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Atomic theory

and atomic models


Year 10 Chemistry
Revision Program Atomic theory and atomic models


Atomic theory and atomic models
Objectives Resources on eLearn Text References
Describe the basic structure of atoms
in terms of protons, neutrons and
electrons
Atomic structure part 2.pptx
Atoms review questions
worksheet (HW)
Ch 2.1, pp. 37-41
Describe key features of some
important atomic structure models
(in particular, the Bohr model and
quantum mechanical model)
Use atomic numbers and mass
numbers to determine the number of
protons, neutrons and electrons in an
element (and vice versa)
Periodic table (pdf)
Matter and the periodic table.pptx
Atomic number worksheet
Ch 2.1, p. 41
Define the terms isotope and
radioisotope
Isotopes worksheet (HW) Ch 2.1, pp. 41-2
(for interest, pp.
43-5)
Recognise that the atomic mass of an
element is related to its electronic
structure
Isotopes activity summary.pdf

Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons.



Particle Location Charge Size and mass
Protons Nucleus +1 Large, heavy
Neutrons Nucleus 0 Large, heavy
Electrons Outside the
nucleus
1 Small, light


Like our ideas about matter, our ideas about what the inside of an atom looks like have changed
over time.


Atomic theory
and atomic models



Thomsons plum
pudding model
Rutherfords model Bohrs planetary model The quantum
mechanical model
Negatively-charged
electrons and
positively-charged
protons are evenly
distributed around the
atom
Protons and neutrons
are found in the
nucleus, which
therefore contains
most of the mass of the
atom, and electrons
are found outside of it
Protons and neutrons
are found in the
nucleus, and electrons
are found outside of it,
in defined orbitals that
are successively larger
the further they are
from the nucleus
Protons and neutrons
are found in the
nucleus, but not
shown, as the model
focuses on the
location of each
electron, which cant
be known exactly but
is instead shown as a
probability cloud
which indicates
where it is most likely
to be

Whilst the quantum mechanical model is technically the most accurate description of what an atom
looks like, it is not as useful as the Bohr model, which can be used to explain many concepts in
chemistry, such as the absorption and emission of light from excited atoms (this topic), the
formation of ions (Revision Topic 5) and Lewis dot diagrams (Revision Topic 9).

An element is uniquely identified by the number of protons in its nucleus.

If an element has 1 proton it its nucleus, it is hydrogen. If it has 2 protons, it is helium. If it has 3
protons, it is lithium.

Do you see a pattern? The elements are arranged in this order in the periodic table.

The number of protons is equal to the atomic number.

Since protons are positively charged, and electrons are negatively charged, and atoms are neutral,
the number of protons must equal the number of electrons.

+
+

=
0

The rule becomes:

Atomic number = Number of protons = Number of electrons


Atomic theory
and atomic models
Practice questions

State the number of protons an atom of

1) Sodium

From the periodic table, the atomic number of sodium is 11. Therefore it has 11 protons.

2) Sulfur

____________

3) Scandium

____________

4) Selenium

____________

5) Samarium

____________

State the number of electrons in an atom of

1) Silicon

From the periodic table, the atomic number of silicon is 14. Therefore it has 14 protons, and
14 electrons.

2) Silver

____________

3) Strontium

____________

4) Seaborgium

____________


Atomic theory
and atomic models
To find the number of neutrons, you need the mass number. This will always be given to you,
because you cannot find it from the periodic table (though it is often close to the atomic mass).
Given the mass number, you can use the following formula to find the number of neutrons:

Mass number = number of protons + number of neutrons

The mass number is specified in a variety of ways:

Carbon-13
15
7
N
40
Ar

Mass number 13 14 40
Atomic number 6 7 18
Number of protons 6 7 18
Number of neutrons 7 8 22

Practice questions

Find the number of neutrons in the following:

1)
11
5
B

____________

2) Strontium-90

____________

3)
63
Cu

____________

Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.
Another way of saying this is that isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of
neutrons.

Carbon is a common example of an atom that has isotopes. It has three isotopes: carbon-12,
carbon-13 and carbon-14.




Atomic theory
and atomic models
The number of neutrons is always equal to or greater than the number of protons.
In terms of their abundance (how common they are), most carbon atoms are
12
C (which has 6
neutrons), a little over 1% are
13
C (7 neutrons) and a tiny amount are
14
C (8 neutrons).

Carbon-14 is radioactive. Isotopes which are radioactive are called radioisotopes. Often,
radioisotopes are radioactive because they have too many neutrons (e.g., a carbon-12 atom with 6
protons and 6 neutrons is stable, but a carbon-14 atom with 6 protons and 8 neutrons is not stable).

Practice questions

1) The table below shows the number of protons, neutrons and electrons present in five species.

Species No. of protons No. of neutrons No. of electrons
L 3 4 5
M 4 5 4
N 5 5 5
O 5 6 5
P 4 5 5

Which two species are isotopes of the same element?

A. L and M
B. M and N
C. N and O
D. O and P

2) The isotopes of lithium are
6
Li and
7
Li. Which of the following is not a true statement?

A. The isotopes of lithium have the same atomic number
B. The isotopes of lithium have the same mass number
C. Lithium-6 has less neutrons than lithium-7
D. The isotopes of lithium have the same number of electrons

3) State whether
79
Se and
79
Br are isotopes of each other, and justify your answer.

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4) Identify which of the following has 9 protons and 10 neutrons.

A. Neon-19
B.
10
K
C. Potassium-19
D.
19
F

Atomic theory
and atomic models
The average atomic mass is, literally, an average of the atomic masses of all isotopes of an element.
The average atomic mass of carbon, for example, is 12.01 this is very close to 12, because most
atoms of carbon are carbon-12 (almost 99% of them).



The atomic mass of an element is related to the number of protons and neutrons. Remember that
protons and neutrons have the vast majority of the mass in an atom. Atoms with a larger atomic
number will have more protons (and more neutrons) and will therefore have a larger mass.

Practice questions

1) State and justify which atom has the higher average atomic mass: sodium or potassium.

Potassium will have the higher average atomic mass because its atomic number (19) is
higher than that of sodium (11), and therefore it has more protons (19) than sodium does
(11).

2) State and justify which atom has the higher average atomic mass: potassium or calcium.

_______________________________________________________________________

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Average atomic mass