
<un$er E something of such age and condition as to be ready for scrapping, putting in the
garbage. (noun
Aey E to be of basic importance. (adjecti"e
&o##ygag E to do "ery #itt#e or !or$ "ery s#o!#y. ( "erb
:enagerie E a co##ection of !i#d or foreign anima#s $ept especia##y for exhibition.
(noun
* 6 Student +ssa)
(his essay !as submitted by 2au#a.
/ do be#ie"e in A#iens as much as / donGt be#ie"e in it.
What / mean is, !hy or !hy not be#ie"e in it? / suppose it is possib#e to exist #ife in another
corner of the Hni"erse, the same !ay it exist here on 3earth. /f !e see it for that point of
"ie!, !e are a#iens) !e !ou#d be a#iens for someone or something #i"ing in the outer
space. (he Hni"erse seems to be so "ast, therefore !hy isnGt it possib#e that the mirac#e
of #ife hasnGt occur some!here e#se too?
7n the other hand, itGs hard to be#ie"e that something so incredib#e cou#d happen t!ice.
And the biggest prob#em is to be#ie"e in something one ne"er sa! before. / donGt be#ie"e
in peop#e saying they sa! a f#ying sauce or a green been. (hereGs a #ot of specu#ation
around it and thereGs a#!ays peop#e ready to say anything to ca## attention. / be#ie"e if they
exist and cou#d, they !ou#d appear and try to contact !ith the !ho#e human $ind.
, 6 -o..ents about the +ssa)
9ou ma$e some "ery good points in your essay, 2au#a. 9our ideas about us a#so being
considered a#iens and the "astness of our uni"erse rea##y ma$es us thin$. 9ou a#so stated
that it's difficu#t for us to be#ie"e in something !e ha"e ne"er seen and question !hy
a#iens ha"e ne"er "isited us. (hese are great thought pro"o$ing questions. (han$s for
+6.ail us now: scoala'::$;)ahoo#co.
"esson no# *
$# %ui& test
'# (ocbular)
*# Student +ssa)
,# -o..ents
/# Sa) and Tell
1# -hocolate recipe
3# Interesting 0acts
4# %ui& 5nswers
$ 6 %ui&
Hse a form of .ay or (e## to comp#ete the fo##o!ing sentences. Ans!ers are in section B.
.tudying 2art 6 !i## he#p !ith this exercise.
a (he young !oman @@@@@ me that she !as fee#ing sic$.
b (he po#ice officer @@@@@ that he !as gi"ing me a tic$et.
c <ohan @@@@@ !here the mo"ie !as p#aying.
d (he surgeon @@@@@ the patient that he had to a#ter his diet.
e (he sun @@@@@ us if it is night or day.
f (he pirate @@@@@ !here the hidden treasure !as.
g (he boy @@@@@ his mother that he had been stung by a bee.
h A#i @@@@@ that he !as going a!ay for the !ee$end.
' 6 New Words 0ro. The (ocab -lub
7ur Cai#y Docab 0#ub has #earned se"en ne! !ords this !ee$. 3ere are the se"en ne!
!ords'
-eed#e E to tease or to incite to action by repeated gibes. ("erb
7ffhand E casua# or in a re#axed manner. (adjecti"e
2aragon E a mode# of exce##ence or perfection. (noun
Iuagmire E soft, miry #and or a difficu#t predicament. (noun
Rumb#e E to ma$e a #o!, hea"y ro##ing sound. ("erb
.ca#d E to burn !ith hot #iquid or steam. ("erb
(roop E a group of peop#e, things or anima#s. (noun

* 6 Student +ssa)
(his essay !as submitted by /onut.

.ome peop#e be#ie"e that !e experience !ars due to the existene of so#diers, !hi#e others
thin$ !e can #i"e in peace due to the same reason. /n my opinion, !e shou#d ha"e armies
or nationa# defense groups for the fo##o!ing reasons.
8irst, !e cou#dn't maintain the freedom and staib#ity of the !or#d !ithout them. /n =J6>,
Aorean War too$ p#ace because .outh Aorea had no army to say they cou#d pre"ent from
brea$ing of !ar, so cou#dn't escape the Aorean War.
.econd, As #ong as the conf#icts among the countries exist and they are not resou#"ed by
natura# communication, !e can't run a!ay from a !ar. .o, most countries ha"e their o!n
armies to be ready for the crisis #i$e that. Without them, !e can #ose our country to #i"e in
peace.
8ina##y, !ithout the troops, no country or its peop#e are not safe form the danger of armed
re"o#t of gueri##a. (here are so many conf#icts in the !or#d due to some reasons, such as
po#itica# confrontation, economic issue, or nationa#ism.
/n summary, / strong#y maintain that each country shou#d ha"e its o!n army or something
to maintain peace, to defense the nation from the poes, and to defeat the armed gueri##a or
re"o#ts. 7f course, armies can cause some prob#ems, such as rising taxes or time
consuming of young peop#e, yet !e can't exist !ithout peace because peace can't remain
!itout armies.
******************************************************************************************************************
+6.ail us now: scoala'::$;)ahoo#co.
"esson no# ,
$# %ui& test
'# (ocbular)
*# Student +ssa)
,# -o..ents
/# -onjunctions
1# Recipe
3# Interesting 0acts
4# %ui& 5nswers
$ 6 %ui&
0omp#ete the fo##o!ing sentences using a correct coordinating conjunction. Ans!ers are
in section B. .tudying 2art 6 !i## he#p !ith this exercise.
a Cid you go see a horror @@@@@ an action mo"ie?
b / !anted to ta#$ to her @@@@@ she !asn't home. /'## ca## again #ater.
c 3e is ab#e to repair !iring @@@@@ p#umbing.
d / ha"e diabetes, @@@@@ / can't eat too much sugar.
e Coes she enjoy #istening to ja;; @@@@@ c#assica# music?
f A#i !anted to go shopping @@@@@ he #ost his !a##et.
g +odhan #i$es s$iing @@@@@ scuba di"ing.
h /t is sno!ing "ery hard, @@@@@ /'m not going to !or$ today.
Hse one of the fo##o!ing !ords'
but and or so
' 6 New Words 0ro. The (ocab -lub
7ur Cai#y Docab 0#ub has #earned se"en ne! !ords this !ee$. 3ere are the se"en ne!
!ords'
Hnderscore E to emphasi;e. ("erb
Di#ify E to ma$e bad comments or abusi"e statements against someone. ("erb
Who#esome E promoting hea#th of body, mind and spirit. (adjecti"e
9o!# E to cry out in grief, pain or distress. ("erb
Adapt E to ma$e fit, often by modification. ("erb
+on "i"ant E a 8rench term common#y used in 1ng#ish. /t means #itera##y 'good #i"ing'.
(noun
0ertificate E a document containing a certified statement as to the truth of something.
(noun
* 6 Student +ssa)
(his essay !as submitted by :aria.
-ations and peop#e are a## time concerned about peace and !ar, ne"erthe#ess concerning
about security many horrib#e things ha"e been done, peop#e die, p#aces are de"asted and
so on.
3a"e u e"er !ondered about the rea# necessity of an army????? / can't find any good
reason for it existence, at #east a rea# reason... if peop#e !ant to #ea"e in peace !hy they
do not re#y in each other????? 0an you find a good reason? We##, / can% 2eop#e are
a#!ays afraid of beeing #ess than someone or that someone ta$e ad"antege of them... but,
ho! many times they ha"e ta$en ad"antage of someone? .o it's reciproca#... you do
something to someone and you $no! it !asn't any good, then you become afraid that
someone !ou#d be ab#e to do the same !ith you, ho! can you trust somebody then? 9ou
can't.
.o you can't #ea"e your house a#one, you can't par$ your car safete#y, you can't re#y other
countries,cause you can't e"en re#y your neighbor...
-o!, in such a p#ace, a p#ace that you can't re#y anyone, you must need something to
pre"ent you from "io#ence, from being sto#en, cause you ha"e R/,3(. but not
ob#igations...
:ost of at a##, there's no rea# ris$, but !e are a#!ays afraid... !e ne"er $no! !hat can
+6.ail us now: scoala'::$;)ahoo#co.
"esson no# /
$# %ui& test
'# (ocbular)
*# Student +ssa)
,# -o..ents
/# -onjunctions
1# -hrist.as article
3# Interesting 0acts
4# %ui& 5nswers
$ 6 %ui&
0omp#ete the fo##o!ing sentences using the correct corre#ati"e conjunction. Ans!ers are
in section B. .tudying 2art 6 !i## he#p !ith this exercise.
a / #i$e @@@@@ candy @@@@@ choco#ate. / hate s!eet food%
b Robert @@@@@ drin$s tea @@@@@ coffee.
c (hey enjoy @@@@@ tra"e#ing @@@@@ spending money.
d / !ou#d #i$e @@@@@ a s!eater @@@@@ a !a##et for 0hristmas. <ust one thing.
e @@@@@ cats @@@@@ dogs can spea$.
f @@@@@ roc$ music @@@@@ fo#$ music sound good.
g @@@@@ 0hristians @@@@@ other peop#e ce#ebrate 0hristmas.
h We shou#d go to @@@@@ +ra;i# @@@@@ :exico for our "acation.
0omp#ete these sentences !ith'
+oth...and -ot on#y...but a#so 1ither...or -either...nor
' 6 New Words 0ro. The (ocab -lub
7ur Cai#y Docab 0#ub has #earned se"en ne! !ords this !ee$. 3ere are the se"en ne!
!ords'
Camp E s#ight#y !et. (adjecti"e
1xtinguish E to cause to stop burning. ("erb
8ierce E "io#ent#y hosti#e. (adjecti"e
,#oba# E to in"o#"e the entire !or#d. (adjecti"e
3oard E a hidden supp#y, to $eep a hidden supp#y. (noun?"erb
/tinerary E a route or p#an. (noun
<ustice E the administration of !hat is #a!fu#. (noun
* 6 Student +ssa)
(his essay !as submitted by .i#"ia.
&earnig by doing and #earning at schoo# are t!o different forms of education.
(o some extent it is true, but / thin$ that they depend on each other.
(o #earn something at schoo# is not the most certain !ay that you $no! that.
/t !ou#d be better if you cou#d use this thing in the rea# #ife. (hen you !i## rea#ise and re"ea#
the prise of $no!ege, that you ha"e recie"ed.
/n my opinion #earning at schoo# is "ery usefu# for impro"ing your cu#ture and formating as
a person, but it is good to $no! that not e"erything, that is #earnt there, is the same in the
practice.
2erson cou#d be good student and $no! a #ot of thing of subjects, #earnig at schoo#, but he
or she cou#dn't $no! ho! to use them.
***********************************************************************************************
, 6 -o..ents about the +ssa)
9ou rea##y present some great ideas in this essay% As a teacher, / can honest#y say that
this is one point / often consider. / agree that the best !ay to "#earn" is by doing * by using
!hat you ha"e #earned in a rea# and natura# !ay. (his is a#so true !ith #earning 1ng#ish%
:y students sometimes as$ me !hat the benefits are of studying in an 1ng#ish spea$ing
country. (he most important thing is the abi#ity to use the #anguage in a rea# setting. (his
can ne"er be dup#icated in a c#assroom. As you point out in this essay, this is ho! !e
+6.ail us now: scoala'::$;)ahoo#co.
"esson no# 1
$# %ui& test
'# (ocbular)
*# Student +ssa)
,# -o..ents
/# 5djectives 8 5dverbs
1# -hrist.as 5rticle
3# Interesting 0acts
4# %ui& 5nswers
$ 6 %ui&
Are the under#ined !ords in the fo##o!ing sentences adjecti"es or ad"erbs? /dentify each
as either adjecti"e or ad"erb. Ans!ers are in section B. .tudying 2art 6 !i## he#p !ith this
exercise.
a .he is a $ind and understanding person.
b 2au#a is an interesting spea$er and a hard !or$er.
c (anya is a rea##y exciting member of our team.
d Robert usua##y eats jun$ food on the !ee$end.
e / !itnessed a horrific traffic accident near my house.
f Aumi$o !i## probab#y dri"e to Ayoto for her "acation.
g :y car is an eyesore.
h .he is an incredib#y beautifu# !oman.
' 6 New Words 0ro. The (ocab -lub
7ur Cai#y Docab 0#ub has #earned se"en ne! !ords this !ee$. 3ere are the se"en ne!
!ords'
Ano!#edgeab#e E ha"ing $no!#edge or inte##igence. (adjecti"e
&esson E an instructi"e examp#e or a di"ision of a course of study. (noun
:echanic E a manua# !or$er, one !ho repairs machines. (noun
-uance E a sma## distinction or "ariation. (noun
7rnamenta# E to add beauty to something. (adjecti"e
2eta# E a #eaf of a f#o!er. (noun
Iuote E to spea$ or !rite !ords that originated from another person. ("erb
* 6 Student +ssa)
(his essay !as submitted by Andrei.

1ducation has been a#!ays discussed a## o"er the !or#d, and #earning by doing and
#earning at schoo# has been considered as t!o different forms of education.
&earning by doing a##o! peop#e to #earn by correcting their o!n mista$es or by obser"ing
!hat they are doing . 8or instance, if a chi#d is curious about .cience and he can ma$e an
experiment by himse#f he can obser"e e"erything that is happening during that step by
step, and it !i## ga"e him an opportunity to $eep !hat he has #earned in his mind easier. /n
addition !hen a chi#d tries to assemb#e a pu;;#e math , for examp#e, and he ma$es some
mista$es trying to figure out !hat piece he shou#d use, and !hich one maths, he is puting
his mind to !or$ and correcting his o!n mista$es unti# get the so#ution for the prob#em.
7n the other hand #earning at schoo# is a good !ay to #earn ho! to organi;e his mind in
order to $no! the best !ay to reso#"e prob#ems, and to fo##o! ru#es, and to socia#i;e.
