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Chapter I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE


INTRODUCTION
Rationale of the Study
Traffic management is the method of control for roadwork, that is, the measures
that are generally intended to improve road safety for all its users and ease congestion or
control the use of the cars. This is the process of determining timely and economic
delivery methods, arranging both the internal and external transportation and ensuring
that shipment status and logistics are efficiently tracked.
In Transportation Engineering, basically there are two factors in determining its
traffic volume; saturation flow rate and the level of service. In !!", the saturation flow
rate in one of the busy streets of Cebu City is ##$ vehicles per hour per lane and the level
of service is in category %&' C ( CIT&), !!" *. 'uch volume, according to the City
Traffic &ffice and )anagement is alarming and there is a need to assess the traffic of
vehicles considering the rapid economic growth of the city. There are routes that no
longer allowed to operate in the down town and routes are channeled to specific roads
+ust to address the increasing volume of traffic.
The most important transport problems are often related to urban areas and take
place when transport systems, for a variety of reasons, cannot satisfy the numerous
re,uirements of urban mobility. -rban productivity is highly dependent on the efficiency
of its transport system to move labor, consumers, and freight between multiple origins
and destinations. 'ome problems are ancient, like congestion, while others are new like
urban freight distribution or environmental impacts. .mong the most notable transport
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problems are/ (0* traffic congestion and parking difficulties, (* longer commuting,
(1*public transport inade,uacy, (2* difficulties for non3motori4ed transport, ($* loss of
public space, ("* environmental impacts and energy consumption, (5* accidents and
safety, (6* land consumption, and (#* freight distribution.
Congestion is one of the most prevalent transport problems in large urban
agglomerations, usually above a threshold of about 0 million inhabitants. It is particularly
linked with motori4ation and the diffusion of the automobile, which has increased the
demand for transport infrastructures. 7owever, the supply of infrastructures has often not
been able to keep up with the growth of mobility. 'ince vehicles spend the ma+ority of
the time parked, motori4ation has expanded the demand for parking space, which has
created space consumption problems particularly in central areas; the spatial imprint of
parked vehicles is significant. Congestion and parking are also interrelated since looking
for a parking space called 8cruising8 creates additional delays and impairs local
circulation. In central areas of large cities cruising may account for more than 0!9 of the
local circulation as drivers can spend ! minutes looking for a parking spot. This practice
is often +udged more economically effective than using a paying off3street parking facility
as the time spent looking for a free (or low cost* parking space as compensated by the
monetary savings. .lso, many delivery vehicles will simply double3park at the closest
possible spot to unload their cargo.
:ollution, including noise, generated by circulation has become a serious
impediment to the ,uality of life and even the health of urban populations. ;urther,
energy consumption by urban transportation has dramatically increased and so the
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dependency on petroleum. <et, peak oil considerations are increasingly linked with peak
mobility expectations where high energy prices incite a shift towards more efficient and
sustainable forms of urban transportation, namely public transit.
=rowing traffic in urban areas is linked with a growing number of accidents and
fatalities, especially in developing countries. .ccidents account for a significant share of
recurring delays. .s traffic increases, people feel less safe to use the streets.
The territorial imprint of transportation is significant, particularly for the
automobile. >etween 1! and "!9 of a metropolitan area may be devoted to
transportation, an outcome of the over3reliance on some forms of urban transportation.
<et, this land consumption also underlines the strategic importance of transportation in
the economic and social welfare of cities.
=lobali4ation and the materiali4ation of the economy have resulted in growing
,uantities of freight moving within cities. .s freight traffic commonly shares
infrastructures with the circulation of passengers, the mobility of freight in urban areas
has become increasingly problematic. City logistics strategies can be established to
mitigate the variety of challenges faced by urban freight distribution.
?hile traffic congestion posed a problem, smoke emission is another problem
derived from motori4ed vehicles. The %and Transportation &ffice (%T&* is the lead
agency that is tasked to monitor and evaluate the smoke emitted by vehicles. Emission
that results from individual vehicles are in many cases compiled to evaluate the emission
performance of various classes of vehicles, the efficacy of the testing program and of
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various other emission3regulations such as changes of fuel formulations and to model the
effects of auto emissions on public health and the environment.
