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28 Aufrufe6 SeitenCFD Modelling of Increase Heat Transfer in Tubes by Wire Coil Inserts

May 28, 2014

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CFD Modelling of Increase Heat Transfer in Tubes by Wire Coil Inserts

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28 Aufrufe

CFD Modelling of Increase Heat Transfer in Tubes by Wire Coil Inserts

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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ISSN 1818-4952

IDOSI Publications, 2012

DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2012.18.10.1898

Corresponding Author: Arezuo Ghadi, Department of Chemical Engineering,

Azad Eslamic University Ayatola Amoli Unit, Amol Mazandaran, Iran.

1443

CFD Modelling of Increase Heat Transfer in Tubes by Wire Coil Inserts

Arezuo Ghadi, 1Roja Parvizi Moghaddam and Majid Taghizadeh Mazandarani

1 2

Department of Chemical Engineering, Azad Eslamic University Ayatola Amoli Unit, Amol Mazandaran, Iran

1

Department of chemical engineering, Industrial Nooshirvani Babol University, Babol, Mazandaran, Iran

2

Abstract: In this study has been studied the effect of improving heat transfer coils in heat exchanger in a

laboratory by the method of computational fluid dynamics. A shell tube heat exchanger is used in the

laboratory. Difference in temperature and pressure are measured and compared in three different steps of coil,

between input and output of each heat exchanger tubes, in the absence and presence coil.In this work the k

and RNG model has been used for representing the effects of the turbulence in tubes by CFD. Experimental

results and CFD calculations show that increases heat transfer efficiency, by coil. Also, the heat transfer

coefficient and friction coefficient increase with increasing the winding step.

Key words: Computational fluid dynamics Coil Shell tube heat exchanger Improved heat transfer

INTRODUCTION coefficient, depending on the type of thermal process

In recent years, have been developed the application dispersed flow [4]. One of most general methods in

of enhanced heat transfer technology in many industrial, improvement of heat transfer especially in shell and tube

such as process industrial, car, etc [1, 2]. The industrials heat exchanger is inserts parts in tubes.

need, high efficiency heat exchangers according to The effects of the V-nozzle turbulators on heat

economic interests and saving.for this target, reduce transfer friction, pressure drop and enhancement

energy consumption (second low thermodynamic efficiency, have been investigated in a circular tube and

improvement) is important. The purpose of improving heat uniform heat flux by S. Eiamsa-ard and P. Promvonge

transfer is to achieve high thermal rate and reduce the size (2006). This experiments showed the enhancement

of heat exchanger or cost of them. Another benefit of this efficiency decreases with increasing Reynolds number

technology is decreasing the temperature driving force, and pitch ratios of V-nozzle arrangement. The heat

which reduces the excess entropy and efficiency transfer in the circular tube could be increment by fitting

increases based on second law thermodynamic [3]. with V-nozzles. The friction factor increase much higher

Furthermore, enhancement heat transfer causes with low than Nusselt number at the same Reynolds number [5].

velocity of fluid, achieve high heat transfer coefficient. Effects of star-shape fins inserts on the heat transfer

Actually, create the lower pressure drop and reduce and pressure drop was investigated in a concentric-tube

operating costs. The overall methods of improving heat heat exchanger, by Leonard Tijing (2006). The result

transfer divided into two categories active and inactive. showed that the straight fin is good to effectively

Active methods require outer energy sources, but in enhance the heat transfer and not required using twisted

passive methods is not necessary directly outer energy fins in the counterflow heat exchanger. The overall heat

sources. Examples of active methods include: mechanical transfer coefficient in a concentric-tube heat exchanger

aids, surface vibration, vibration fluid, induced flow was enhanced as much as 51% at a constant pumping

devices and some inactive methods are: Use a variety of power compared with concentric-tube heat exchanger

shiny surfaces, rough surfaces, increased levels, without star-shape fins inserts. a better heat transfer

displaced enhancement devices, swirl flow devices, enhancement and lesser pressure drop could be obtained

surface tension devices, strictures porous, additives. by making the fin thickness smaller so as to decrease flow