(eachers are good instructors and they must ha"e in mind that they are supposed to he#p
their students to #earn methodica##y and #ogica##y.
/ persona##y disagree that one $ind of #earning is better than other. /n my opinion #earning
by doing is as important as #earning at schoo#. 8or me chi#dren need to #earn at schoo#
because its good for them to ha"e someone !ho can he#p them !hen they ha"e doubts,
and sho!ing them the directions) and at the same time the schoo# shou#d gi"e them
chances to #earn by doing a#!ays as possib#e by doing experiments, obser"ations and
!or$ing !ith rea# situation.
, 6 -o..ents about the +ssa)
+6.ail us now: scoala'::$;)ahoo#co.
"esson no# 3
$# %ui& test
'# (ocbular)
*# Student +ssa)
,# -o..ents
/# <sing ew, a ew, little, a little
1# New =ear Traditions
3# Interesting 0acts
4# %ui& 5nswers
$ 6 %ui&
0omp#ete the fo##o!ing sentences using 8e!, A 8e!, &itt#e or A &itt#e. Ans!ers are in
section B. .tudying 2art 6 !i## he#p !ith this exercise.
a .he has @@@@@@ money in the ban$. .he is "ery poor.
b (here are @@@@@@ countries in the !or#d sma##er than Andorra.
c /'m hungry. 0ou#d / ha"e @@@@@@ choco#ate?
d .he bought @@@@@@ boo$s at the boo$store.
e (his coffee is bitter. /t needs @@@@@@ sugar.
f Are you finished the test? -o, / need @@@@@@ more minutes.
g /'m going to the #ibrary. / need @@@@@@ information for my report.
h / tra"e#ed to +ra;i# @@@@@@ months ago.
' 6 New Words 0ro. The (ocab -lub
7ur Cai#y Docab 0#ub has #earned se"en ne! !ords this !ee$. 3ere are the se"en ne!
!ords'
reasonab#e E not extreme or excessi"e. (adjecti"e
sin$ E to go to the bottom. ("erb
thirsty E deficient in moisture. (adjecti"e
unite E to form a sing#e unit. ("erb
"irus E an infecti"e agent. (noun
!in$ E to shut one eye brief#y. ("erb?noun
authentic E conforming to fact or rea#ity. (adjecti"e
* 6 Student +ssa)
(his essay !as submitted by Anca.
(hat is a interesting question. -o! / am a mother of a ten years boy. According to my
experience a chi#d shou#d become independent
at age eighteen. 8irst#y at age eighteen it is a important for
a chi#d transfering into a teengeras !e## as they finish high schoo# edcation. :ost peop#e
!i## entrance co##ege for farther education. (hey may choose a co##ege near their home.
.o they sti## can stay !ith their fami#y. +ut many
peop#e choose a co##ege far a!ay their home. .o they ha"e to be apart from their fami#y.
.econd#y they must $eep their budget. (hat is "ery important thing for them to manage
their dai#y expense. /f they spend money as !ater
their parents !i## be !orried about their affording. /n my opinion the ear#ier a chi#d is
independent the more benifets for both of them. A chi#d !i##
understand to $no! ho! it is hard to ma$e a #i"e.
, 6 -o..ents about the +ssa)
(his is a good essay. /n this !riting !e can read a mother's perspecti"e on a chi#d's
independence. (he !riter expresses some persona# ideas and important arguments for
us to consider on the topic such as the chi#d's
mo"ing a!ay, understanding finances, and #earning about the difficu#ties #ife presents us
!ith. (his essay is !e## done and contains many important
points on this topic that !e can re#ate to and appreciate.
(here are some points !hich !e shou#d consider in order to impro"e the structure of this
!riting. /n the beginning you shou#d say "/ am the mother
of a ten year o#d boy...". (his is ho! !e usua##y express age. 9ou use
a great 1ng#ish idiom in this essay. 9ou shou#d say "/f they spend money
#i$e !ater..." or something #i$e this. ":oney as !ater" is a #itt#e different.
A#so, be carefu# of spe##ing' transferring, teenagers, education, and benefits. Apart from
these points, this essay is !e## done and an interesting read.
+6.ail us now: scoala'::$;)ahoo#co.
The lt !nd "ures #egend
7nce upon the time,!hen the stories !ere rea#ity,on the top of the 1astern 0arpathians,there !as a
fortress !ith t!o to!ers.(he prince and the princess had t!ins.(he boys !ere a#i$e)on#y their faces
!ere,not their nature.(hey !ere fighting to b#ood from nothing.(he boys gre!.7ne day the prince !ent
to a batt#e and didn't return.(he princess sent messengers to find her husband.(he truth !as that the
prince !as dead ,but the princess didn't $no! this thing."What am i going to do !ith my boys?"she
said."(hey are fighting and fighting a##o"er again./ bui#t for them t!o different to!ers./n the northern
one #ea"es
:ures,and in the southest #ea"es 7#t..oon they !i## ha"e to marry,but sti## don't understand each
other.
"7#t,my brother ,:ures said.:other is sti## crying after our dad.What are !e going to do?"
":ures,my brother,#et's forget our argues and #et's go to find the prince.:aybe he's some!here into
some prison and he needs our he#p to rescue him."
(he t!ins !ent totheir mother,the princess,and spo$e to her about their decision.When she heard ,she
burst into tears..he !as !eeping because her sons became !iser,but she !as afraid not to #ose
them.
"7A,my boys,the princess said.,o and find your dad./ ad"ise you to stay together as horses on
carriage. And the
boys #eft. +ut as soon as they came out the fortress they !ere a#ready argueing !hich !ay to go.
"&et's go to the north,:ures said."
"-o,#et's go to the south,7#t said.And ,#i$e in their chi#dhood,they started to fight"
"+ecause i gre! into the northern to!er,i !i## go in this direction",:ures said. "And i !i## go to the
south, 7#t said ,cause i gre! into the southest one."
&i$e this,they separated each other.After a !hi#e:ures !as thin$ing' "With a## our argues,!e are sti##
#o"ing each other.A#so our mother as$ed us not to separate.0an i find again my brother?" 7n a "a##ey
he turned to the south,but 7#t !asn't any!here.:ures !as #ost and !ent to the !est through p#ains
!hich !ere so beautifu# that he forgot his brother.(he princess found out !hat !as happened ,and
angry ran to return his sons,but ne"er caught up them cause they !ere running as fast as their #egs
carried them..he !as praying then' "Cear &ord, p#ease ta$e care of my sons. :a$e them immorta#s."
,od heard and transformed then the sons to immorta#s ri"ers.And ri"ers they are e"en today
mentaining their names' :HR1. and 7&(.-o!adays,in our p#aces !anderred by the :ures
ri"er,e"ery chi#dren must $no! the ta#e of :ures and 7#t ri"ers ,beeing proud to #ea"e such a
!onderfu# p#ace.

The #egend of the bee and of the spider
7nce upon a time there !as a !oman and she had t!o chi#dren' a boy and a gir#. (hey set out for
the !or#d to earn their #i"ing. (he boy became an apprentice at a c#oth !ea"er and the gir# carried
stons for a !a##er. When she fe#t her end !as near the mother ca##ed her chi#dren by her side. (he gir#
came immediate#y but the boy didn't !ant to. 3is mother forga"e him but, after her death, the gir#
turned into a bee and the boy into a spider. (he spider has #i"ed a#one e"er since, !ithout any brothers
or sisters, !ithout parents. 3e hides from #ight and fore"er !ea"es his !eb in dar$ corners. 3e is sad
and peop#e a#!ays tear his !eb and $i## him. Where as the bee is happy a## day #ong, f#ying from f#o!er
to f#o!er and #i"es !ith her huge fami#y, brothers and sisters together in a hi"e. 1"erybody #o"es her
because she is industrions and her honey is s!eet and hea#ing and !e a## benefit from her !or$.

The legend of the enchanted horse
7n a stormy night an o#d #ady came to the prince's pa#ace to as$ for she#ter. (he prince sa! her and
to#d her to #ea"e. /f she !anted to !or$ she cou#d get a she#ter. (he o#d #ady changed into a princess
and to#d him ' 9ou ha"e no mercy and you ha"e no sou#. 9ou'## turn into a horse. (he spe## !i## be
bro$en on#y if a maiden !i## gi"e you a gift.' :any years passed and the prince !as unhappy and he
!as sorry for !hat he'd done. A# these years many princesses came to bring him gifts in "ain. 7ne day
a young shepherdess ca##ed ,ira#da, !ho !as in #o"e !ith the prince, pic$ed a sno!drop and she
!rapped it in a !hite paper. 7n the bac$ she !rote !ith !hite and red #etter 'martisor'. When she
came to the prince he !as !andering !hen he had seen those c#ear honest eyes? (he gir# said her
gift !as a symbo# of her #o"e for the prince. .he ga"e him the ':artisor'. When the prince touched her
gift he changed bac$ into a human being, the prince. (hey got married and they #i"ed happi#y e"er
after. (he prince decided that from that year on e"erybody had to remember the =st of :arch and
boys !ere to gi"e the gir#s a :artisor as a sign of gratitude and #o"e.
Check out The Miths and Legends @ Scoala Online !
1dgar A##an 2oe's +iography
7) >erve) 5llen#
5ugust, $?'3#
1dgar A##an 2oe !as born at 44 3o##is .treet, +oston, :ass., on <anuary =J, =B>J, the son of po"erty
stric$en actors, Ca"id, and 1#i;abeth (born Arno#d 2oe. 3is parents !ere then fi##ing an engagement
in a +oston theatre, and the appearances of both, together !ith their sojourns in "arious p#aces during
their !andering careers, are to be p#ain#y traced in the p#ay bi##s of the time.
2aterna# Ancestry
(he father of the poet !as one Ca"id 2oe of +a#timore, :ary#and, !ho had #eft the study of the #a! in
that city to ta$e up a stage career contrary to the desire of his fami#y. (he 2oes had sett#ed in America
some t!o or three generations prior to the birth of 1dgar. (heir #ine is distinct#y traced bac$ to Cring in
the 2arish of Ai#da##en, 0ounty 0a"an, /re#and, and thence into the 2arish of 8en!ic$ in Ayrshire,
.cot#and. 3ence they deri"ed from .cotch*/rish stoc$, !ith !hat trace of the 0e#tic is doubtfu#. (he first
2oes came to America about =K4J. (he immediate paterna# ancestors of the poet #anded at
-e!cast#e, Ce#a!are, in =K5B or a #itt#e ear#ier. (hese !ere <ohn 2oe and his !ife <ane :c+ride 2oe
!ho !ent to sett#e in eastern 2ennsy#"ania. (his coup#e had ten chi#dren in their fami#y, among them
one Ca"id !ho !as the grandfather of the poet. Ca"id 2oe married 1#i;abeth 0airnes, a#so of .cotch*
/rish ancestry, then #i"ing in &ancaster, 2ennsy#"ania, !hence, sometime prior to the outbrea$ of the
American Re"o#ution they mo"ed to +a#timore, :ary#and.
Ca"id 2oe and his !ife, 1#i;abeth 0airnes 2oe, too$ the patriot side in the Re"o#ution. Ca"id !as
acti"e in dri"ing the (ories out of +a#timore and !as appointed "Assistant Ceputy Iuartermaster,"
!hich meant that he !as a #oca# purchasing agent of mi#itary supp#ies for the Re"o#utionary Army. 3e
is said to ha"e been of considerab#e aid to &afayette during the Dirginia and .outhern campaigns, and
for this patriotic acti"ity he recei"ed the courtesy tit#e of ",enera#." 3is !ife 1#i;abeth too$ an acti"e
part in ma$ing c#othes for the 0ontinenta# Army. Ca"id and 1#i;abeth 2oe (.r. had se"en chi#dren
Ca"id, the e#dest son, becoming the father of the poet. (!o sisters of Ca"id, 1#i;a 2oe (after!ard :rs.
3enry 3erring and :aria 2oe (#ater :rs. Wi##iam 0#emm enter into the story of the poet's #ife, the
#atter particu#ar#y, as she became his mother*in*#a! in addition to being his aunt. With her he #i"ed from
=B46 to =B5J.
9oung Ca"id 2oe !as destined for the #a!, but as pre"ious#y mentioned, he fina##y #eft his nati"e city to
go on the stage. 3is first professiona# appearance too$ p#ace at 0har#eston, .. 0., in Cecember, =B>4.
A dramatic notice of this performance in a #oca# paper describes Ca"id 2oe as being extreme#y
diffident !hi#eL
". . .3is "oice seems to be c#ear, me#odious and "ariab#e) !hat its compass may be can on#y be sho!n
!hen he acts unrestrained by timidity. 3is enunciation seemed to be "ery distinct and articu#ate) and
his face and person are much in his fa"or. 3is si;e is of that pitch !e## fitted for genera# action if his
ta#ents shou#d be suited to soc$ and bus$in. . . ."
(his is perhaps the on#y direct e"idence extant of the physica# appearance of the poet's father. -o
pictures of him are $no!n to exist. 3is histrionic po!ers !ere at best "ery #imited. 3e continued to p#ay
in minor parts in "arious .outhern cities and in <anuary, =B>M, married 1#i;abeth Arno#d 3op$ins, a
young chi#d#ess !ido!, a#so an actress, !hose husband had died but a fe! months before. 1#i;abeth
Arno#d 2oe became mother of 1dgar A##an 2oe.
:aterna# Ancestry
(he young !ido! !hom Ca"id 2oe married in =B>M had been born in 1ng#and in the spring of =KBK.
