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30 Ansichten46 SeitenCovered topics:
Magnetoplasmadymanic Thrusters
Onset and Instabilities in MPDTs
Electric propulsion
Tikhonov Criterion
Onset Theories
Kruskal Shafranov limit

May 28, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

Covered topics:
Magnetoplasmadymanic Thrusters
Onset and Instabilities in MPDTs
Electric propulsion
Tikhonov Criterion
Onset Theories
Kruskal Shafranov limit

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

30 Ansichten

00 positive Bewertungen00 negative Bewertungen

Covered topics:
Magnetoplasmadymanic Thrusters
Onset and Instabilities in MPDTs
Electric propulsion
Tikhonov Criterion
Onset Theories
Kruskal Shafranov limit

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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steady-state AF-MPDT SX3

MSc student Luca Malacci - University of Pisa

Supervisors.: Prof. Georg Herdrich, Prof. M. Andrenucci, PhD Candidate Adam Boxberger

Investigate possible critical regimes in the SX3

Analysis of different criteria in order to predict instabilities occurrence

Comparison of operational regime with existing experimental data

Experimental test with predetermined operational parameters*

Assessment of the results

*All these tasks, especially experimental ones, have to be performed accordingly with the present available

hardware at IRS, taking into account timing and feasibility of the procedure.

SF-MPDT: Self-field

Propellant (Ar, Li, He, Xe, H) is injected

in an acceleration chamber consisting in

two coaxial electrodes

Acceleration process is mainly due to

the interaction between the self-field

magnetic field and the current density j,

according to the momentum eq.:

AF-MPDT: Applied-field

Externally imposed magnetic field allows

to increase efficiency at low-mid power

regime (up to 100 kW) [5]

4 acceleration processes [5]:

Self-magnetic acceleration

Swirl acceleration

Hall component

Gas-dynamic acceleration:

Joule heating and expansion of the

gas in a physical or magnetic nozzle

!

"

du

dt

= #$p + j % B (1)

!

j

r

" B

#

j

z

" B

#

j

r

" B

z

j

z

" B

r

j

#

" B

z

j

#

" B

r

Acceleration process is derived by the generalized Ohms law, eq (2)

!

j = " E + u # B] [

$

%

e

&

e

B

j # B [ ] (2)

Since Hall currents in azimuthal directions can only take place trough a particle

colllisional process, the Hall parameter (according eq 3) is a characteristic variable for

AF-MPDs operation:

The first two factors on the right-hand side are respectively the gyration frequency an

mean free path period of electrons. Hall parameters has the meaning of a ratio of

gyration frequency of electrons to the related collision frequency. Considering

operational mode characterized by a consistent Hall component the higher the gyration

frequency and the lower the collision frequency, the higher will be the amount of

induced Hall current.

!

" = #

e

$

e

(3)

Taking into account effects of the Hall parameter on thrust operation means to analyze

his dependence on the magnetic field strength, pressure, and temperature. Defining the

electron gyration, collisional frequency, electronic pressure respectively as (4) (5) (6) (7)

!

and considering the dependence of the conductivity on the electron temperature, the

Hall parameter can be rearranged as follow (8)

Thus in order to increase the azimuthal flows following steps are required:

Large magnetic fields

low values of pressure, high electron temperature (nearly square dependence)

o The difference between theoretical expected values of the Hall parameters (ranging

between 10-100) and experimental evidences (azimuthal currents measurements)

implies that the efficiency of the magnetic nozzle in the energy conversion is

limited [5]

!

"

e

#

e

=

$B

en

e

%

BT

e

5/2

p

e

(8)

!

"

e

=

eB

m

e

(4)

!

v

e

=

n

e

e

2

"m

e

(5)

!

v

e

=

p

e

e

2

kT

e

"m

e

(7)

!

p

e

= n

e

kT

e

(6)

Due to the different acceleration mechanisms involved in thrust generation:

A proper design of the magnetic field plays an essential role in the acceleration

process

High values of ionization are required in order to ensure an appropriate degree of

mass to electromagnetic effects (being mass involved in the specific impulse and the

thrust generated trough electromagnetic effects)

Anomalous diffusion of electrons across the magnetic field as well as the presence of

a non uniform azimuthally discharge have to be taking into account affecting

operation of the thruster. [5] [6]

Geometry of the applied magnetic field affects operation parameters as discharge

voltage V, anode voltage losses, electron density [6]

!