Application of these methods to improve heat transfer restriction while maintaining a large surface region [6].

which can be in range of free flow phase to film boiling of

( ) 0 div U

t

+ =

( )

Mx

Du P

div gradu S

Dt x

= + +

( )

My

D P

div gradv S

Dt y

= + +

( )

Mz

Dw P

div gradw S

Dt z

= + +

( )

( ) ( )

tot

tot E

h

DP

div Vh div k T S

t Dt

+ = +

( ) / ( ) / [( / ) / ]

i i T k j

k b M

k t ku x k x

G G Y

+ = + +

+

2

1 3 2

( )/ ( )/ [( / ) / ]

( / )( ) ( / )

i i T k j

k b

t u x x

C K G C G C k

+ = + +

+

' '

( / )

k i j j i

G u u u x =

( / Pr )( / )

b i t t i

G g T x =

World Appl. Sci. J., 18 (10): 1443-1448, 2012

1444

P.K. Sarma and his assistants (2005) proposed

equations for predicting heat transfer coefficient and

friction coefficient in a tube with twisted tape inserts.

Good agreement observed between experimental data and (5)

equations presented [7].

Mercado and his colleagues (2001), a new where ui is the velocity component along xi direction, T

computational method have been presented for solving the turbulent viscosity, the viscosity, Gb the buoyancy

fluids heat transfer equations in tubes. This technique related turbulent kinetic energy production, YM the

allows flow to move in the radial direction and solves by compressibility related kinetic energy production, Gk the

using fourth-degree finite differential equations. In this shear stress-related turbulent kinetic energy production.

study, is used computational fluid dynamics with

appropriate turbulence model to obtain the flow pattern

and calculate the heat transfer in exchangers [8]. (6)

Theory: CFD methods, includ numerical solution of mass, (7)

momentum and energy equations.also there are another

equations related to problem such as chemical reactions. in this equations is the coefficient of thermal expansion,

solving by CFD consists two main stages. At first the T the temperature, Prt is the turbulent Prandtl number for

fluid area divide into smaller components or control energy, gi is the component of the gravitational vector

volumes, then partial equations (NavierStokes along xi. C 1, C 2, C 3, k, and C are empirical

equations) apply for all of them. Consequently, many constants are given in table (1).

non-linear equations is obtained that must be solved

simultaneously, by numerical simulation. The Device and Tests Description: A special set are designed

conservation equations for compressibility flow with for experiments. Schematic design of this collection is

turbulence are [8]: given in Figure (1). The main part of the device is shell

The continuity equation inner diameter 17 mm and thickness 1 mm. This collection

(1) temperature 16o(c) and constant flow rate 2.910-4 m3/s

The momentum equations water flows parallel to tubes. Three kinds wire coils has

entrance water increase to 41o(c), before entering the

(2) collection tubes by electrical heater. entrance flow rate to

Also, two pressure sensors to measurement and

in the range of 2065 to 11,800 Reynolds numbers.

The energy equation

(3)

The turbulence model are the k- standard model.

The equations for k (turbulence generation) and

(turbulence dissipation) are given below:

(4)

and tube heat exchanger. The tubes made of copper with

are placed in bath water within 606030 cm3.water with

enters to bath water and exit from opposite side. So that

been studied that are given in table (2). Temperature of

shells and tubes, is controlled by two rotameter.

record of pressure is installed at first and last of tubes.

Experiments are performed in eight different flow rates and

Table 1: k Model constants

C 1 C 2 C 3 k C

1.44 1.92 1.0 1.0 1.03 0.09

RNG-K- model is a modified example of this model.