.he !as the daughter of 3enry Arno#d, and 1#i;abeth Arno#d (born .mith both actors at the 0o"ent
,arden (heatre Roya#, &ondon. 3enry Arno#d died apparent#y about =KK4. 3is !ido! continued to
support herse#f and her chi#d by acting and singing, and in =KJM, ta$ing her young daughter !ith her,
she came to America and #anded in +oston. :rs. Arno#d continued her professiona# career in America
at first !ith considerab#e minor success. 1ither immediate#y before, or just after arri"ing in the Hnited
.tates, ho!e"er, she married a second time, one 0har#es (ubbs, an 1ng#ishman of minor parts and
character. (he coup#e continued to act, sing, and dance in "arious cities throughout the eastern
seaboard and the young :iss Arno#d !as soon noticed on the p#ay bi##s appearing in chi#dish ro#es as
a member of the "arious troupes to !hich her fami#y be#onged. :r. and :rs. (ubbs disappeared from
"ie! about =KJB but the career of 1#i;abeth Arno#d, 2oe's mother, can be traced accurate#y by "arious
sho! bi##s and notices in the ne!spapers of the different cities in !hich she p#ayed unti# her death in
=B==. /t !as during her !anderings as an actress that she married 0. C. 3op$ins, himse#f an actor, in
August, =B>F. (here !ere no chi#dren by this union. 3op$ins died three years #ater, and in =B>M, as
pre"ious#y noted, his !ido! !as married to Ca"id 2oe.
(he coup#e continued to p#ay together but !ith "ery minor success. (hey had three chi#dren. Wi##iam
3enry &eonard born in +oston in =B>K, 1dgar born in +oston in =B>J, and Rosa#ie at -orfo#$, Da.,
probab#y in Cecember, =B=>. Cue to their po"erty, !hich !as a#!ays extreme, the first chi#d, 3enry,
had been #eft in the care of his grandparents in +a#timore short#y after his birth. 1dgar !as born !hi#e
his parents !ere fi##ing an engagement at the +oston (heatre. /n the summer of =B>J the 2oes !ent to
-e! 9or$ !here Ca"id 2oe either died or deserted his !ife, probab#y the former. :rs. 2oe !as #eft
!ith the infant 1dgar and some time after!ard ga"e birth to a daughter. A suspicion !as after!ards
thro!n on the paternity of this #ast chi#d and on the reputation of :rs. 2oe, !hich p#ayed an
unfortunate part in the #i"es of her chi#dren. /t is safe to say that it !as unjust.
8rom =B=> on, :rs. 2oe continued, a#though in fai#ing hea#th, to appear in "arious ro#es in -orfo#$, Da.,
0har#eston, .. 0., and Richmond. /n the !inter of =B== she !as o"erta$en by a fata# i##ness and died
on Cecember Bth in circumstances of great misery and po"erty at the house of a .cotch mi##iner in
Richmond. .he !as buried in the churchyard of .t. <ohn's 1piscopa# 0hurch in that city t!o days #ater,
but not !ithout some pious opposition.
:rs. 2oe !as sur"i"ed by three orphaned chi#dren. (!o of these, 1dgar and Rosa#ie, !ere !ith her at
the time of her death and !ere cared for by charitab#e persons. 1dgar, then about t!o years o#d, !as
ta$en into the home of <ohn A##an, a .cotch merchant in fair#y prosperous circumstances, !hi#e the
infant Rosa#ie !as gi"en she#ter by a :r. and :rs. Wi##iam :ac$en;ie. (he A##ans and :ac$en;ies
!ere c#ose friends and neighbors. (he chi#dren remained in these househo#ds, and the circumstances
of their fostering !ere, as time !ent on, equi"a#ent to adoption.
8rances Aee#ing Da#entine A##an, the !ife of the .cotch merchant !ho had gi"en she#ter to the "infant
orphan 1dgar 2oe," !as a chi#d#ess !oman !ho had been married for some years. (he chi#d 1dgar
appears to ha"e been a bright and attracti"e #itt#e boy, and despite some re#uctance on the part of :r.
A##an, he !as soon ensconced as a permanent member of the househo#d. A#though there is some
e"idence of an attempt on the part of paterna# re#ati"es in +a#timore to assert their interest in the chi#d,
the young boy remained as the foster*son of <ohn A##an in Richmond, !here he !as ear#y put to a
schoo# $ept by a .cotch dame and apparent#y #ater to one Wi##iam /r!in, a #oca# schoo#master. (here is
e"ery e"idence that his ear#y years of chi#dhood !ere spent in happy and comfortab#e surroundings.
:rs. A##an and her maiden sister, -ancy Da#entine, !ho resided in the same househo#d, !ere
pecu#iar#y fond of their "pet." 3e seems, indeed, to ha"e been some!hat o"erdressed and spoi#ed as a
"ery #itt#e boy, a propensity on the part of the !omen !hich the foster*father tried to offset by
occasiona# but probab#y !e##timed se"erity.
/n =B=6 the fami#y sai#ed for 1ng#and on the .hip "&othair," ta$ing 1dgar !ith them, After a brief stay in
&ondon they "isited .cotch re#ati"es, the ,a#ts, A##ans, and 8o!#ds, at Ai#marnoc$, /r"ine, and other
p#aces about Ayrshire. A journey !as made to ,#asgo! and then bac$ to &ondon in the #ate fa## of
=B=6 !hen 1dgar !as sent bac$ to .cot#and at /r"ine. (here for a short time he attended the
,rammar .choo#. +y =B=M, ho!e"er, he !as bac$ in &ondon !here his foster*father !as endea"oring
to bui#d up a branch of his Richmond firm, 1##is and A##an, by trading in tobacco and genera#
merchandise. (he fami#y resided at .outhampton Ro!, Russe## .quare, !hi#e the young 1dgar !as
sent to a boarding schoo# $ept by the :isses Cubourgs at =5M .#oane .treet, 0he#sea. 3e remained
there unti# the summer of =B=K. /n the fa## of that year he !as entered at the :anor 3ouse .choo# of
the Re". :r. <ohn +ransby at .to$e -e!ington, then a suburb of &ondon. At this p#ace be remained
unti# some time in the spring of =BF> !hen he !as !ithdra!n to return to America. (he young 2oe's
memories of his fi"e years' stay in .cot#and and 1ng#and !ere exceeding#y "i"id and continued to
furnish him reco##ections for the remainder of his #ife. 3e seems to ha"e been a precocious and
some!hat #ord#y young gent#eman. A curious and "i"id reminiscence of these ear#y schoo# days in
1ng#and remains in his story of "Wi##iam Wi#son." /t is significant of his re#ations !ith his foster*parents
that the bi##s for his 1ng#ish schoo#ing are rendered for :aster A##an. (here can be #itt#e doubt that at
this time :r. A##an regarded him as a son. 7ther e"idence is not #ac$ing.
<ohn A##an's business "entures in &ondon had been unfortunate. 3e returned to the Hnited .tates,
arri"ing in Richmond in August, =BF>, considerab#y embarrassed, a condition in !hich his partner
0har#es 1##is !as a#so in"o#"ed. Assignments of rea# estate !ere e"entua##y made to satisfy creditors.
(he #ife of the A##an fami#y, ho!e"er, continued to be comfortab#e. 1dgar !as sent to an Academy $ept
by Wi##iam +ur$e, #ater by <oseph 3. 0#ar$e, and attended by the sons of the best fami#ies in
Richmond. At schoo# the young 2oe exce##ed in #anguages, oratory, amateur theatrica#s, and attained
a notab#e pro!ess in s!imming. 3e appears to ha"e attracted the attention of his masters and e#ders
by his bri##iance and to ha"e been !e## #i$ed but some!hat a#oof from most of his p#aymates. At a "ery
youthfu# age he began to !rite poetry, his first "erses dating from his ear#y teens. About =BF4 he
became intimate in the home of a schoo#mate, Robert .tanard, !hose mother, <ane .tith .tanard,
too$ a tender interest in the bri##iant young boy, an affection !hich !as ardent#y and romantica##y
returned. /t !as to this #ady that 2oe after!ards addressed his poem "(o 3e#en," beginning...
"3e#en, thy beauty is to me"
:rs. .tanard soon !ent mad and died. (he tragedy !as undoubted#y ta$en to heart by 2oe to !hom it
came as a great b#o! shoc$ing him significant#y. 3e is said on some!hat questionab#e authority to
ha"e haunted her gra"e in the #one#y cemetery by night. (here is no doubt that he continued to cherish
her memory as #ong as be #i"ed.
+e that as it may, ho!e"er, by =BF5 the young poet !ho had been addressing the gir#s of a
neighboring fema#e academy in ju"eni#e #yrics found himse#f fu##y embar$ed upon the troub#ed !aters
of a more adu#t #ife. :rs. .tanard had died) his foster*father <ohn A##an !as in precarious financia#
straits) :rs. A##an's hea#th !as rapid#y fai#ing) and there !as domestic dissension of the most serious
$ind in the househo#d. <ohn A##an had from time to time indu#ged in extra*marita# re#ations. .ome of his
natura# chi#dren !ere then #i"ing in Richmond and the $no!#edge of this in one !ay or another seems
to ha"e become $no!n to his !ife. 3er sorro! !as great. Curing the "isit of &afayette to Richmond in
=BF5 young 2oe, !ho !as an officer in a cadet company, acted as an escort to the o#d ,enera#. (his
ga"e him a ne! sense of his o!n dignity and importance and at the same time he appears in some of
his contacts about the to!n !ith more adu#t companions to ha"e #earned of his foster*father's mode of
#ife. At home 1dgar too$ the part of his mother, and a quarre#, !hich through "arious ramifications
#asted for up!ards of a decade, no! too$ p#ace bet!een 2oe and <ohn A##an.
(he situation !as pecu#iar#y exasperating to a## concerned and the conf#ict dramatic.
:r. A##an, it appears, had at the time of the death of :rs. Ca"id 2oe come into the possession of some
of her correspondence. What !as in these #etters no one !i## e"er $no! as they !ere after!ards
destroyed by :rs. 0#emm at the request of 2oe himse#f. (here may ha"e been some compromising
matter in them. At any rate, in order to insure 1dgar's si#ence as to his o!n affairs, :r. A##an !rote a
#etter to Wi##iam 3enry &eonard 2oe in +a#timore, comp#aining of 1dgar in "ague terms accusing him of
ingratitude, and attac$ing the #egitimacy of the boy's sister Rosa#ie. (he effect of this #etter, and there
may ha"e been others, !as e"ident#y "ery disturbing to both the sons of 1#i;abeth 2oe. 0ertain#y it
must ha"e dra!n the #ines much tighter in the A##an househo#d in Richmond. (hree years #ater !e find
3enry in +a#timore pub#ishing a poem entit#ed "/n a 2oc$et +oo$," !hich sho!s e"ery indication that
the doubts about his sister's #egitimacy had gone home.
Rosa#ie 2oe about this time began to sho! distinct signs of arrested de"e#opment. .he ne"er fu##y
matured, and though she continued to be cherished as a daughter by the :ac$en;ies !ho had first
she#tered her, she remained at best a sorro!fu# reminder of the past to her brother 1dgar. .he out#i"ed
him by many years, fina##y dying in a charitab#e institution in Washington, C. 0.
(he death of :rs. .tanard, the financia# troub#es and consequent irritabi#ity of <ohn A##an, the disputes
and counter charges in the househo#d, and his o!n doubtfu# position thereL for he had ne"er been
adopted and his dependence on charity !as constant#y reiteratedL a## of this pro"ed an uneasy
bac$ground for a young and ambitious poet. /n addition there are indications that :r. A##an as a
practica# .cotchman bad #itt#e or no sympathy for his foster*son's ambitions in the rea#m of #iterature.
/n =BF6 :r. A##an's financia# straits !ere amp#y re#ie"ed by the inheritance from his unc#e Wi##iam ,a#t
of a #arge fortune. 3e found himse#f in short, a "ery !ea#thy man. (he !ho#e sca#e of #i"ing of the
fami#y no! changed to a method of #ife consonant !ith their better condition. A ne! house of
considerab#e pretension !as purchased, and in this #arge and comfortab#e mansion, situated at 8ifth
and :ain .treets in the 0ity of Richmond, a round of entertainments and socia# functions began
despite the fai#ing hea#th of its mistress. 2oe accompanied the fami#y to the ne! house. 3is foster*
father !ithdre! him from :r. 0#ar$e's Academy and had him prepared for the Hni"ersity of Dirginia
!hich under the patronage of (homas <efferson had but recent#y opened its doors.
7n a street nearby #i"ed a #itt#e gir# by the name of .arah 1#mira Royster. 2oe frequented her par#or
!here they sang, and dre! pictures. 1#mira p#ayed the piano !hi#e 1dgar accompanied her on the
f#ute, or they !a#$ed in the gardens c#ose at hand. 3enry 2oe is $no!n to ha"e "isited his brother in
Richmond about this time and to ha"e accompanied 1dgar to the Roysters. +efore 1dgar #eft for the
Hni"ersity he !as engaged to 1#mira. (he affair, ho!e"er, !as not made $no!n to the adu#ts of either
househo#d.
/n 8ebruary, =BFM, 1dgar A. 2oe matricu#ated at the Hni"ersity of Dirginia. 3e !as then on#y a #itt#e
more than se"enteen, but his manhood may be said to ha"e begun.
