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## A spreadsheet is an application program that allows you to carry out numerical

calculations easily and flexibly.It is specially designed to manipulate data thats
organized in a grid of rows and columns. Examples include Ms. Excel , Lotus 123,

Features
it allows you to store numerical data
Allows you to enter formula within grid
Automatic recalculation of values can be performed within spreadsheets
Used to forecasting & what-if-analysis
Converts data into charts
Columns are given a letter
Rows are numbered
Each cell is identified by giving the column letter and row number of the
intersecting rows and columns e.g. C2. This is called thecell address.
To build a spreadsheet, enter the data within cells on the spreadsheet.
Data include
Values- Pieces of data that can be used in a calculation (numbers)
Labels- Text entry that was used as columns headings to describe
data in spreadsheet or text data
Formula - a mathematical expression that can be used to perform
a calculation. It is made of the cell address and one or
more arithmetic operators [+ ,-,*,/,^]. It can be built or
user defined. Eg = A5 + D9. The formula is entered in a
cell , but the result of the calculation is displayed in the
cell.

Common functions
SUM()
AVERAGE()
COUNT()
COUNTA()
MAX()
MIN()
IF()
RANK()
VLOOKUP()
DATE()
TODAY()
NOW()

How to Enter the IF FUNCTION in a Workbook
A spreadsheet function can be used to perform calculations within a workbook, popular
ones being SUM, AVERAGE,DATE(), IF( ) and VLOOKUP( ). The art of entering these
functions in a workbook to help solve a problem requires careful analysis of the
elements that make up these functions

Let us consider for example the IF FUNCTION. The IF FUNCTION allow the user to
display information in a cell or perform a calculation based on a condition that can either
be TRUE or FALSE. The function therefore takes three arguments or values that
determine what the results will be, namely,
(a) a condition
(b) an action to perform when the condition is TRUE
(b) an action to perform when the condition is FALSE

Each argument is separated with a comma.

A condition is a rule that will be used to determine which of the results are displayed in
the cell. It is usually specified by using comparison operations such as = [equal to ],
>[greater than], <[less than] , >=[greater than or equal to , <=[less than or equal to ] or
<>[not equal to ]. The condition is written as an expression that can either be TRUE or
FALSE. If the condition is TRUE , a specific action is performed by the function and the
results are displayed in a cell. If it is however FALSE, another action is performed.

To use the IF FUNCTION in a workbook , it must be entered in the specific cell where
the results must be displayed.Like all spreadsheet functions it begins with an equal sign.
Hence =IF(B5>90, "HONOR ROLL","PASS") was entered in a cell, the function will
check if the number entered in B5 is in fact larger than 90 and display HONOR ROLL in
the cell where the function was entered in the workbook.Otherwise, PASS will be
entered in the cell.

Tips and Tricks

1. In the condition expression the value being compared can placed in a cell rather than
entering the value in the expression. This allows for easy updates.
2. Enclose text in quotation marks.
3 The TRUE and FALSE actions to be performed can be calculations themselves.

Another function that is useful in creating an efficient workbook is VLOOKKUP().This is
one function that often mystify spreadsheet users and in this session the mystery will be
unveiled.
The VLOOKUP function is used to extract information from a list and put it in the cell in
which the function is entered. It takes four arguments:

1. the item to search for in the list [use a cell address here]

2, the address of the list range i.e where in the workbook the list is located.Specify start
cell and end cell for the list egA5 : B4

3. the column of the list in which the information you are searching for is found[1 for
Column A,2 for Column B etc]

4. indicates that an exact match must be found [FALSE] or the nearest value [TRUE]

To use the function, move to the cell where the value in the table should be inserted and
enter the function. Type = VLOOKUP(B7,\$A\$4: \$D\$9,3,1). This will go to a sorted list
that starts in cell A4 and ends at cell D9 and extracts the content of column 3 in the cell
where the formula was entered.

Tips and Ticks
1. Use F4 to make the list range fixed.
2. Use a sorted list. Ensure the list is sorted if your fourth argument is FALSE.
3. You are expected to sort the list.If not use your fourth argument as TRUE.
4. Use with the IF function to perform calculations to improve spreadsheet efficiency

View a sample video here