Table 2: Geometry of designed coils

p/d e/d p/e

W01, short pitch 1.25 0.076 16.4

W02, intermediate pitch 1.72 0.076 22.6

W03, long pitch 3.37 0.076 44.3

( )

p o i

Q mC T T =

( )

w b

Q hA T T =

( ) / 20, T T T

w w i

=

( ) / ( )

p o i w b

h mC T T A T T =

2

2

( )( )

U L

D

P

f

=

World Appl. Sci. J., 18 (10): 1443-1448, 2012

1445

Fig. 1: View of the tubes and wire coils inserts and their dimensions

Fig. 2: View of designed collection

Temperature of inlet and outlet fluid and 20 points in the (9)

outer surface of tubes are measured by k type

thermocouple. In this work, experiments was performed for In these equations T = (T T) /2,

all types of coils that mentioned in Table (2). In this tests, is the inlet temperature, T the outlet temperature and T

division of Reynolds number was equivalent to 2060, is the wall temperarure.

2900, 4400, 5900, 7300, 8800, 10300, 11800. For calculation the heat transfer coefficient and

Experiment Results and Discussion: For easier

analysis of results, experimental data are displayed (10)

in form dimensionless numbers. Therefore, at

first, heat transfer rate of hot fluid is calculated Nu = hD / K (11)

from Eq.(8):

(8) data, used this equation:

That Q is equal to the energy transferred from hot

fluid to wall of tubes. (12)

b o i

o w

Nuselt number, used below equations:

m h

Also, to abtain friction coefficient, from pressure

World Appl. Sci. J., 18 (10): 1443-1448, 2012

1446

Fig. 3: Nusselt number versus Reynolds number in Fig. 5: Performance coefficient versus Reynolds

different cases of tubes with wire coils tube number in different cases of tubes with wire coils

wire less tube wire less

Fig. 4: Friction coefficient versus Reynolds number in equation:

different cases of tubes with wire coils tube

wire less Thermal-hydraulic Performance = (Nu / Nu )/(f / f ) (13)

In diference case of wire coils inserts and without it, That Nu and f are the parameters of tube with coils

Nusselt namber versus Reynolds number is depicted for inserts and Nu ana f are related to empty tube. Therefore,

water in Figure (3). In all cases, Nusselt number increase from the results of heat transfer coefficient and

with increment of Reynolds. Its reasons are increase of friction coefficient is used to obtain a performance ratio.

fluid velocity and thermal convection coefficient. Also, for The result shows in Figure (5).

all cases of wire coils inserts, Nusselt number is higher With increasing Reynolds number, decrease

than without it. So that, In most case, at Reynolds number General trend of all diagrams. In other words,

11800, This increase comes to about 100%. The reason at low Reynolds numbers all tapes of coils are

can be expressed the development of tangential shown better performance. W have maximum

component of fluid velocity and rotation of the fluid with performance coefficient that is justified with

high spead. effect of wire coils and mixing of fluids near considering high rotational flow and heat transfer

the wall and tube center couse to this increscent. coefficient reduction of friction coefficient. After W ,

The Nusselt number with wire coil W , is higher than W the maximum performance coefficient is for W and W ,

01 02

and W . In maximum Reynolds number, increscent of respectively. Because the heat transfer coefficient for W

03

Nusselt namber with W than W is about 50%. is more than W .

01 03

Figure (4) shows the variation of friction coefficient

versus Reynolds number in diference case of wire coils Simulation Results and Discussion: First, the system

inserts and without it. According to the diagram can be geometry made in Gambit software and performed the

found that friction coefficient with wire coil inserts is very proper mesh. Control volume is divided to 1250000

high than wireless. Also with increase pitch of wire, the tetrahedral elements. View of the geometry is shown in

friction coefficient decrease. So that, for a Reynolds Figure (6).

number of 2900, friction coefficient in tubes with W is

01

approximately 31% more than W . The reasons are more

03

fluid contact with the tubes wall and wire coils, also, The

reduce of cross section of fluid and creation of more

rotational flow with W .