"

e

= #D

e

dn

e

dr

#

e

n

e

E

!

E = "

1

en

e

16 j

e

B+ kT

e

dn

e

dr

#

$

%

&

'

(

Considering the flux of electrons to the anode with the Bohm coefficient for the

anomalous diffusion, and rearranging the Einstein relation as follows

!

D

e= Bohm

=

1

16

k

B

T

eB

we obtain an expression for the electric field as function of he external applied field [6]

Results from both experimental campaign and theoretical efforts [1][4][6][14][15][16] show

directions for changing the thruster geometry and to improve thruster performances:

Observed rapid increase in thruster performance with applied-field strength using a

larger anode radii indicate that both larger anodes and increased magnetic fields

should be adopted. [6]

Using both cathode and short anode yielded the highest measured performance due

to the reduction of anode/electrode losses. [6]

Designing the anode and applied-field so that the field lines cross the anode surface*

thus reducing the requirement for a high anode fall voltage, is believed also to

reduce the anode power losses and increase thruster efficiency. [16]

*Has to be noticed that in regarding to the last point others authors point out to design the applied

field line to be parallel to the anode surface in order to minimize anode losses [1]

SX3 design includes several of these features

cathode to the anode radio is high if compared with similar class devices

cathode is a recessed one and anode exhibit a short extension

applied magnetic field in this case is shaped to be flattered to the anode surface

Instabilities & operational conditions

Definition of Instabilities and Onset related phenomena.

How instabilities affects overall thruster performances?

Phenomenology: Onset is defined as a collection of behaviours associated with a transition to

large-amplitude terminal voltage fluctuations (hash), transients in plasma properties, and growth

in anode fall voltages once exceeded a certain value of a critical parameter k* (ratio

between discharge current and mass flow rate) [16]

Effects:

Limits the max achievable Isp

Decrease in thrust efficiency (as anode losses increase)

Electrode erosion (decreasing thruster lifetime) (1)

Effect of erosion on a McHc operated above the

onset (quasi-steady regime)

(left) BoL (right) after 200 shots

Alta AF-MPD 100kW [19]

Fig. (1)

Instabilities & operational conditions

Current and Voltage fluctuactions

at the Onset (2)

(Up) Discharge Current:

Amplitude: 600-900 [A] ! 20% Im*

(Down) Discharge Voltage:

Amplitude 16-21 [V]

Sampling Frequency: 0.5 [ms]

Discharge

current I [A]

750

MFR [mg/s] 100

B** [T] 0.1

Ra [mm] 38

Rc [mm] 6.4

NASA-Lewis AF-MPDT 100 kW class

Configuration I

Water cooled Cu anode

W-2%Th alloy cathode

** Applied magnetic field B measured at the

centerline of the cathode tip

* Mean value of discharge current

(2)

Anode starvation [4][10]

Diffuse current conduction to the anode

is sheath-limited

reversal in the sign of the anode sheath

as the driven current increase cause a

drop in the density of charge carriers

near the anode

anode can no longer collect the total

current imposed by the external source

current conduction turns to discrete

anode spots, implying local anode

vaporization

Plasma Instabilities

drift instabilities, excited by large relative

velocities between electrons and ions

Micro instabilities (GLHDI, ECDI, space

charge instabilities) [11][12][13]

Macro instabilities (MHD kink instabilities)

[2][3]

Formulated Theories for the Onset riddle explanation:

Effect of the back EMF [8]

Increasing of the current to mass flow

ratio leads to it is possible for the

accelerator plasma to flow quickly

enough to impede current from flowing

between the electrodes instabilities)

Instabilities & operational conditions

k* onset parameter

operated current, ionization current ratio

current ratio for SF and AF according to

Tikhonov

Tikhonov parameter for SF and AF-MPD

!

k

*

=

(

I

2

m

,

I

2

m M

ion

)

" =

I

I

ci

"

T

SF

=

I

I

crit

SF

"

T

AF

=

I

I

crit

AF

A

o

SF

=

o

#I

2

4$a

o

m

A

o

AF

=

(R

a

% R

c

)(B

self

+ B

ext

)I

4$a

o

m

Definition:

Classic onset parameter is defined as the ratio between current and mass flow rate.