Traffic management measures can sometimes reduce noise problems although
City Traffic &ffice )anagement (CIT&)* does not generally allow restrictions of truck
trailer combinations on those facilities on the national and local roads for large trucks.
;or example, if acceptable alternative truck routes are available, trucks could be
prohibited from certain streets and roads, or they could be permitted to use certain streets
and roads only during specific hours. 'peed limits could be reduced, although very large
reductions in speed are needed to accomplish a modest decrease in sound levels.
In this light, the researcher wished to conduct a study on the traffic volume
profile, the measures to control the traffic in some specific areas, the level of traffic noise,
the measures in controlling traffic noise, the level of smoke emission from the vehicles,
the problems encountered by road users in terms of traffic volume, noise, and the smoke
emission of vehicles. The findings of this in,uiry were intended as basis for measures of
improvement of traffic management in the entire city of Cebu.
Theoretical Bac!round
This study subscribed to the theory of >oris @erner who developed the three
phase traffic theory which is the alternative theory of traffic flow between 0##" and
!!. It focuses mainly on the explanation of the physics traffic breakdown and resulting
congested traffic on highways. The three phase traffic theory has two phases of
congestion states; synchroni4ed flow and wide moving +am. ?hen the congestion
transition occur, free flow will change to synchroni4ed flow. In the synchroni4ed flow,
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the speed of vehicles drops significantly, but there is no noticeable change in the flow
rate is observed. This is due to the increase in the number of vehicles ( also called
density of vehicle* so that the product of the speed and the density remains nearly the
same. ?hile the wide moving +am, this has to do with the vehicle movement in the
upstream through any highway bottlenecks.
&ne of the methods in ,uantifying traffic volume is the determination of the level
of service. %evel of service (%&'* is a measure used in traffic engineering to determine
the effectiveness of elements of transportation infrastructure. %&' is most commonly
used to analy4e highways by categori4ing traffic flow with corresponding safe driving
conditions. The concept has also been applied to intersections, transit, potable water,
sanitary sewer service, solid waste removal, drainage, and public open space and
recreation services. %&' standards uses the letters . through ; with . being the best and
; being the worst ( =orber A.B. et al., !0*.
Inherent to vehicle congestion is the noise and smoke generated by the vehicles.
-nwanted sound and is among the most pervasive kind of pollutants. This may be come
from road traffic, +et planes, +et skis, garbage trucks, construction e,uipment
manufacturing processes, are among the unwanted sounds that are routinely broadcast
into air. Aoise exposure can cause two kinds of health effects. These effects are non3
auditory effects and auditory effects. Aon3auditory effects include stress, related
physiological and behavioral effects and safety concerns. Aoise was originally ,uantified
by individuals using perception. 7owever, noise is ,uantified using a scale developed by
by @.C. @ryter in 0#$# to attempt to measure the perceived noisiness of +et aircraft by
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observers on the ground. The scale has been adopted by the International 'tandards
&rgani4ation for international use.
:eople on the road are exposed to different sources of noise and when the noise
exposure is above the limit, this can cause annoyance and disturbance. .ccording to the
.ustralian +ournal on en7ealth, the evidence for the effects of noise exposure on child
health is strongest for cognitive effects, though these effects are not uniform across all
cognitive tasks (Cohen et al, 0#6"; Evans et al; Evans D %epore, 0##1*.
There are two sources of smoke emissions; mobile and stationary. The mobile
sources are due to the vehicles passing through our roads. .ccording to ?orld 7ealth
&rgani4ation (?7&* standards, particulate matter level should not exceed the "! ugEm
1 .
There is a need to reduce the particulate matter levels because there is a greater
probability that it will affect health due exposure of excessive particulate matter.
&n the other hand, enforcement of traffic rules is one of the vital component in
the management of traffic. .ccording to Bohn ?illis, the law enforcement approach is
essentially based on deterrence theory that persons can be deterred from acting in certain
forbidden ways if there is certainty, severity, and celerity of punishment. %ikewise,
?ayne %e;ave states from his Criminal %aw 7ornbook that the law of general deterrence
punish person in order to send a message to general population.