01

To obtain the overall efficiency of coils

inserts in tubes and detection of heat transfer rates

increase and Reduced pressure drop in various coils is

used the thermal-hydraulic performance criteria as this

0 0

0 0

02

02

01 03

01

03

World Appl. Sci. J., 18 (10): 1443-1448, 2012

1447

Fig. 6: A view of coil inserts and its mesh

Fig. 7: Water temperature inside tube for three different type of coils

Table 3: Comparison between measured and predicted Nusselt number in tubes and error of them

Table 4: Comparison between measured and predicted friction coefficient in tubes and error of them

For solving was used the Fluent software. After Simpel algoritm firt order method is used for Coupling

define of fluid and its physical properties, calculations for pressure and velocity and RNG K turbulence model

shaping the flow pattern, inside and outside of tube in to predict the turbulance flow pattern. convergence

different flow rate and steady state is done by Fluent. criteria is defined less than 10 .

4

World Appl. Sci. J., 18 (10): 1443-1448, 2012

1448

For example, a horizontally counter of temperature REFERENCES

for tubes with velocity flow 0.125 (m.s ) is shown in

1

Figure 7. Process of temperature changes of tube is 1. Webb, R.L., 1994. Principles of Enhanced Heat

shown in this figure. The result showes the efficiency of Transfer. John Wiley & Sons.

tube with coil inserts is higher than the empty tube and 2. Bergles, A.E., 1997. Heat transfer enhancement - the

W is effectiveness than other. The reasons are the encouragement and accommodation of high heat

01

rotary flow in tube, Increase of turbulency, the effect of fluxes. Journal of Heat Transfer, 119: 8-19.

wire coil inserts in creation high temperature difference 3. Bejan, A., G. Tsatsaronis and M. Moran, 1996.

and increase of heat transfer coefficient. Thermal Design and Optimization. John Wiley &

The predicted Nusselt number in various Reynolds Sons.

by CFD, are compared with experimental results in table 3. 4. Jacobi, A.M. and R.K. Shah, 1995. Heat transfer

Also, the friction coefficient is investigated by CFD and surface enhancement through the use of longitudinal

its result are given in table 4. vottices. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science,

Predicted results are in good agreement with 11(3): 295-309.

experimental results. In high velocity the error increase for 5. Eiamsa-ard, S. and P. Promvonge, 2006. Experimental

weakness of turbulancy model in high Reynolds. The wire investigation of heat transfer and friction

coils Shows better performance in low Reynolds because characteristics in a circular tube fitted with V-nozzle

the coils increase turbulancy and this device has no effect turbulators. Heat and Mass Transfer, 33(5): 591-600.

in high Reynolds number. 6. Leonard D. Tijing, Bock Choon Pak, Byung Joon

CONCLUSION transfer enhancement using straight and twisted

Wire coils in tubes, is modeld, as a good tools for 26(5-6): 613-772.

enhance heat transfer by CFD. 7. Sarma, P.K., P.S. Kishore, V. Dharma Rao and

In low spead region, usage wire coils in tube is very A. Subrahmanyam, 2005. A combined approach to

effective for increase heat transfer. predict friction coefficient and convective heat

Friction coefficient and Nuselt number in tubes with transfer characteristics in a tube with twisted tape

coils reduce with increase wire coils step. inserts for a wide range of Re and Pr. International

Computational fluid dynamics predict the Journal of Thermal Science, 44(4): 393-398.

experimental results with good accuracy. 8. Mercado, E.R.L., V.C. Souza, R. Guirardello and

Baek and Dong Hwan Lee, 2006. A study on heat

internal fin inserts. Heat and Mass Transfer,

J.R. Nunhez, 2001. Modeling flow and heat transfer in

tubes using a fast CFD formulation. Computers and

Chemical Engineering, 25(4-6): 713-722.

9. Mahesh, N. and A. Kannan, 2006. CFD studies on

natural convective heating of canned food in conical

and cylindrical containers. Journal of Food

Engineering, 77(4): 1024-1036.

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