Influence of the atomic mass of the propellant has been verified by several authors [4]

Ratio between operated and ionization current measures the edge over critical conditions [4]

Tikhonov parameter Ao represents the ratio between the gas-dynamic and magnetic

pressure. The eq. in the case AF-MPDT, has been developed empirically, still capturing

relevant trends of operated parameters. [1]

Instabilities & operational conditions

Parameters used to define Critical Regimes:

Tikhonov criterion for AF-MPDTs

General theoretical formulation is based upon the analysis of the ideal MHD channel

In the AF-MPDT case the Tikhonov parameter links different operational parameters:

applied magnetic field, mass flow rate, discharge current.

The computed value is compared with a geometric parameter, function of the

thruster geometry in terms of anode and cathode radii

Equating these two parameters allows to determine different critical conditions

!

A

o

AF

" A

o

geo

Stability condition:

!

A

o

= f (B

ext

, B

self

, m , I , R , a

o

)

B

ext

= f (I) parametric m

B

ext

= f ( m ) parametric I

Equivalent representations

!

A

o

AF

=

(R

a

" R

c

)(B

self

+ B

ext

)I

4#a

o

m

!

A

o

geo

=

3.6

R

a

R

c

"

1

2

(3) Comparison of Tikhonov geometric parameter and operated conditions for different

AF-MPDs thrusters

Considerations:

o Arrows indicates thruster operated in critical conditions or above it

o When not clearly expressed critical conditions are assumed by the analysis of available

voltage/current diagrams

o Two types of thruster clearly operated safely even in conditions in which Tikhonov

criterion provides indications of unstable behaviours occurrence

o Both Tohuku University and SX3 AF-MPDTs are characterized by relatively much higher

slender magnetic field geometry w.r.t. others thrusters

o Differences in the SX3 operated conditions for the 2012 and 2013 campaigns only

depend on a different magnetic field geometry

Summary of geometric and operational characteristic of analyzed AF-MPDs thrusters

Influence of Temperature & Ion sound velocity

In the general formulation by Tikhonov the ion sound velocity is computed assuming

the same temperature for both ions and electrons.

Values of ion sound velocity depend on the the atomic mass of the propellant

politropic constant is usually assumed to be close to the value for ideal gases,

(5/3)

however

several Japanese authors [20] dropped off the assumptions of an equal politropic

constant and temperature for both electrons and ions in relation to the very peculiar

operated conditions of high power (MW order), high mass flow rate, high applied

magnetic field with different propellant (He). ( Te ! 4-5 [eV] )

Temperature measurements performed at Alta with HpT ranges between 3-4 [eV] without

applied magnetic field up to 9 [eV] when an external field is applied [4]

Original measurements of Tikhonov group range between 2-3 [eV] for electron

temperature at the cathode tip.

Work of Myers at NASA-Lewis center shows electron temperature ranging from 1 [eV] to

2 [eV] exhibiting a trend clearly related to that one of the electron number density w.r.t.

the radius of electrodes gap. [6]

Computation of Ion sound velocity

Influence of Ion sound velocity on the Admissible current

!

a

o

=

"kT

e

M

i

Wi t hi n t he as s umpt i on of an

e q u a l t e mp e r a t u r e f o r b o t h

e l e c t r o n s a n d i o n s a n d

as s umi ng t he adi abat i c i ndex

v a l u e f or p e r f e c t g a s e s , t h e

i o n s o u n d v e l o c i t y r e d u c e s

to eq. (I)

Ao Ti khonov parameter can be

c omput ed as f unc t i on of t he

I on s ou n d v e l oc i t y : e q u a t i n g

t h i s v a l u e t o t h e g e o me t r i c

p a r a m e t e r l e a d s t o a

representati on of the admi ssi bl e

current as function of Te.