3is position at the Hni"ersity !as a precarious one. As the "son" of a !ea#thy man he had a great dea#
of credit and 2oe himse#f !as prone to #i"e up to the reputation. 7n the other hand his foster*father
appears e"en at this time to ha"e been so a#ienated from his !ard that he pro"ided him !ith
considerab#y #ess than the amount necessary to pay his !ay. (he young student made a rather
bri##iant record in his studies but a#so fe## in !ith a some!hat fast set of youths. /n order to maintain his
position he began to p#ay hea"i#y) #ost, and used his credit !ith #oca# shop$eepers rec$#ess#y. /t is at
this time a#so that !e first hear of his drin$ing. (he effects of a "ery #itt#e a#coho# on 2oe's constitution
!ere de"astating. 3e appears to ha"e been a bri##iant, but rather eccentric and decided#y ner"ous
youth. Another cause of strain at this period !as the unhappy "progress" of his #o"e affair. :r. and
:rs. Royster !ere e"ident#y a!are of the fact that young 2oe !as no #onger regarded as an heir by his
foster*father. (hey had, of course, soon #earned of his #o"e affair !ith their daughter and no! brought
pressure to brea$ off the match. 2oe's #etters to his s!eetheart !ere intercepted) 1#mira !as forbidden
to !rite) the attentions of an e#igib#e young bache#or, A. +arrett .he#ton, !ere pressed upon her, and
she !as fina##y sent a!ay for a !hi#e into safe $eeping. /n the meantime :r. A##an !as informed of the
financia# difficu#ties of his !ard !hose indebtedness is said to ha"e tota##ed NF6>>. 3is anger became
extreme, and upon the return of 2oe to Richmond to spend the 0hristmas ho#idays of =BFM, he !as
ad"ised by his guardian that he cou#d not return to the Hni"ersity.
(he opening !ee$s of =BFK !ere spent in Richmond in the most strained re#ation bet!een young 2oe
and :r. A##an. 2oe's career at the Hni"ersity had no doubt been "ery unsatisfactory. 7n the other hand
:r. A##an's anger !as imp#acab#e and extreme. 3e refused to pay any of his !ard's debts of honor, or
any other debts, thereby reducing the proud spirit of the youngster !hom he had raised as his son to
despair. (he young 2oe !as pressed by !arrants. 3is foster*father used the opportunity to insist upon
his reading #a! and abandoning a## #iterary ambitions. 7n this roc$ apparent#y they fina##y sp#it. A
"io#ent quarre# too$ p#ace bet!een them in :arch, =BFK, at the conc#usion of !hich the young poet
dashed into the street and !ent to an inn !hence he !rote demanding his trun$, persona# be#ongings
and c#othes. .e"era# #etters passed bet!een the t!o !ithout a reconci#iation being effected. (heir
mutua# grie"ances !ere rehearsed and 2oe fina##y conc#uded, despite his utter destitution, to !or$ his
!ay -orth to +oston, then the #iterary capita# of the Hnited .tates. :r. A##an it appears tried to
interfere, but his !ife and her sister seem to ha"e supp#ied 2oe secret#y !ith a sma## sum of money by
means of one of the s#a"es before the young man set out on his tra"e#s.
Hnder the assumed name of 3enri &e Rennet he #eft Richmond !ith one companion, 1bene;er
+ur#ing, and reached -orfo#$, Da. 3ere +ur#ing #eft him !hi#e 2oe !ent by ship to +oston !here he
arri"ed a#most penni#ess some time in Apri#, =BFK. 3e did not, as has so often been asserted, e"en by
himse#f, go abroad. (he dates of his $no!n !hereabouts ta$en from #etters and documents at this time
definite#y prec#ude e"en the possibi#ity of a 1uropean trip.
/n +oston there is some obscure e"idence that 2oe attempted to support himse#f by !riting for a
ne!spaper. /t is certain, ho!e"er, that !hi#e in +oston during the spring and summer of =BFK he made
friends !ith a young printer, one 0a#"in 8. .. (homas then ne!#y embar$ed in the trade, and pre"ai#ed
on him to print a "o#ume of "erse, (amer#ane and 7ther 2oems. (he printer does not appear to ha"e
$no!n 2oe by any but an assumed name. (he tit#e page of the #itt#e "o#ume proc#aimed the !or$ to be
"+y A +ostonian." (he bu#$ of it, probab#y due to 2oe's inabi#ity to recompense the printer, !as
apparent#y destroyed or suffered to #ie in neg#ect. 7n#y a fe! copies of it got into circu#ation and on#y
t!o obscure notices appeared. 2oe himse#f seems to ha"e secured scarce#y some for persona# use. /n
the meantime the author of this un$no!n but no! famous #itt#e "o#ume !as reduced to the greatest
extremity. (ota##y !ithout means and too proud or unab#e to appea# to Richmond, he fina##y as a
desperate measure en#isted in the Hnited .tates Army on :ay FM, =BFK, under the assumed name of
1dgar A. 2erry. 3e !as assigned to +attery "3" of the 8irst H. .. Arti##ery and spent the summer of
=BFK in the barrac$s of 8ort /ndependence, +oston 3arbor. At the end of 7ctober his regiment !as
ordered to 8ort :ou#trie, 0har#eston, .. 0.
(he ensuing t!o and a ha#f years form a curious inter#ude in the #ife of a poet. 2oe spent the time
bet!een -o"ember, =BFK, and Cecember, =BFJ, doing garrison duty as an en#isted man at 8t.
:ou#trie, .. 0. (he fort !as #ocated on .u##i"an's /s#and at the mouth of the harbor. (he young so#dier
had a good dea# of spare time on his hands !hich !as e"ident#y spent in !andering a#ong the
beaches, !riting poetry, and reading. 3is mi#itary duties !ere #ight and !ho##y c#erica#, as he had soon
been noticed by his officers better fitted for office !or$ than for practice at the great*guns. 7f this
period, and of his doings and imaginings, the best record is the ",o#d +ug," !ritten many years #ater,
but rep#ete !ith exact #oca# co#or and scenes. 2oe's duties e"ident#y brought him into c#ose contact
!ith his officers. 3e !as steady, sober, and inte##igent) and promotion ensued. We soon find him #isted
as an "artificer," the first step out of the ran$s. 3e himse#f, ho!e"er, fe#t that his #ife !as being !asted
and some time in =BFB correspondence !as resumed !ith his foster*father in Richmond, the purport
of !hich !as a request for reconci#iation and a return to ci"i# #ife. A#though 2oe's #etters !ere touching,
appea#ing, and penitent, his guardian !as obstinate and the youth remained at his post unti#
Cecember, =BFB, !hen his regiment !as ordered to 8ortress :onroe, Dirginia.
.eeing that his guardian !ou#d not consent to ha"ing him return home, he no! concei"ed the idea of
entering West 2oint. .ome of the officers of his regiment, a surgeon in particu#ar, became interested,
and inf#uence !as brought to bear on <ohn A##an. 7n <anuary =, =BFJ, 2oe, sti## ser"ing under the
name of 2erry, !as promoted to .ergeant*:ajor of his regiment, the highest ran$ open to an en#isted
man. 3is #etters home became more insistent and to them !ere no! added the prayers of :rs. A##an,
!ho !as dying. .he desired to see her "dear boy" before she expired. .trange as it may seem, <ohn
A##an remained firm unti# the "ery #ast. 3e fina##y sent for his foster*son, then on#y a fe! mi#es a!ay
from Richmond, but it !as too #ate. :rs. A##an died before 2oe arri"ed home, and despite her dying
request not to be buried unti# her foster*son returned, her husband proceeded !ith the funera#. When
2oe arri"ed at the house a fe! hours #ater a## that he #o"ed most !as in the ground. 3is agony at the
gra"e is said to ha"e been extreme.
:rs. A##an had extracted a promise from her husband ne"erthe#ess, not to abandon 2oe. A partia#
reconci#iation no! too$ p#ace and :r. A##an consented to he#p 2oe in his p#an to enter West 2oint.
&etters !ere !ritten to the 0o#one# of his regiment, a substitute !as secured, and the young poet
found himse#f discharged from the army on Apri# =6, =BFJ. 3e returned for a short period to
Richmond.
2oe remained on#y a short time at "home." 3e secured, #arge#y through his o!n so#icitation, a number
of #etters of inf#uence to the War Cepartment. Armed !ith these, and a "ery co#d #etter from his
guardian !ho a"erred, "8ran$#y, sir, do / dec#are that he is no re#ation to me !hate"er"L he set out
about :ay Kth for Washington !here he presented his credentia#s, inc#uding a number of
recommendations of his officers couched in the highest terms, to the .ecretary of War, :r. 1aton. A
#ong de#ay of a#most a year occurred, during !hich his appointment to West 2oint !as in doubt.
Curing most of this period, :ay, =BFJ, to the end of that year, he resided in +a#timore. 3is foster*father
supp#ied him from time to time !ith sma## sums just sufficient to $eep him a#i"e, and remained co#d and
suspicious of his good intentions as to West 2oint. /n the meantime young 2oe, after being robbed by
a cousin at a hote#, sought she#ter !ith his Aunt :aria 0#emm, the sister of his father. /n the househo#d
of this good !oman, !ho !as from the first his guardian ange#, 2oe found his grandmother, :rs. Ca"id
2oe, .r., then an aged and para#y;ed !oman, his brother 3enry, and his first cousin Dirginia 0#emm, a
#itt#e gir# about se"en years o#d. .he #ater became the poet's !ife. Curing this stay in +a#timore 2oe
exerted himse#f to further his #iterary name. .hort#y after his arri"a# !e find him ca##ing on Wi##iam Wirt,
just retired from acti"e po#itica# #ife in Washington, author of "&etters of a +ritish .py," and a man of
considerab#e #iterary reputation. 2oe #eft !ith Wirt the manuscript of "A# Aaraaf" and recei"ed from him
a #etter of ad"ice rather than recommendation. (he incident, ho!e"er, sho!s that he had then on hand
the manuscript for a second "o#ume of poems. (hese consisted of se"era# !hich had appeared in his
first "o#ume, much re"ised, and some ne! ones.
3e no! !ent to 2hi#ade#phia and #eft the manuscript !ith 0arey, &ea and 0arey, a then famous
pub#ishing firm, !ho demanded a guarantee before they !ou#d print it. 2oe !rote to his guardian
as$ing him to support the #itt#e "o#ume to the extent of N=>>, but recei"ed an angry denia# and strict
censure for contemp#ating such an action. +y <u#y FBth he bad, ho!e"er, apparent#y arranged for
pub#ication of the "o#ume in +a#timore and !rote to 0arey, &ea and 0arey !ithdra!ing the manuscript.
(hrough +a#timore friends and re#ati"es he !as enab#ed to reach the ear of <ohn -ea#, then an
inf#uentia# +oston editor, and the forthcoming !or$ recei"ed some he#pfu# notices in the .eptember
and Cecember issues of the 9an$ee for =BFJ. (he boo$ itse#f, entit#ed A# Aaraaf, (amer#ane and :inor
2oems, !as pub#ished by 3atch and Cunning in +a#timore in Cecember, =BFJ. .ome!hat mo##ified by
this success and the notice it attracted, but much more so by the assurance that his foster*son !as
about to recei"e his #ong de#ayed appointment to the :i#itary Academy, :r. A##an permitted 1dgar to
return to Richmond !here fie stayed from <anuary to :ay, =B4>, at the "big mansion." 3is #ife in
+a#timore had been a po"erty*haunted one, and the return to his former mode of existence !as
undoubtfu##y a !e#come one to 2oe.
:r. A##an, ho!e"er, had his o!n pri"ate reasons for desiring to ha"e his !ard out of Richmond as
soon as possib#e. 3e had resumed intimate re#ations !ith a former companion after the death of his
!ife and !as no! expecting an un!e#come addition to his natura# chi#dren. Iuarre#s !ith 2oe !ere
rene!ed. After a pecu#iar#y bitter one 2oe !rote a #etter to a former acquaintance in the army, a
sergeant to !hom he o!ed a sma## sum of money. /n this he permitted himse#f to ma$e an unfortunate
statement about his guardian. (he #etter !as #ater used by the man to co##ect from :r. A##an the
amount due him and !as the fina# cause of 2oe's being cast off.
(he appointment to the :i#itary Academy !as recei"ed at the end of :arch. (he examinations for
entrance !ere he#d at West 2oint at the end of <une, and in :ay 2oe bade fare!e## to his guardian
and #eft for the :i#itary Academy, "isiting his +a#timore re#ati"es on the !ay. 7n <u#y =, =B4>, he too$
the oath and !as admitted as cadet at West 2oint.
2oe' remained at the Hnited .tates :i#itary Academy from <une F6, =B4>, to 8ebruary =J, =B4=. (here
can be no doubt that the mi#itary career !as distastefu# to him and that be had been forced into it by
his guardian in !hose fortune he might sti## hope to share. :r. A##an, ho!e"er, regarded his duties as
fu#fi##ed, !ith 1dgar pro"ided for at the pub#ic charge, and !as g#ad to ha"e him a!ay from Richmond.
7n the day that 2oe entered West 2oint, his guardian !as presented !ith a pair of natura# t!ins for
!hom he #ater on arranged in his !i##. (his did not pre"ent his marrying a second time, ne"erthe#ess,
and the ne! re#ation made him more than e"er inimica# to his foster son.
1dgar 2oe continued to perform his duties creditab#y at the :i#itary Academy !hen a## hope of any
he#p in the future from :r. A##an !as shattered by a #etter from Richmond !hich diso!ned him. (he
so#dier had presented to his guardian the #etter !ritten by 2oe a year before, and the rage of :r. A##an
!as extreme. Rea#i;ing that a## hope of a competence from Richmond !as no! at an end, 2oe
decided to ta$e things in to his o!n hands and #ea"e the army fore"er. As he cou#d not obtain :r.
A##an's consent to resign he !ent on stri$e and neg#ected to attend formations, c#asses, or church. 3e
!as court martia##ed and dismissed for being disobedient. Whi#e at the :i#itary Academy he had
arranged !ith 1#am +#iss, a -e! 9or$ pub#isher, to bring out a third "o#ume of poems to !hich the
student body at the Academy had subscribed.