The Fepublic .ct Ao. 652# that is also known as :7I%I::IAE C%E.A .IF
.CT &; 0### in section that says/
The State shall protect and advance the right of people to a balanced and healthful
ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature.
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The State recognizes that the responsibility of cleaning the habitat and environment is
primarily area-based.
The State also recognizes the principle that the polluters must pay.
Finally, the State recognizes that a clean and healthy environment is for the good of all
and, should, therefore, be the concern of all.
?ith that, the researcher would additionally recommend on the observance of the
recogni4ed rule above through a thorough review and strict implementation of its
declared policy as in 'ection 1 which states/
The State should pursue a policy of balancing development and environmental
protection. t shall be the policy to!
"#ccording to the fourth policy mentioned$ %romote public information and education
and to encourage the participation of an informed and active public air &uality planning
and monitoring.
.ccording to .tty. Fafael Christopher A. <ap, CIT&) Chief, traffic management
measures can sometimes reduce noise problems although City Traffic &ffice
)anagement (CIT&)* does not generally allow restrictions of truck trailer combinations
on those facilities on the national and local roads for large trucks. ;or example, if
acceptable alternative truck routes are available, trucks could be prohibited from certain
streets and roads, or they could be permitted to use certain streets and roads only during
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specific hours. 'peed limits could be reduced, although very large reductions in speed are
needed to accomplish a modest decrease in sound levels.
;igure 0. Theoretical ;ramework
:residential Cecree Ao. 00$, the :hilippine Environmental Code creates the
Aational :ollution Control Commission serves as the basis for Aoise 'tandards in the
country. This Aoise 'tandards limit routine sound insulation to public use or non3profit
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institutional structures except when severe traffic noise impacts are anticipated and
normal abatement measures are physically infeasible or economically unreasonable. .
few %ocal =overnment Aoise policies specifically state that insulation is a must in private
buildings and other public institutions when severe traffic noise impacts are anticipated.
The transport sector plays a key role in economic development. In the past decades the
transport planning model adopted by many countries, including the :hilippines,
prioriti4ed the movement of cars and other motori4ed vehicles to facilitate the growing
demand for mobility of passengers and goods. .s such, this has led to the development of
more roads, and highways. -nfortunately, this has resulted in the preference for private
motori4ed travel as less investments were made for public transport and non3motori4ed
transport like walking and cycling, especially in the urban area.
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;igure / Conceptual ;ramework
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T7E :F&>%E)
State"ent of the Pro#le"
The main purpose of this study was to assess the vehicular traffic affecting the
selected roads in Cebu City during the C< !0 as basis for action plan for traffic
improvement.
It sought to answer the following sub3problems/
0. ?hat was the profile of the traffic in terms of;
0.0 volume ; and
0. violationsG
. ?hat was the level of traffic noise in the areas concernedG
1. ?hat was the level of smoke emission in the areas concernedG
2. ?hat problems were encountered by the road users in terms of;
2.0 traffic volume;
2. traffic noise; and
2.1 smoke emissions of vehiclesG
$. ?hat action plan for traffic improvement would be formulatedG
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Si!nificance of the Study
The researcher was convinced that his work would benefit the following/ City
Traffic &ffice and )anagement, %and Transportation &ffice, Foad -sers and ;uture
Fesearchers of related topics.
'ince this study sought to develop and enhance the management of the people
component of City Traffic &ffice and )anagement, it advanced the effectiveness and
efficiency of the policies, procedures and practices operative in traffic management
crucial to their excellent and globally competent delivery of services to the motorists and
the residents in general. The findings of this study would hopefully compel government
agencies concerned to manage their personnel and other necessary e,uipments needed to
serve the public better.
)easurements using the sound level meter near the main roads will also be
gathered to verify whether or not levels of noise are consistently above prescribed limits.
These measurements will be necessary in profiling to show that traffic in and around may
account the problem of traffic noise.