Admissible current increases

as Te increases

Effect of electron temperature

variations are more relevant

as the mass flow rate increases

!

k = Boltzmann constant

!

T

e

= electron temperature " 2.5 [eV]

!

M

i

= propellant atomic weitgh

!

" =

5

3

= adiabatic index

(I)

Ra [mm] 43 Discharge current, I [A] 450 max

Rc [mm] 6 MFR [mg/s] 20

RcII* [mm] 12 Applied magnetic field, B [T] 0.1

Analysis of the SX3 case:

SX3 has been operated at IRS in the 2012 and 2013 with different operational

parameters

A complete new magnetic flux density geometry has been implemented in last exp

campaign, trough the usage of a new designed set of coils.

This modification results in a drastic improvements of performances: during the

2012 exp campaign the SX3 has been operated at current levels up to 400 [A], [14]

In comparison previous experimental campaign achieved operations up to 225 [A] at

which the probable occurrence of instability [15]

SX3 Geometric features Operated conditions

*RcII: Alternative cathode, not implemented yet

Exp campaign analysis (2012)

Constrained represents the

relation between applied

magnetic field and

discharge current for

parametric values of mass

flow rate at critical

conditions.

For a given value of mass

flow rate increasing

discharge current implies

to operate at lower value

of applied magnetic field

This trend is more evident

at low values of mass flow

r a t e a n d d i s c h a r g e

currents

Tikhonov criterion underestimates admissible current at given operated conditions of

mass flow rate, applied magnetic field

Considering the I=200 [A] measurement the predicted value of Tikhonov critical

current (lower curve) is about 80 [A] lower than the operated condition

!

A

o

= f (B

ext

, B

self

, m , I , R , a

o

)

B

ext

= f (I) parametric m

!

R " 7.12

a

o

" 2500 [m/s]

Trends:

Increasing mass flow rate allows to

operate at higher values of discharge

current for any given value of applied

magnetic field

Curves represents the same parametric

formulation for different cathode radii,

respectively Rc = 9 [mm] (up) and Rc =

12 [mm] (down)

Anode to cathode ratio is a critical

parameter, an increasing of this ratio

leads to higher value of admissible

current

As the external magnetic field increases,

lower values of current are permitted

Effect of increasing the anode to

cathode ratio also affects the trends of

parametric curves: an increasing of

mass flow rate is more effective in order

to operate at higher current conditions

if applied for higher anode to cathode

radii

Is worth to notice that operated

conditions with the SX3 in 2012

correspond to a Tikhonov criterion

applied to a lower anode to cathode

ratio

!

R " 4.78

!

R " 3.58

!

A

o

= f (B

ext

, B

self

, m , I , R , a

o

)

I = f ( m ) parametric B

ext

!

R " 7.12

a

o

" 2500 [m/s]

!

R " 5

!

R " 3.58

Trends:

Curves represent t he same

par amet r i c f or mul at i on f or

d i f f e r e n t c a t h o d e r a d i i ,

respectively Rc = 9 [mm] (up) and

Rc = 12 [mm] (down)

Effect of i ncreasi ng appl i ed

magnetic field on values of

critical current is higher for lower

values of the magnetic field itself

As the applied magnetic field

i ncr eases above val ues of

0.3-0.35 [T] the effect in terms of

reduction of admissible current

decreases (thi s tendency i s

highlighted by the decreasing in

the values of curves slope with

increasing magnetic field)

The effect of a reduction in the

admissible current as the applied

f i e l d i n c r e a s e s , i s l e s s

pronounced as the anode to

cathode ratio increases

Even i n thi s case operated

condition of the SX3 correspond

to a Tikhonov criterion applied to

a anode to cathode ratio equal

to R = 5

Trends:

Curves in graph (1) summarized trends

of the discharge current as function of

the mass flow rate for parametric values

of magnetic field and for 3 different

values of anode to cathode radius ratio

(R=7.12 - 4.78 3.58)

Effects of a reduction of the anode to

cathode radius are nearly equivalent to

an increasing in the applied magnetic

field.