/n 8ebruary, =B4=, he !ent to -e! 9or$. 3e !as penni#ess, i##y c#ad, and near#y died of a "co#d"
comp#icated by interna# ear troub#e, after reaching the city.
8orced to eat humb#e pie he again appea#ed to his guardian, but in "ain. 3e remained in -e! 9or$
#ong enough to see his third "o#ume off the press. /t !as entit#ed 2oems, .econd 1dition, and
contained a preface addressed to "Cear +.," a person un$no!n, in !hich some of the young author's
critica# opinions, #arge#y 'ta$en from 0o#eridge, !ere first set forth.
After attempting aborti"e#y to obtain #etters of introduction to &afayette from 0o#. (hayer, the
.uperintendent at West 2oint, in order to join the 2o#ish patriots then re"o#ting against Russia, 2oe #eft
-e! 9or$ and journeyed by !ay of 2hi#ade#phia to +a#timore. 3e arri"ed in the #atter city some time
about the end of :arch, =B4=, and again too$ up his residence at :echanics Ro!, :i#$ .treet, !ith his
aunt :aria 0#emm and her daughter Dirginia. 3is brother 3enry !as then in i## hea#th, "gi"en o"er to
drin$," and dying. (he next four years !ere spent in +a#timore under conditions of extreme po"erty.
2oe !as sti## obscure and his doings for much of the time are "ery "ague. A fe! facts, ho!e"er, can
be certain#y g#impsed.
Curing most of the +a#timore period 2oe must ha"e fo##o!ed the #ife of a rec#use. 3e no! began to
turn his attention to prose and !as ab#e to p#ace a fe! stories !ith a 2hi#ade#phia pub#ication. 3is
brother 3enry died in August, =B4=. 1dgar continued to #i"e !ith the 0#emms. (he househo#d !as
po"erty stric$en, he himse#f !as not in "ery good hea#th part of the time. What the fami#y #i"ed on is not
c#ear. Attempts !ere made to interest :r. A##an once more in his beha#f but in "ain. -o re#ief came
from Richmond except upon one occasion !hen on account of a debt contracted by his brother 3enry,
1dgar !as in danger of being imprisoned. :r. A##an sent a be#ated response !hich !as the #ast that
2oe e"er recei"ed from him. 2oe is $no!n to ha"e paid ardent attention to :ary Ce"ereaux, a young
gir# !ho #i"ed c#ose by. 3e !as refused, and horse!hipped the gir#'s unc#e. At this time he a#so
frequented the houses of his re#ati"es, the 2oes, and 3errings, especia##y the #atter, /t !as then, too
that he !as hard at !or$ perfecting his art as a !riter of short stories, and upon his on#y drama,
"2o#itian."
/n 7ctober, =B44, he competed for a pri;e of N6> offered for the best short story submitted to a
+a#timore paper, (he .aturday Disitor. (he pri;e !as a!arded by a committee of !e## $no!n citi;ens
to 2oe's "(he :anuscript 8ound in a +ott#e." /t !as his first notab#e success and mar$s his emergence
into fame. (he cash !as gratefu# to his necessity, but a more important effect of the contest !as the
he#p gi"en to the po"erty stric$en young poet by <ohn 2. Aennedy, a gent#eman of +a#timore of
considerab#e means, a $ind heart, and a !riter of parts himse#f. :r. Aennedy by "arious time#y acts of
charity and inf#uence set 2oe upon the !ay to fame. 3e, Aennedy, enab#ed 2oe to p#ace some of his
stories and introduced him to (homas White, the editor of the .outhern &iterary :essenger, pub#ished
in Richmond, Da. 2oe no! began to contribute re"ie!s, and short stories to that periodica# and !as
fina##y in"ited in =B46 to come to Richmond as an assistant editor. /n the mean!hi#e :r. A##an had
died, in =B45, and there !as no mention of 2oe in his !i##. (!o i##*ad"ised trips to Richmond by 2oe
himse#f bet!een =B4F and =B45 had on#y succeeded in further estranging his former guardian and the
A##an fami#y. (hey remained embittered to the #ast. /n <u#y, =B46, 2oe #eft +a#timore to ta$e up his ne!
editoria# duties in Richmond.
As an editor, considered pure#y from the aspect of the des$ and chair, 2oe !as a decided success.
.ubscriptions began to mount for the .outhern &iterary :essenger. :r. White might !e## ha"e been
satisfied. 3e !as a $ind#y man and !e## disposed. /t is significant of 2oe's inabi#ity to #et stimu#ants
a#one that !ithin a fe! !ee$s after arri"ing in Richmond he found himse#f discharged. 3e returned to
+a#timore and there married secret#y on .eptember FF, =B46, his first cousin Dirginia 0#emm. .he !as
on#y about thirteen years o#d at the time and the secret marriage !as caused by the opposition of
re#ati"es to so ear#y a union. 2oe no! app#ied again to :r. White !ith promises to abstain, and !as
reinstated in his o#d position upon good beha"ior and !ith a father#y !arning. :rs. 0#emm and her
daughter Dirginia fo##o!ed 2oe to Richmond and too$ up their residence !ith him in a boarding house
on 0apito# .quare.
2oe remained in Richmond as assistant editor to :r. White on the .outhern &iterary :essenger from
the autumn of =B46 to <anuary, =B4K. Curing his connection !ith the paper its circu#ation increased
from K>> to 46>>. /t attracted nationa# attention, and it is safe to say it !as initia##y due to 2oe that it
became the most inf#uentia# periodica# of the .outh. /ts reputation !as after!ard maintained and
increased by other men of considerab#e journa#istic abi#ity.
(he tas$ of the young editor ranged from pure#y hac$ !or$ of a fran$#y journa#istic nature to
contributions to #iterature. 3e !rote poems, boo$ re"ie!s, genera# and particu#ar #iterary criticism, and
short stories both seria# and comp#ete. (he boo$ re"ie!s "aried from comment on 0o#eridge's
Reco##ections to references about others such as :rs. .igourney's &etters to 9oung &adies, in short
from !e## reasoned and often trenchant critiques to mere notices !ith a s#ight critica# comment. .ome
of the poems !hich had pre"ious#y appeared in the "o#umes of poetry a#ready a##uded to !ere
repub#ished considerab#y re"ised. (his !as fo##o!ing out a po#icy of more or #ess constant re"ision and
repub#ishing in redacted form !hich 2oe continued throughout his career. Among the most notab#e of
the ne! poems to appear at this time !ere, "(o 3e#en," "/rene," or the ".#eeper," "/srafe#," and
"Oante."
(he genera# tone of #iterary criticism in the Hnited .tates at the time 2oe began to !rite for the
.outhern &iterary :essenger !as either perfunctory, fu#some, or du##. (he comment of the young man
in Richmond !as interesting, disturbing and refreshing. 3is frequent se"erity e#icited rep#y and remar$,
and though he aroused antagonism in some quarters, his presence on the scene and the trenchancy
of his sty#e became more and more e"ident. A number of the stories !hich 2oe had prepared for
"(a#es of the 8o#io 0#ub" in +a#timore before recei"ing the .aturday Disitor 2ri;e, he no! pub#ished in
the :essenger. .uch stories as ":et;engerstein" attracted considerab#e notice, as they !e## might,
and added not a #itt#e to his reputation. /n some of them a mar$ed morbidity !as e"en then noted and
deprecated. .uch deprecatory, comment, ho!e"er, did not pre"ent their unique fascination from being
fe#t. Hnder the tit#e of "2ina$idia" the young editor a#so pub#ished at this time a co##ection of curious
g#eanings co"ering a !ide fie#d of interest !hich !ere ta$en from his commonp#ace boo$. :any of
these he used again #ater in the Cemocratic Re"ie! under the tit#e of ":argina#ia."
2oe !as described about this time as being "gracefu#, and !ith dar$, cur#ing hair and magnificent
eyes, !earing a +yron co##ar and #oo$ing e"ery inch a poet." (he ear#iest $no!n portrait of him dates
from his ear#y days on the :essenger and sho!s him !ith sideburns and a s#ight#y sardonic cast of
countenance for so young a man. 1"en at this date he !as e"ident#y some!hat fragi#e and de#icate.
3is comp#exion !hich #ater became quite sa##o! is described as ha"ing been o#i"e.
7f his pri"ate affairs the most important e"ent of the Richmond epoch !as his second marriage to his
cousin Dirginia. (he reasons for this appear to be sufficient#y ob"ious. (he first marriage in +a#timore
had been c#andestine !ith :rs. 0#emm as the on#y !itness. /t had been opposed by inf#uentia#
re#ati"es and had ne"er been made pub#ic. A## exp#anations !ere ob"iated by a second marriage in
pub#ic, nothing !as said about the first affair, and on :ay =M, =B4>, a marriage bond !as signed in the
3ustings 0ourt of the 0ity of Richmond !hich described Dirginia 0#emm as t!enty*one years o#d. .he
!as, as a matter of fact, #ess than fourteen years of age at the time, and appeared to be a chi#d. (he
!edding too$ p#ace in a boarding house $ept by a :rs. 9arrington, in the company of friends, a
2resbyterian di"ine by the name of Amasa 0on"erse officiating. After a simp#e ceremony the coup#e
#eft for their honeymoon !hich !as spent at 2etersburg, Dirginia, at the house of a :r. 3iram 3aines,
editor of the #oca# paper. 2oe !as bac$ in Richmond before the end of :ay, =B4M, at his des$ on the
:essenger. :r. White had promised him an increase of sa#ary #ater on.
After his marriage, indeed for some time before, the poet's correspondence !ith re#ati"es and friends
sho!s that he !as desirous of setting up house$eeping. (he p#an fo##o!ed !as to so#icit funds for :rs.
0#emm and Dirginia in order to estab#ish a boarding house. A#though some sma## aid, "#oans," !ere
obtained, the scheme fe## through, and the #itt#e fami#y mo"ed to a cheap tenement on .e"enth .treet,
!here they seem to ha"e remained unti# the end of their stay in Richmond.
2oe continued his editoria# !or$ and from his obser"ation, experience, and ambition began to e"o#"e
in his mind a scheme of !hich the beginnings can be traced bac$ to +a#timore. /t !as his hope to
estab#ish and to be the editor of a great nationa# #iterary maga;ine. (hat 2oe !as one of the first men
in America to understand the possibi#ities of modern journa#ism from a maga;ine standpoint there can
be no doubt. 8rom then on unti# the end of his story it !as the dar#ing scheme of his #ife. :isfortune
and his o!n persona#ity, rather than the theories of journa#ism !hich he entertained, !ere responsib#e
for his fai#ure to rea#i;e his ambition.
3e no! began to thin$ of going -orth to estab#ish the ne! pub#ication, a mo"e !hich his gro!ing
reputation and the constant#y increasing friction !ith his editor*in*chief ser"ed to hasten. 2oe !as
bri##iant but unsuited to !or$ in a subordinate capacity. :r. White in a## justice must be said to ha"e
been patient. 3e !as, ho!e"er, patroni;ed upon occasions by his "ersati#e young editor, and there are
a#so indications that in the fa## of =B4M 2oe had once more fa##en from grace, and in spite of his !e##*
meant promises to White, !as again resorting from time to time to the bott#e. /n addition to this he
seems to ha"e been rest#ess. (a$ing ad"antage of contacts !hich he had made by correspondence in
-e! 9or$ !ith such men as 2rofessor 0har#es Anthon, <ohn A. 2au#ding, the 3arper +rothers, and
others, he decided to remo"e to that city.
0onsequent#y in <anuary, =B4K, he !ound up his affairs !ith the .outhern &iterary :essenger and :r.
White, and ta$ing his fami#y !ith him #eft for -e! 9or$, (hey appear to ha"e arri"ed there some time
about the end of 8ebruary, =B4K, and to ha"e ta$en #odgings at the corner of .ixth A"enue and
Wa"er#y 2#ace, sharing a f#oor !ith one Wi##iam ,o!ans, a boo$se##er, !ho !as of considerab#e
ser"ice to 2oe.
+efore #ea"ing Richmond, in the summer of =B4M, 2oe had made some attempt to ha"e the stories
comprising the "(a#es of the 8o#io 0#ub" pub#ished in "o#ume form. (he manuscripts had been #eft
origina##y !ith 0arey and &ea / in 2hi#ade#phia !ho $ept them for some time under consideration but
had fina##y returned them, minus one story, to the author in 8ebruary, =B4M. 2oe then mai#ed to <. A.
2au#ding in -e! 9or$ !ho submitted them to 3arpers. (he resu#t !as another refusa#. 2au#ding had
!ritten to 2oe, ho!e"er, !hen he returned the stories, suggesting a #ong tit#e in t!o "o#umes, a "ery
popu#ar format. 7ut of this suggestion had gro!n a #ong story of ad"enture, ship!rec$, and horrib#e
suffering in the then un$no!n southern hemisphere. /t !as ca##ed "(he -arrati"e of Arthur ,ordon
2ym" and !as fina##y accepted by 3arpers, !ho pub#ished it in =B4B in the Hnited .tates. Wi#ey and
2utnam produced an edition in 1ng#and !here it !as #ater pirated. (his !as 2oe's first boo$ of prose
a#though his fourth bound "o#ume, three "o#umes of poetry ha"ing preceded it. (he story appeared
seria##y in the .outhern &iterary :essenger e"en after 2oe had se"ered his editoria# connection. /t
purported to be !ritten by Arthur ,ordon 2ym himse#f and the rea# author !as mentioned on#y in the
preface. (he type of ad"enture story !hich "(he -arrati"e of Arthur ,ordon 2ym" c#ose#y fo##o!ed !as
popu#ar at the time. 2oe mere#y a##o!ed his imagination to dea# !ith fami#iar materia# found in such
boo$s as "(he :utiny of the +ounty", ":ore##'s -arrati"e of 8our Doyages to the 2acific", and the #i$e.