$uture Re%earcher% of related topics could build on the findings of this study in
their ,uest for better ways of doing things in enforcement of policies. This research was
envisioned to encourage graduate students to explore new grounds of knowledge,
techni,ues and legal remedies in the field of traffic engineering to address the main
concern of the traffic management and of the environment.
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Definition of Ter"%
The following key terms and phrases are hereby given their operational
definitions in order to bare out to the readers their specific meaning and significance of
this study.
Air Pollution. Cegradation of the air ,uality by the presence of natural and
foreign substances present in the atmosphere, which can have adverse impacts on human
health, vegetation, livestock, agriculture, materials and aesthetics (e.g. visibility*.
Air#orne Sound In%ulation& The insulation against noise originating in air, e.g.
voice, music, motor traffic, and wind.
Air to'ics. .ir toxics represent a large number of air pollutants that are present in
the ambient air and have characteristics that are ha4ardous to human health and the
environment. .ir toxics include ben4ene, butadiene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,
heavy metals, volatile and semi3volatile organic compounds and persistent organic
pollutants. .ir toxics are produced by motor vehicles, industry emissions, paints and
adhesives, cigarette smoke and burning of fuel including the incomplete combustion of
wood. Exposure to air toxics can produce increased eye, nose and throat irritation. .ir
toxic exposure is also linked to increased occurrences of cancer, and respiratory and
nervous system damage.
Annoyance. Aoise annoyance is clearly a reflection of impaired ,uality of life.
Individual experience of annoyance to noise varies, depending on personal characteristics
and factors, such as ability to control the living environment and psychological stressors.
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It is not clear whether a longer duration of noise exposure increases the vulnerability to
serious health impairment. -ndoubtedly, people who are already stressed (for example,
already have a high level of depression or anxiety* are also more likely to develop higher
annoyance levels when exposed to environmental noise, than those who are not so
affected. ?here environmental noise is relatively constant, reported noise annoyance
levels remain constant over time.
Bel& . unit of expressing ratios of numbers in logarithmic value. This term bel
was derived from the person who invented the telephone and this unit was used originally
in measuring sound waves. In modern electronics, the unit bel is also used in ,uantifying
amplifier gain or network loss.
Control& It is a means of regulation or restraint. This is also used to assess
feedback mechanisms.
Deci#el& . unit in the measurement of sound level, gain, or loss. =ain or loss is
expressed in ratio and when multiplied by ten times the logarithm of ratio, the result is in
decibel. The decibel unit is usually used since ratio of numbers may be too large or too
small but when expressed in decibel the resulting ratio is of lesser figures involved.
E(ui)alent %ound le)el& . single .3weighted e,uivalent measure of sound level
corresponding to readings taken over a given period of time.
$re(uency& The number of repetitions or cycles per unit time. Cifferent sources
of sound wave may have also of different value of fre,uency.
Hert*& &ne cycle per second. The unit of fre,uency.
I"+act Sound In%ulation& The insulation against noise originating directly on a
structure by blows of vibration e.g. footsteps, drilling, and hammering the structure.
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Le)el of Ser)ice& ;or signali4ed and unsignali4ed intersections as a function of
the average vehicle control delay. %&' may be calculated per3movement or per3approach
for any intersection configuration; however, %&' for the intersection as a whole is only
defined for signali4ed and all3way stop configurations.
Loudne%%& The brains perception of the magnitude of sound pressure. It is the
perceptual ,uantity that can be understood as the degree of the physiological effect
produced when a sound stimulates the ear, and it is dependent on factors including
bandwidth, fre,uency, and duration. %oudness is a salient feature of auditory experience,
closely associated with measures of acoustical level (energy, power, or pressure* but not
identical to any of them. It is a relatively straightforward matter for a person to note
whether one sound is louder or softer than another, or to rank order a set of sounds with
regard to their loudness. To measure loudness, however, in the typical sense of
Hmeasuring,I re,uires more than +ust ranking the experiences from softest to loudest. It
entails ,uantifying how much louder (e.g., determining whether the ratio or difference in
the loudness of sounds . and > is greater or smaller than the ratio or difference in
loudness of sounds C and C*.