Curves in graph (2) represent the

applied magnetic field Vs discharge

current relation in critical conditions for

the ZT1 thruster case.

The ZT1 operated in safety regime with

no occurrence of instability.

Tikhonov criterion correctly predict

critical conditions above the operated

one.

Has to be pointed out that ZT1 has an

anode to cathode ratio R=5.34: from

this and previous considerations is

argued that Tikhonov criterion validity is

s t r ongl y af f ect ed by t he anode

to cathode ratio.

Thi s characteri sti c al so suggests

a way t o cor r ect t he Ti khonov

criterion at high values of R

(1)

(2)

Kruskal-Shafranov criterion is based on a model describing a typical instability mode that

may arise in several confined plasmas geometries (fusion devices, z-machines, plasma

guns)

such as configurations (i.e. Tokomak) are potentially unstable to the current driven

external kink instability

The kink stability of a cylindrical magnetic plasma column is often quantified in terms of

the so-called safety factor, q

The safety factor measures the pitch of the magnetic field lines as they helically wind

around the axis of the plasma column.

If the field line pitch becomes too steep (q becomes too low), the flux rope will kink in

response to long-wavelength magnetic perturbations. The onset of the most dangerous

kink mode, the external kink, depends theoretically only on the value of the edge

safety factor

Different geometries have been object of study with this criterion in several fields (fusion

devices, solar coronal simulation, MHD converters)

toroidal geometries (Tokamak configuration) (I)

line-tied partial-toroidal (plasma column held fixed at both ends) (II)

open-end geometries (such as AF-MPDTs) (III)

I

II III

Among the very large amount of literature currently available on the topic a list of works

focused on the analysis of the Kruskal-Shafranov limit is also reported in the following [18]

Modelling of instabilities with Kruskal-Shafranov limit: Experimental and theoretical efforts

Kruskal-Shafranov limit has been extensively used in several studies aimed to detect

and identify instabilities in AF-MPDTs [2] [3] and later also in SF-MPDTs [22]

Experimental activities at Alta firstly attempted to modelize the instabilities

occurrence with the Kruskal-Shafranov limit

The campaign consisted in both electrostatic and magnetostatic measurements of

voltage, discharge current, azimuthal and axial magnetic field.

A Fourier analysis of the signals allowed to detect a regular oscillation of 100 kHz

in both electrostatic and magnetic output.

This picture is consistent with an azimuthal propagation of the kink mode.

A direct correlation between energy modes* of the kink and operational parameter

has been investigated, specifically w.r.t. discharge current I and applied magnetic

field B

A correlation between the energy modes and the critical current threshold

computed using the Tikhonov criterion has been identified.

*As widely know definition of energy modes m,n are referred to the expression of the expansion of cylindrical

displacement of the plasma column in perturbation analysis. (See for example [17] [18])

Summary of the experimental and theoretical results achieved at Alta:

Kink mode instabilities have been observed in several exp campaign at Alta

This kind of external mode instabilities are considered as the principal cause of

the occurrence of Instabilities and Onset behaviours in the AF-MPDs thruster

Development of m=0 and m=1 modes is believed to cause lower efficiency

operated conditions above the Onset

Kruskal-Shafranov limit and current regime: on the applicability on the SX3 case

Alta experimental campaign involved at least three AF-MPDTs design; HpT, MAI

Type, and a conventional single hollow cathode design [21]

HpT and MAI Type especially follow a so called HCMM high current approach in

comparison with standard pursed DLR/IRS approach based on LCHM high

magnetic flux low current [15]

...is the kink mode instability hypothesis applicable to the SX3 operational regime?