3is immediate interest in the Antarctic seems to ha"e arisen from the preparation then being made by
one <. - . Reyno#ds for a go"ernment expedition to those parts. -athanie# 3a!thorne !as a#so
interested in the same scheme, !hich, ho!e"er, came to nothing. (he success of the boo$ !as sma##
and brought the author "ery #itt#e fame and #ess cash.
A short !hi#e after arri"ing in -e! 9or$, 2oe, Dirginia and :rs. 0#emm mo"ed to a sma## house at =4
P 0armine .treet, !here :rs. 0#emm too$ boarders in order to ma$e a #i"ing. 2oe !as recei"ing near
nothing at a##. /t !as a period of financia# panic and #iterary !or$ !as a#most impossib#e to obtain. (he
2oes !ere accompanied to their ne! domici#e by the boo$se##er ,o!ans !ho seems to ha"e
introduced the poet to a number of #iterary peop#e but !ith sma## resu#t. (he po"erty of the fami#y !as
no! extreme. Cespite this, ne"erthe#ess, 2oe continued to !rite. (he chief items !hich can be traced
to this first rather brief sojourn in -e! 9or$ are a re"ie! of Arbia 2etraea in the -e! 9or$ Re"ie!,
edited by Cr. 3a!$s, ".iopeLa 8ab#e," pub#ished in the +a#timore +oo$ in =B4J, and a ta#e ca##ed
"Don <ung, the :ystic," !hich appeared in the American :onth#y :aga;ine for <une, =B4K.
(he p#ans for starting a maga;ine of his o!n !ou#d at that time, o!ing to the financia# depression,
ha"e met no response. 2oe, indeed, !as unab#e to obtain e"en a minor editoria# position or sufficient
hac$ !or$ to enab#e him to exist. 3is doings at this time must fore"er remain some!hat obscure.
2robab#y through ,o!ans he !as thro!n into contact !ith <ames 2edder, an 1ng#ishman of a#most
neg#ib#e #iterary abi#ity but a $ind#y man. 2edder about this time !as engaged in estab#ishing for
himse#f maga;ine connections in 2hi#ade#phia, !here his sisters resided. (hrough him it seems quite
#i$e#y that 2oe !as induced to #ea"e -e! 9or$ and to mo"e to 2hi#ade#phia, then the great pub#ishing
center of the Hnited .tates. At any rate !e find him in 2hi#ade#phia about the end of August, =B4B,
boarding together !ith his fami#y and <ames 2edder at a #odging house $ept by the sisters of the
1ng#ishman on (!e#fth .treet, a #itt#e abo"e :u#berry (Arch. 2oe !as soon definite#y engaged upon
t!o #iterary projects, the editing of a text boo$ on 0oncho#ogy and the no! #ong deferred pub#ication of
his co##ected ta#es.
.hort#y after the arri"a# in 2hi#ade#phia 2oe mo"ed nearer the do!nto!n pub#ishing and engra"ing
shops to a house at 8ourth and Arch (then :u#berry !here he continued to reside unti# .eptember 5,
=B4B. 3e !as no! engaged in editing (he 0oncho#ogists 8irst +oo$, or a .ystem of (estaceous
:a#acio#ogy, a schoo# text to !hich he #ent his name. /t !as pure#y a piece of hac$ !or$ and has
nothing to do !ith the creati"e or artistic !ritings of 2oe. Among co##ectors the "o#ume is no! much
sought after. At #east nine editions are $no!n to exist, the first !as pub#ished in Apri#, =B4K, by
3as!e##, +arrington and 3as!e##. 2oe !rote the preface and the introduction, and !as assisted in his
arrangement of the text and i##ustrations by a :r. /saac &ee and 2rofessor (homas Wyatt. +ergman,
Ce +#ain"i##e, and 2ar$inson are quoted, and 0u"ier hea"i#y dra!n upon. (he beautifu##y engra"ed
p#ates of she##s !ere pirated from (he 0oncho#ogists (ext +oo$, a !or$ by an 1ng#ishman, 0aptain
(homas +ro!n, to !hom no credit !as gi"en. 2oe !as after!ards attac$ed for this and accused of
p#agiarism. (he truth is that the custom of pirating materia# for schoo# texts !as then a#most uni"ersa#
and "ery #itt#e b#aim can be #aid upon 2oe. 3e recei"ed N6> for the use of his name as editor. /n the
series of 2oe's bound !or$s this !as the fifth.
(his schoo# text !as mere#y a financia# transaction. 2oe no! turned his attention to pub#ishing his
short stories. Arrangement !as made to bring out his co##ected ta#es under the tit#e of (a#es of the
,rotesque and Arabesque in t!o thin "o#umes. (hey !ere pub#ished in Cecember, =B4J, by &ea and
+#anchard of 2hi#ade#phia, (he tit#e page bore the date =B5>. (he author recei"ed no roya#ty for his
!or$ but on#y a fe! copies to distribute to his friends. (he pub#isher assumed the ris$, not a "ery good
one, for the "o#umes so#d "ery s#o!#y. (here !ere fourteen stories in the first "o#ume and ten in the
second, !hich tota# comprised a## the ta#es pub#ished up to that time by the author and "Why the &itt#e
8renchman Wears 3is 3and in a .#ing," not appearing ti## #ater. (his !as 2oe's sixth "enture !ith a
bound !or$, none of, !hich had been to any extent successfu# from financia# standpoint.
/n the meantime 2oe had secured a position !ith Wi##iam 1. +urton, the pub#isher of +urton's
,ent#eman's :aga;ine. :r. +urton !as an 1ng#ishman, an actor at his best in broad farce, a theatre
manager, and a journa#ist. (o this maga;ine 2oe contributed boo$ re"ie!s, artic#es on sport, at #east
fi"e notab#e ta#es and a fe! poems, "(o #anthe in 3ea"en" being the most notab#e of the #atter. /t !as
in +urton's that "(he 8a## of the 3ouse of Hsher," "Wi##iam Wi#son," and ":ore##a" appeared. At the
same time 2oe !as in correspondence !ith se"era# #iterary figures among !hom Washington /r"ing
!as the most prominent.
2oe's connection !ith +urton did not #ast #ong. (here !as considerab#e friction bet!een the t!o. At
one time 2oe !ithdre! but !as pre"ai#ed on to return. 3is sa#ary !as sma##, his !or$ uncongenia#, and
some!hat spasmodic. 3e !as again in i## hea#th !hether due in part to the use of stimu#ants is not
certain. At any rate he and :r. +urton cou#d not agree. (he #atter so#d his maga;ine to ,eorge Rex
,raham in 7ctober, =B5>, and 2oe !as retained by the ne! editor, one of the most ab#e journa#ists of
the time. 7!ing to i## hea#th 2oe did not assume his duties on the ne! maga;ine, ,raham's, unti#
<anuary, =B5=, !hen traces of his pen are p#ain#y e"ident on its pages.
3e !as then #i"ing in a #itt#e bric$ house at the junction of 0oates .treet and 8airmont Cri"e,
2hi#ade#phia, !here he had mo"ed, probab#y in the fa## of =B4J. /t !as from this d!e##ing that he issued
in the fa## of =B5> his "2rospectus of the 2enn :aga;ine, a :onth#y &iterary journa# to be edited and
pub#ished in the city of 2hi#ade#phia by 1dgar A. 2oe." /n this prospectus 2oe's theories of a maga;ine
are made quite c#ear. 3e hoped to recei"e enough subscriptions to pro"ide funds to #aunch the
underta$ing. A considerab#e number of persons subscribed but the affairs of the prospecti"e editor
!ere in such a condition that he !as forced to abandon his p#an in order to ta$e a sa#aried position
!ith :r. ,raham. (he 2enn :aga;ine !as consequent#y deferred !hi#e 2oe too$ a des$ !ith :r.
,raham at NB>> a year.
(he success of ,raham's :aga;ine !as phenomena#. (he subscriptions rose from 6>>> to 5>,>>> in
about eighteen months, the increase being due to 2oe's ab#e editing, to the number of artic#es and
poems secured by his so#iciting notab#e !riters to contribute, and to the po#icy of :r. ,raham !ho !as
#a"ish in his i##ustrations and "ery generous in his fees to authors.
(he period of 2oe's association !ith :r. ,raham !hich #asted from <anuary, =B5=, to Apri#, =B5F, !as
the most financia##y easy period in his #ife. 3is earnings !ere sma##, but sufficient to $eep him and his
fami#y in some comfort. /t !as at this time that he de"e#oped the ta#e of ratiocination and pub#ished
"(he :urders in the Rue :orgue" and other stories of crime and its detection. 3e became a#so
interested in cryptograms and their so#ution, and in =B5F pub#ished in the Co##ar -e!spaper for <une
F>th of that year his story of "(he ,o#d +ug" in !hich the so#ution of a cipher is a component of the
p#ot. 8or this story he recei"ed a prise of N=>>. .ome of 2oe's most reputed !or$ appeared in
,raham's and attracted considerab#e attention. 3e no! began to become !ide#y $no!n as an ab#e
editor, a bri##iant and se"ere of thri##ing ta#es, and a poet. 3is connection !ith ,raham, ho!e"er, !as of
short duration. 3e !as impatient of his subordinate position at a sma## sa#ary, hopefu# of starting his
o!n maga;ine, and a#so gi"en to drin$. /n Apri#, =B5F, his "irregu#arities" caused :r. ,raham to
emp#oy Rufus Wi#mot ,ris!o#d, the most noted American antho#ogist of his time, and a "ery ab#e
editor, in p#ace of 2oe. 8inding ,ris!o#d in his chair one day, 2oe #eft the offices of the maga;ine and
ne"er returned a#though he continued to contribute to it from time to time.
3e soon set up as a free*#ance, !rote !here and !hen he cou#d, attempted to obtain a go"ernment
position in the 0ustoms 3ouse at 2hi#ade#phia through friends in Washington, and again tried to
#aunch his o!n maga;ine no! projected as (he .ty#us. 3e !as a#most successfu#, but a "isit to
Washington in :arch, =B54, !hen he became unfortunate#y intoxicated and exhibited his !ea$ness
e"en at the White 3ouse, b#asted his fondest hopes. 1"en his, best friend, 8. W. (homas, a minor
no"e#ist and po#itician of the time, cou#d do no more for him. :isfortune from no! on dogged his
steps.
3is !ife Dirginia !as dying of tubercu#osis and had frequent hemorrhages. 3e himse#f began to resort
to drin$ more than before. (here is a#so some e"idence of the use of opium. 3e !as sent to .aratoga
.prings to recuperate and returned to 2hi#ade#phia !here he near#y died of heart fai#ure. At this time,
=B55, the 2oes !ere #i"ing at F45 (no! 64> -orth .e"enth .treet, 2hi#ade#phia, in a house sti##
standing. 3ere, a#though "isited by many #oya# friends, among !hom !ere the no"e#ist 0aptain :ayne
Reid, ,eorge Rex ,raham, .artain the engra"er, &ouis ,odey, the editor, 8. >. 0. Car#ey, an
i##ustrator, 3irst, the poet, (homas 0#ar$e, the pub#isher, and others, 2oe himse#f experienced the
pangs of po"erty and despair. 3e !as in correspondence !ith <ames Russe## &o!e## and other
notab#es, but unab#e through "arious causes, #arge#y due to his temperament and his physica#
condition, to cope !ith the !or#d. .ometime in the fa## of =B54 he made an aborti"e attempt to issue a
ne! edition of his ta#es as (he 2rose Romances of 1dgar A. 2oe. (here !as a sma## edition in paper
co"ers to be so#d at =FP cents, but -o. =, containing "(he :urders in the Rue :orgue," and "(he :an
that Was Hsed Hp,", is the on#y one of the series $no!n to ha"e appeared, a#though one copy
containing the first ta#e on#y is $no!n to exist. (his is the rarest of a## 2oe items from a co##ector's
standpoint. (he #itt#e paper pamph#et !as the se"enth of 2oe's !or$s. /t brought the author no returns.
Reduced to the direst necessity, and finding a## a"enues c#osed to him in 2hi#ade#phia, he no!
determined to return to -e! 9or$. :rs. 0#emm !as #eft behind to c#ose up the house, and on Apri# M,
=B55, ta$ing his in"a#id !ife !ith him, 2oe set out for -e! 9or$ 0ity. 3e arri"ed there the same
e"ening !ith N5.6> in his poc$ets and no definite prospects.
2oe and his in"a#id !ife found she#ter in a humb#e boarding house at =4> ,reen!ich .treet. /n
immediate need of funds he turned one of his fa"orite tric$s and !rote a fa#se ne!s story for the -e!
9or$ .un, #ater repub#ished as "(he +a##oon 3oax." .uch hoaxes !ere "popu#ar" at the time and
indu#ged in by ne!spaper editors. (he story !as c#e"er, is notab#e e"en no!, and foo#ed thousands at
that timeLmuch to 2oe's de#ight. (he money so earned enab#ed :rs. 0#emm to come o"er from
2hi#ade#phia and join the t!o in -e! 9or$. &ea"ing his fami#y at the ,reen!ich .treet #odgings, 2oe
then boarded a#one for a time !ith a :rs. 8oster at number 5 Ann .treet. Curing the spring and
summer of =B55 he managed to scrape enough together by hac$ artic#es, some of !hich appeared in
the 0o#umbia (2a. .py, and ,odey's &ady's +oo$, the &adies' 3ome <ourna# of the day, to exist
himse#f and just bare#y $eep his fami#y.