Noi%e& -nwanted sound and is among the most pervasive kind of pollutants. This
may be come from road traffic, +et planes, +et skis, garbage trucks, construction
e,uipment manufacturing processes, are among the unwanted sounds that are routinely
broadcast into air. Aoise exposure can cause two kinds of health effects. These effects are
non3auditory effects and auditory effects. Aon3auditory effects include stress, related
physiological and behavioral effects and safety concerns. .uditory effects include
hearing impairment resulting from excessive noise exposure. Aoise3induced permanent
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hearing loss is the concern related to occupational noise exposure. Its intensity or
loudness is measured in decibels (d>*. The decibel scale is logarithmic, so a three3decibel
increase in the sound level already represents a doubling of the noise intensity. ;or
example, a normal conversation may be about "$ d> and someone shouting typically can
be around 6!d>. The difference is only 0$ d> but the shouting is 1! times as intensive.
To take into account the fact that the human ear has different sensitivities to different
fre,uencies, the strength or intensity of noise is usually measured in .3weighted decibels
d>.. It is not +ust the intensity that determines whether noise is ha4ardous. The duration
of exposure is also very important. To take this into account, time3weighted average
sound levels are used. ;or workplace noise, this is usually based on an 63hour working
day.
Particulate Matter. This is also known as particle pollution or :), is a
complex mixture of extremely small particles and li,uid droplets. :article pollution is
made up of a number of components, including acids such as nitrates and sulfates,
organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles.
Percei)ed Noi%e Le)el& . calculated single value of noise based on a known level
of peopleJs annoyance from noise. This scale was developed originally by @.C. @ryter in
0#$# to attempt to measure the perceived noisiness of +et aircraft by observers on the
ground. The scale has been adopted by the International 'tandards &rgani4ation for
international use.
Road U%er& . general term who uses the road such as motorist, commuters,
pedestrians, cyclist, street traders, or authorities operating on the streets.
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S"oe& It is a collection of particles and gases emitted into the atmosphere when
a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis together with the ,uantity of air that is
entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass.
S"oe E"i%%ion& It is an air contaminant caused by burning of materials emitted
into the atmosphere.
Sound& The auditory sensation produced by the vibration of air, water, and so on. There
is a psychological concept of sound as that which humans hear3the perception produced by the
ear3brain detector. In physical concept, sound as any compression wave in a material medium that
has fre,uency content in the range from ! to !,!!! 74.
Sound In%ulation& The process of sound proofing an enclosed space such as a
room. This type of insulating activity is usually employed when there is a need to keep
sound from filtering into or out of space. It is a method to prevent the transmission of
noise by the introduction of a mass barrier. Common materials have high3density
properties such as brick, thick glass, concrete, metal, etc.
Sound A#%or+tion& . method of absorbing sound energy by using porous
material which acts as noise sponge by converting the sound energy into heat within the
material. Common sound absorption materials include decoupled lead3based tiles, open
cell foams and fiber glass.
Traffic& &n roads, this consist of pedestrians, vehicles, street cars, and other
conveyances either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel.
In an organi4ation, generally it has well3established priorities, lanes, right of way and
traffic control intersections.
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Traffic ,iolation& This is an offense against the traffic laws committed by
driving individuals while the vehicle is in motion.
Traffic Control Mea%ure%& These are the parameters of the traffic control plan
including but not limited to, traffic control devices, personnel, materials and e,uipment
used to control traffic through a work 4one.This involves directing vehicular and
pedestrian traffic around a construction 4one, accident or other road disruption to ensure
the safety of the motorists and the general public.
Traffic Count& The tally of vehicles at a given point on a road obtained by either
manual or machine method.
Traffic Mana!e"ent& Traffic management is the method of control for
roadwork, that is, the measures that are generally intended to improve road safety for all
its users and ease congestion or control the use of the cars. In other contexts, it could also
refer to the process of determining timely and economic delivery methods, arranging both
the internal and external transportation and ensuring that shipment status and logistics are
efficiently tracked.
Traffic ,olu"e& The count or estimate of the number of vehicles at a given point
on a road, generally guided with reference to a specific time.
Traffic ,olu"e Route Profile& The trace defined by variation in traffic volume
from one milepost value to the next along a road.