Dirginia's hea#th gre! steadi#y !orse and in the ear#y summer of =B55 the !ho#e group mo"ed out to
the country to a farm #ocated on +#oomingda#e Road at !hat is no! 1ighty*fourth .treet and
+road!ay. (he farm !as o!ned by a $ind#y /rish coup#e !ith a #arge fami#y, the +rennans. 3ere for a
fe! months in !hat !as then a charming rura# so#itude in the beautifu# 3udson Da##ey, 2oe seems to
ha"e enjoyed a brief period of peace. Curing this inter"a# he composed "(he Ra"en," or rather put it
into fina# form, as the poem is $no!n to ha"e been in existence in ear#ier "ersions as far bac$ as =B5F.
(he idea of the ra"en itse#f !as ta$en from +arnaby Rudge. Curing the summer 2oe carried on a
correspondence !ith <ames Russe## &o!e## !ho !as !riting a brief biography of 2oe for ,raham's,
and !ith Cr. (homas 3o##ey 0hi"ers, a ,eorgia poet !hose !or$ undoubted#y inf#uenced the Ra"en's
author.
+y autumn the poet !as again destitute and :rs. 0#emm no! exerted herse#f to secure him some
sa#aried !or$. .he ca##ed on -athanie# 2. Wi##is, then editor of the -e! 9or$ 1"ening :irror and
persuaded him to emp#oy 2oe in a minor editoria# capacity. .ometime in the fa## of =B55 the fami#y
again mo"ed to a to!n #odging at =6 Amity .treet, -e! 9or$ 0ity, !here they occupied a fe! rooms.
2oe continued to turn out considerab#e hac$ !or$ for Wi##is and a#so through the co#umns of the :irror
found opportunity to ca## attention to himse#f, to notice :iss +arrett's (#ater :rs. Robert +ro!ning
poetry fa"orab#y, and to in"o#"e himse#f in an unfortunate attac$ upon &ongfe##o! $no!n as the "&itt#e
&ongfe##o! War," !ith "arious re"erberations. +y the end of =B55 2oe !as ready to se"er connection
!ith Wi##is !ho remained his firm friend unti# the end. (hrough the good offices of &o!e##, 2oe had
been put in touch !ith some minor journa#ists about -e! 9or$ !ho !ere ready to #aunch a ne! !ee$#y
to be ca##ed (he +road!ay <ourna#. Hpon this paper 2oe !as retained in a more important editoria#
capacity than :r. Wi##is cou#d offer him.
/n <anuary, =B56, 2oe's poem "(he Ra"en" !as pub#ished annoymous#y in the 1"ening :irror in
ad"ance of its appearance in the American Whig Re"ie! for 8ebruary. /t created a furor, and on
.aturday, 8ebruary B, =B56, :r. Wi##is reprinted it o"er the author's name in the 1"ening :irror. 2oe's
reputation immediate#y too$ on the aspects of fame !hich it ne"er after!ard #ost. /t is safe to say that
no poem in America had e"er been so popu#ar. (he poet continued to edit the +road!ay <ourna# in
!hich he carried on the &ongfe##o! contro"ersy, re"ie!ed boo$s, pub#ished and repub#ished his
poetry, !rote dramatic re"ie!s and #iterary criticism, and reprinted many of his stories no! more
eager#y read as coming from a famous pen. 3e !as a#so preparing to become o!ner of the +road!ay
<ourna# and for this purpose !ent into debt, in the mean!hi#e quarre#ing !ith +riggs, one of his
partners.
3e no! too began for the first time since ear#y Richmond days to #ead a #ess #one#y #ife and to go about
in a semi*#iterary and artistic society. 2oe !as much seen during the !inter of =B56 in the "sa#ons" of
"arious !riters and minor socia# #ights of -e! 9or$ !ho !ere $no!n as the #iterati. (hrough :r. Wi##is
he met a :rs. 8anny 7sgood, the !ife of an artist of some note and a minor poetess, !ith !hom he
soon struc$ up an intimate if not tender friendship. 3e fo##o!ed her about to such an extent that she
!as fina##y compe##ed through the scanda# in"o#"ed and on account of her o!n tubercu#ar condition to
go to A#bany. 2oe pursued her there, then to +oston, and thence to 2ro"idence, R. /., !here on a
#one#y !a#$ #ate one e"ening be first sa! a :rs. 3e#en Whitman to !hom he after!ards became
engaged. (he second poem ca##ed "(o 3e#en" ce#ebrates this meeting.
&o!e## "isited 2oe in -e! 9or$ in the spring of =B56 and found 2oe s#ight#y intoxicated in his #odgings
at =J6 +road!ay, !hither he had #ate#y mo"ed. /n <u#y, Cr. 0hi"ers a#so "isited him and sa! him at
times much under the inf#uence but ne"erthe#ess !ith the characteristics of genius about him.
2oe's affairs despite his gro!ing fame did not prosper. 3e contributed a series of artic#es to ,odey's
&ady's +oo$ on the #iterati of -e! 9or$. (hey !ere persona# s$etches combined !ith the obiter dicta of
the author and a dash of #iterary criticism that caused considerab#e stir at the time and in one or t!o
cases in"o#"ed 2oe in undignified quarre#s. (he "&iterati 2apers" do not be#ong to 2oe's more serious
#iterary criticism but are essentia##y a contemporary and easy comment on persons he $ne!, most of
them obscure.
At the end of =B56 despite his desperate efforts, the +road!ay <ourna# fai#ed, #ea"ing its editor and by
that time so#e o!ner, in debt, despondent, and in i## hea#th. Dirginia, his !ife, continued to dec#ine and
!as nearing the gra"e. 2oe !as once more !ithout means of support. /n the meantime he had again
mo"ed his #odgings to =B6 Amity .treet. An unfortunate #ecture at +oston in the fa## of the year had
pro"ided an opportunity for 2oe, then in a serious ner"ous condition, to ma$e more or #ess an
exhibition of himse#f. (he affair !as ta$en up by his enemies in -e! 9or$ and made the most of. A##
this ser"ed to add to his depression. Cespite such, ho!e"er, he had succeeded in bringing out in
<une, =B56, (a#es, a co##ection of his stories se#ected by 1. A. Cuyc$inc$, an ab#e editor, and
pub#ished by Wi#ey and 2utnam. (his !as fo##o!ed in Cecember, =B56, by (he Ra"en and 7ther
2oems, a se#ection of his "erse produced by the same pub#isher. /n the series of 2oe's !or$ issued
during his #ife time these t!o constituted the eighth and ninth boo$s respecti"e#y. (he (a#es !ere in
some cases bound in t!o "o#umes, and both outputs achie"ed a minor success. At the same time 2oe
!as $no!n to ha"e been at !or$ on an antho#ogy of "arious American !riters !hich occupied him
from time to time for se"era# years. /t !as ne"er pub#ished, a#though some fragments of the
manuscript exist.
2oe's affairs and Dirginia's hea#th no! once more necessitated a mo"e to the country. Whi#e 2oe
tra"e#ed to +a#timore to #ecture in the spring of =B5M, :rs. 0#emm and Dirginia again !ent to stay at
the +#oomingda#e farm. A fe! !ee$s #ater !e find the entire fami#y at a farm house on "(urt#e +ay,"
no! 8orty*se"enth .treet and 1ast Ri"er. (he stop here !as brief. 2oe rented a #itt#e frame cottage at
8ordham, then a sma## "i##age about fifteen mi#es from -e! 9or$, and to this the fami#y mo"ed at the
end of :ay, =B5M.
/n the puny cottage at 8ordham, sti## preser"ed as a re#ic in 2oe 2ar$, -e! 9or$ 0ity, the poet and his
benign mother*in*#a!, :rs. :aria 0#emm, experienced together the extremes of tragedy in po"erty,
death, and despair. (he summer of =B5M !as embittered by a "io#ent quarre# !ith one (. C. 1ng#ish.
!hom 2oe had attac$ed acid#y in the "&iterati 2apers." 1ng#ish no! "rep#ied," and after a persona#
encounter !ith 2oe, accused the #atter of forgery in the -e! 9or$ :irror. 2oe sued the paper and
reco"ered damages for a sma## amount in 8ebruary, =B5K.
2oe's hea#th !as exceptiona##y bad, his !ife continued to sin$ rapid#y, and he himse#f cou#d neither
!rite much nor obtain emp#oyment. Curing much of the time :rs. 0#emm by "arious artifices and !i#es
$ept bread in their mouths. .he both borro!ed and begged, and !as e"en reduced to the necessity of
digging "egetab#es by night in the fie#ds of neighboring farmers. With the arri"a# of co#d !eather the
"isits of friends and curious persons from the city ceased and the 2oes !ere #eft a#one to face the
rigors of !inter !ithout fue# or sufficient c#othing or food. Hnder these inf#ictions Dirginia san$ rapid#y.
.he #ay in a bed of stra! !ith her husband's c#oa$ !rapped around her and a pet cat on her bosom to
he#p pro"ide !armth. /n Cecember, =B5M, the fami#y !as "isited by a friend from -e! 9or$, :rs. :ary
&ouise .he!, !ho found Dirginia dying and 2oe and his "mother" destitute. (hrough her $indness, and
a pub#ic appea# in the papers, the immediate !ants of the fami#y !ere re#ie"ed and Dirginia enab#ed to
pass a!ay in comparati"e peace at the end of <anuary, =B5K. .he !as buried at 8ordham but
after!ards remo"ed to the side of her husband at +a#timore.
After the death of Dirginia, :rs. 0#emm continued to nurse 2oe, !ho gradua##y returned to a some!hat
better state of hea#th. /n this :rs. .he! assisted unti# fina##y compe##ed to !ithdra!, due to the
emotiona# demands of her patient. 3e#ped by his friends 2oe once more began to appear among the
#i"ing. At 8ordham he had !ritten 1ure$a, a #ong "prose poem" of a semiscientific and metaphysica#
cast !hich !as pub#ished in :arch, =B5B, by ,eo. +. 2utnam of -e! 9or$. (his !as the tenth and #ast
of the poet's !or$s pub#ished during his #ife time, a#though an "edition" of his ta#es dated =B5J is
$no!n to exist. (he nature of 1ure$a forbade its being popu#ar. 2oe no! too$ to #ecturing after a trip to
2hi#ade#phia in the summer of =B5K !hen another #apse in drin$ a#most pro"ed fata#.
(he end of his #ife !as mar$ed by the pub#ication of some of his most remar$ab#e poems. "(he +e##s,"
"H#a#ume," "Annabe# &ee," and others, and by his infatuation !ith se"era# !omen.
Curing "arious #ecture trips to &o!e##, :ass., and 2ro"idence, R. /., he became acquainted !ith Annie
Richmond and .arah 3e#en Whitman, the former a married !oman, and the #atter a !ido! of some
#iterary reputation and considerab#e charm. After a "isit to Richmond, Da., in the summer of =B5B in
!hich he tried to fight a due# !ith one Canie#s, the editor of a Richmond ne!spaper, and again #apsed
into drin$, he began to pay court to :rs. Whitman, ma$ing se"era# "isits to 2ro"idence and carrying on
a fer"id correspondence. 3e fina##y obtained her re#uctant consent to marry him on his promise of
refraining from the g#ass. 2oe, ho!e"er, no! in a sad#y shattered state, !as a#so "in #o"e," or so
dependent upon the sympathy of :rs. Richmond that in an attempt to put an end to his impossib#e
emotiona# prob#ems he tried suicide by s!a##o!ing #audanum in +oston in -o"ember, =B5B. (he dose
pro"ed an emetic and he sur"i"ed.
-ext day in a state bordering upon insanity he appeared in 2ro"idence and begged :rs. Whitman to
carry out her promise. .he, it appears, hopefu# of perhaps sa"ing him from himse#f !as about to marry
the poet but the opposition of re#ati"es and another #apse from sobriety on the part of 2oe, fina##y
brought about his dismissa#. ,reat#y chagrined he returned to 8ordham the same e"ening to the
comforting ministrations of poor :rs. 0#emm !ho !as re#uctant#y preparing to !e#come a bride.
2oe attempted to hush the matter up and to carry it off !ith some bra"ado. -e!s of the affair !as
noised about, ho!e"er, and caused considerab#e scanda#. 3e no! thre! himse#f into !riting !ith
rene!ed acti"ity, mean!hi#e continuing his correspondence !ith :rs. Richmond. :isfortune continued
to dog his steps. :aga;ines !hich had accepted his !or$ fai#ed, or suspended payment, his hea#th
again ga"e !ay, and :rs. 0#emm !as compe##ed to nurse him through de#irium. 8ina##y some!hat
reco"ered, but a mere ghost of himse#f, he undertoo$ to re"i"e his scheme of a maga;ine, (he .ty#us,
and !ith funds furnished by a !estern admirer, 1. 3. -. 2atterson, he set out for Richmond, Da., in the
spring of =B5J, hoping to obtain he#p there from o#d friends. :rs. 0#emm !as #eft behind in -e! 9or$
at the house of a poetess in +roo$#yn !ho !as under ob#igations to 2oe.
7n the !ay to Richmond, 2oe stopped off in 2hi#ade#phia !here he again came to drin$ and !andered
in a distracted state. 8ina##y he !as rescued from prison and the streets by some faithfu# friends !ho
raised sufficient funds to send him on his !ay.
Warned by !hat bad been a near approach to death in 2hi#ade#phia, 2oe stro"e !ith a## that !as in
him to refrain from !ine, and fo
r some time succeeded. /n Richmond he !as ab#e !ith the he#p of o#d friends and others, !ho no!
recogni;ed both his !ea$ness and his genius, to stage a brief "come bac$." 3e de#i"ered #ectures at
both Richmond and -orfo#$ !ith great success, appeared !ith app#ause and dignity in society, and
!as fina##y, after some difficu#ty, once more ab#e to obtain the promise of his youthfu# f#ame 1#mira
RoysterL*no! :rs. A. +. .he#ton, a !ido! in good circumstances, to marry him.
2reparations for the !edding !ent for!ard) the date !as set. 8or a !hi#e it #oo$ed as if the romance of
the poet's youth !ith 1#mira !as to be re!arded by her hand and a considerab#e do!er in midd#e #ife.
&etters !ere !ritten to :rs. 0#emm announcing the state of affairs, and 2oe !as ready to return to
-e! 9or$ in order to bring her bac$ to Richmond for the !edding. (here can be "ery #itt#e doubt that in
a## these p#ans, 2oe sa! not on#y the return of his "#ost &enore," but a comfortab#e o#d age pro"ided for
:rs. 0#emm, she#ter from the !or#d, and escape from po"erty. At the "ery #ast he !rote :rs. 0#emm
saying that he sti## #o"ed :rs. Annie Richmond and !ished that ":r. R." !ou#d die. With this #etter, one
of the #ast he !rote, the curious story of his affections ends !ith contradiction and ambiguity, as it
began.
(a$ing some #itt#e cash !hich had been recei"ed from the proceeds of a #ecture gi"en short#y before
his departure, 2oe #eft Richmond "ery ear#y in the morning of the t!enty*third of .eptember, =B5J. (he
e"ening before had been spent !ith :rs. .he#ton and the marriage had been set for 7ctober
se"enteenth. 2oe had not been ab#e to refrain entire#y from drin$ing !hi#e in Richmond and he !as
undoubted#y in a an abnorma# condition upon his departure. (he testimony sho!s, ho!e"er, that he
!as quite sober at that particu#ar time.
3e tra"e#ed by steamer to +a#timore and arri"ed there on .eptember t!entyninth. 1xact#y !hat
happened to him in that city cannot no! be ascertained. An e#ection !as in progress, and the
preponderance of e"idence points to the fact that he began to drin$ and fe## into the hands of a gang of
repeaters !ho probab#y ga"e him drugged #iquor and "oted him. 7n 7ctober third he !as found by Cr.
<ames 1. .nodgrass, an o#d friend, in a, horrib#e condition at a #o! ta"ern in &ombard .treet.
.ummoning a re#ati"e of 2oe, Cr. .nodgrass had the no! unconscious and dying poet ta$en in a
carriage to the Washington 3ospita# and put into the care of Cr. <. <. :oran, the resident physician.
.e"era# days of de#irium ensued !ith on#y a fe! inter"a#s of partia# consciousness. 3e ca##ed
repeated#y for one "Reyno#ds," and ga"e "ent to e"ery indication of utter despair. 8ina##y on .unday
morning, 7ctober K, =B5J, "3e became quiet and seemed to rest for a short time. (hen, gent#y,
mo"ing his head, he said, '&ord he#p my poor sou#.'" As he had #i"ed so he diedLin great misery and
tragedy.
(he Ad"entures 7f 3u$#eberry 8inn
2ar9 Twain
(he summary of the no"e# ' 3uc$ escapes from the #one#y cabin in !hich his drun$en, bruta# father had
imprisoned him. 7n <ac$sonGs is#and he meets <im, a runa!ay s#a"e. (ogether they f#oat do!n the
:ississippi Ri"er on a raft, occasiona##y stopping at the ban$s. /n these brief episodes, 3uc$
participates in the #i"es of others, !itnessing corruption, mora# decay, and inte##ectua# impo"erishment.
3e #earns from <im of the dignity and !orth of a human being. &ife on the ri"er comes to an end !hen
<im is captured. 3uc$, reunited !ith (om .a!yer, he#ps him to escape, subordinating societyGs
mora#ity to his o!n sense of justice and honour.
(he youth experience of the no"e#ist is presented in the !or$ (31 ACD1-(HR1. 78
3H0A&1+1RR9 8/--, no"e# about #ife on the :ississippi. (he .outhern traditions, the situation of the
-egro s#a"es, the #ife during the Q/Qth century in the .outh of the Hnited .tates, a## is presented in a
humorous but fu## of understanding manner. (he fo##o!ing excerpt from R0hapter =MS d!e##s on 3uc$Gs
rather pragmatic beha"iour in a "ery dramatic situation. As the raft ta$ing him and <im do!nstream
approaches the mouth of the 7hio Ri"er, <im gro!s more and more excited because he be#ie"es that
!hen he can head up the 7hio he !i## be out of s#a"e, and therefore be free. 3uc$, in his turn, begins
to rea#i;e for the first time that he is actua##y he#ping a s#a"e to escape. 3is conscience, formed by the
mid*=Jth century American .outhern society, goads him unti# he decides he !i## turn <im in as a
runa!ay s#a"e. +ut !hen he is faced !ith the actua# situation of ha"ing to inform on <im to t!o -egro
hunters, 3uc$ finds himse#f unab#e to carry out his abominab#e p#an and impro"ises an e#aborate story
that ma$es them be#ie"e there is sma##pox on the raft. +y en#isting himse#f in <imGs cause, 3uc$
becomes a se#f*proc#aimed socia# out#a!. 3e goes through t!o mora# crises in !hich he is denounced
by his conscience, but he fina##y decides to Rgo to 3e##S T that is to defy the #a!s of ,od and of man
and to stay #oya# to <im !ho has by no! become his a#ter ego.
(he no"e# is !ritten in the first person narrati"e, thus the fee#ings of the main character (3uc$ himse#f
are expressed more direct#y, offering the !ho#e story authenticity and freshness. (he scene presenting
3uc$Gs inner strugg#e is "ery impressi"e and of a pecu#iar dramatism. 3uc$ #ea"es his raft Rfee#ing
sic$S, disgusted !ith himse#f and !ith the idea of cheating his friend so crue##y. .ti##, he thin$s it is his
duty to inform the authorities. Dery soon, he meets t!o men in a s$iff. (he men are !hite, they carry
guns and they are #oo$ing for Rruna!ay niggersS. When he is as$ed if there are any men on his raft,
3uc$ ans!ers that there is on#y one. At this point he sti## doesnGt $no! !hat to do. +ut !hen he is
as$ed if his man is !hite or b#ac$, he hesitates for a !hi#e, trying to Rbrace up and out !ith itS. (he
c#ash bet!een his fee#ings of friendship to!ards <im on one hand, and his prejudices as a .outhern
boy, on the other, no! reaches its c#imax. 3uc$ regards his incapacity of te##ing the truth as a matter of
courage after a##, thin$ing he isnGt man enough, but in fact his #oya# heart canGt accept to betray a true
friend. 8ina##y, he ta$es a decision, in spite of his prejudices, and he te##s the t!o men that his man is
!hite.
(he attitude didnGt seem "ery con"incing, as the t!o men expressed their !ish to see for themse#"es
the man on the raft. 3uc$ immediate#y !ish to see for themse#"es the man on the raft. 3uc$
immediate#y in"ents a story' the man on the raft is his father, he says, and his father is i##. 3e #ets the
t!o men guess that the so*ca##ed father has got the sma##pox, a "ery unp#easant and, at the same
time, "ery dangerous disease. (he t!o men #ea"e in a hurry, fee#ing pity for 3uc$ and gi"ing him some
money. As they donGt !ant to catch the disease, they donGt e"en ha"e a #oo$ on the raft. <im is sa"ed
but 3uc$Gs sou# is tormented by "arious questions' had he done right or !rong? Wou#d he ha"e fe#t
better if he had gi"en <im up?
3e decides he had done !rong according to the .outhern ru#es concerning runa!ay s#a"es, but he
rea#i;es he !ou#d ha"e fe#t miserab#e if he had betrayed his friend in need. 3uc$ is in fact the "ictim of
the socia# prejudices, but he is a!are of the contradiction bet!een his fee#ings of brotherhood to!ards
and these prejudices. 3e canGt he#p regarding <im as a human being, a faithfu# friend, and thus fina##y
he acts #i$e a man he#ping another man. 3uc$ is gui#ty from the point of "ie! of the .outhern
prejudices and #a!s, but from a human point of "ie! he is innocent, because he sa"ed <imGs #ife.
3uc$ is an objecti"e narrator. 3e is objecti"e about himse#f, e"en !hen that objecti"ity is apt to ref#ect
discreditab#y upon himse#f. 3e is objecti"e about the society he encounters, e"en !hen, as he often
fears, that society possesses "irtues and sanctions to !hich he must e"er remain a stranger. 3e is an
outcast, he $no!s that he is an outcast.
2ossessing neither a !ide bac$ground of economic fact and theory, nor a comprehensi"e $no!#edge
of scientific or phi#osophica# methods, he had a genuine contempt for a## pretense and hypocrisy, and
exposed to humorous "ie! the tyrannies of chi"a#ry, of s#a"ery, and of re#igion. :ar$ (!ain is the
greatest American "oice of his day.
(he (ragedy 7f <u#ius 0aesar
Willia. Sha9espeare
/n =6JB, 8rancis :eres described .ha$espeare as "the most exce##ent in both sides * comedy and
tragedy". 3is comedies are unsurpassed for the mar"e#ous harmony they estab#ish among so many
apparent#y discordant e#ements. 3is tragedies, right#y interpreted, do not re"ea# a spirit of g#oom and
disi##usionment. 9et, if !e ponder carefu##y, !hi#e the themes of .ha$espeareGs tragedies are indeed
dar$ and disma#, the message that they impart is that, no matter ho! deep the misfortune or ho!
dreary the circumstances, man is capab#e of rising from his o!n ashes, #i$e 2hoenix) thin$ of Richard
//, 3enry D, Aing &ear, or 2rospero. ,ood !i## triumph o"er e"i#, in the end) thin$ of 3am#et, :acbeth,
<u#ius 0aesar.
As the theme and message in .ha$espeareGs comedies, they can be summed up in t!o #ines from "As
9ou &i$e /t"'
"A## the !or#dGs a stage,
And a## the men and !omen mere#y p#ayers"
/n his comedies, just as in rea# #ife, the protagonists p#ay different parts in the #itt#e p#aymates they ha"e
themse#"es impro"ised in order to get !hat they desire. -o one is hurt, no one is denied the
opportunity to join in the game, no one is #eft out. &ife is a merry*go*round and each indi"idua# may get
off the p#atform as soon as he no #onger enjoys the game. As #ong as a## ends !e##"
A## .amue# (ay#or 0o#eridge maintained, .ha$espeare !as more interested in character*de"e#opment
than in his p#ots. +esides, in most cases, he did not in"ent the p#ots, he mere#y borro!ed them from
3o#inshed and 3a## 0hronic#es. 9et, his p#ots fo##o! the c#assica# Aristote#ian out#ines.
7f .ha$espeareGs tragic characters, :ar$ Antony is quite outstanding in point of "ersati#ity. 3e does
not exact#y fit the Aristote#ian description of the tragic hero. 3e is re#iab#e and trust!orthy friend, a
high#y inte##igent and tactfu# man, a good psycho#ogist, a s$i#fu# orator. Ana#ysing AntonyGs famous
speech of act 4, scene F, !e admire its uncanny rhetorica# effects and the most persuasi"e use of the
emotiona# appea# that assist him in disentang#ing the truth from the pac$ of #ies concerning <u#ius
0aesar that +rutus had just to#d the Roman citi;ens. +y using the apophatic approach (the de"ice by
!hich one mentions something by saying it !i## not be mentioned' "/ come to bury 0aesar, not to
praise him", and "/ spea$ not to dispro"e !hat +rutus spo$e", Antony manages to do just !hat he !as
not expected or a##o!ed to do' praise 0aesar and dispro"e !hat +rutus spo$e.
/n a society #i$e .ha$espeareGs, !hich fe#t secure about !hat constituted proper beha"ior, socia#,
po#itica# and fami#ia# ro#es !ere basic sources of order and untroub#ed adherence to them symbo#i;ed
the continued existence of order. What .ha$espeare presents in "<u#ius 0aesar" and in other
tragedies as "Romeo and <u#iet", "3am#et", "7the##o", "Aing &ear", ":acbeth" is not untroub#ed
adherence to the ro#es of his type but, rather, their constant "io#ation or #oss as !e## as the subsequent
restoration of order, as the masters of deceit !ho had thri"ed on disorder are exposed and destroyed.
Antony speech mo"es coherent#y from one idea to another, from one image to another, as he p#aces
the Roman citi;ens in re#ation to rea#ity and forces them to identify the rea# traitor. (hus, order is being
restored and, as 1dmund remar$s in "Aing &ear"' "(he !hee# is come fu## circ#e".
.ty#e and imagery'
/n Renaissance #iterature the idea that the poet, insofar as he creates a !or#d of his o!n, can be
compared !ith ,od, Who created the !or#d, !as a#ready a commonp#ace by .ha$espeareGs time. (he
fact that .t. Augustine compared the !or#d !ith a poem and a discourse !as crucia# for the !ay in
!hich the Renaissance !riters concei"ed of sty#e and imagery.
(he de"e#opment of poetic #anguage, of sty#e and imagery, !as the main concern of =Mth century
Renaissance !riters !ho probed the nature of #anguage and its ingredients as !e## as potentia#
re#ationships bet!een !ords and rea#ity ("brutish beasts" is intentiona##y used by Antony in his speech
in order to imp#y that, by murdering 0aesar, +rutus acted #i$e a brute, bet!een !ords and signs as
containers of meanings.
.ha$espeareGs preoccupation !ith #anguage !as not confined to !ords as rhetorica# ornaments of
thought but, rather, ref#ects the be#ief in the magic of #anguage that thri"es on an inter*referentia##y
among !ords, concepts, and things (the !ord "+rutus', the concept of bruta#ity, and the brutish thing
that +rutus did, i.e. 0aesar assassination.
2ictures from Hnited Aingdom
-lic9 on a picture to enlarge it
+ig +en U (he 2ar#iment (he +uc$ingham 2a#ace

(he +uc$ingham 2a#ace * the main gates (he 2icadi##y 0ircus
(he ,#obe (heatre (he (o!er +ridge