Have to be noticed that as the Alta design thrusters are characterized by an high

discharge current design, the MFR (mass flow rate) used is also much higher and

ranging between 100 and 660 [mg/s] for the HpT and up to 100 [mgr/s] for the

other cases [3] so in the best case at least 5 times the operated MFR currently

experienced with the SX3

Summary of the experimental and theoretical results achieved at Alta:

Kink mode instabilities have been observed in several exp campaigns at Alta

This kind of external mode instabilities are considered as the principal cause of the

occurrence of Instabilities and Onset behaviour in the AF-MPDs thruster [2]

Mode m=0 and m=1 are modes considered as responsible of lower efficiency operation

above the critical regime

Modes energy is negligible if I

tot

< I

crit

Modes energy increase as the I-V characteristic of the discharge becomes critical

Axial plasma wavelength represents the characteristic length of the kink, and is verified

to be comparable with the length of thruster plume L

Instability mode is regarded as a m/n = 1 helical kink mode

Time [ms] 0 3

0 Bz [T] 0.1

Voltage & Current

characteristic

Power Spectrum of the

Voltage signal at

critical conditions

Axial wavelength Vs Bz

V-I characteristic and

critical current

threshold

Safety factor condition at

resonant surface of radius a

Safety factor considered as

function of inverse pinch

radius

!

2"R

0

= L

!

q =

2"

(r)L

#1

Kruskal-Shafranov condition for stability

!

q(a) "1

Definition of relevant parameters:

Safety factor q

Inverse pitch of magnetic field line

Starting from the Kruskal-Shafranov limit in the case of a toroidal configuration a safety

factor q can be expressed for an open-end case: the inverse pitch is considered as the

ratio between the axial current and the magnetic flux

From this formulation an admissible current value can be establish as follow [3]:

!

=

0

I

"

=

0

I

z

(r)

B

z

(r)A

=

0

I

B

z

#r

2

!

q =

2"

(r)L

=

4"r

2

B

z

0

I

z

L

#1

!

I

z

"

(2#r)

2

B

z

0

L

!

q(r) =

rB

z

(r)

B

"

(r)

=

1

(r)R

0

!

q =

2"rB

z

(r)

LB

#

(r)

=

2"

(r)L

=1

1

2

3

4

!

2"R

0

= L

Admissible current

Following parameters are defined as in figure (k)

Plasma column length L is proportional to

the extension of the plume. [4]

Assumed values for L have been computed

considering the Tikhonov correlation between

plume extension and Ra at a given applied

magnetic field B

Radius r is assumed equal to the cathode

radius Rc

Constant axial magnetic field Bz

Axial current Iz, constant along the z axis

over the cathode surface tip, represents the

overall discharge current

L represents the characteristic

length of the kink[3]

Exp camapign assests that the

kink originates at the cathode tip

and exhibit an initial radial

extension comparable with the

cathode dimension [2]

Constant applied magnetic field

!

L = (2 3.5)D

a

!

B

z

" B

ext

= 0.1

!

r " R

c

Parameters meaning

Fig. (k)

Influence of plasma column length L on critical current I

computation

Influence of plasma column radius r

Influence of magnetic field strength

An increase of the

plasma column radius

r l eads to hi gher

values of admissible

current

Assuming a longer

plasma column length

L decrease the value

of admissible current

Computed results for

the SX3 represent the

lower and upper limit

of t he admi ssi bl e

current for different

v al ues of pl asma

column length

For L ranging from 2

t o 3Da e x p e c t e d

critical current for the

kink mode instability

ranges from 550 to

650 A

Within the Taylor theory (time decay of magnetic helicity longer than the time decay of

magnetic energy) magnetic field can be modelized as Bessel Functions (begin solution of

Ampere law in these states) [18]

This modelization gives an indication of the fraction of the induced magnetic field as

function of radial direction for parametric values of L

According to this model in the SX3 case induced values of axial magnetic field are negligible

w.r.t. the external applied magnetic field for a wide range of operational parameters

Theoretical value of inverse pinch as function of the plasma column length is

represented in the following graph (1)

Expected values of experimental inverse pinch parameter are plotted Vs the

plasma column length

Assuming L ranging between 2 and 3Da different values of inverse pinch

parameter can be computed

Each of the results correspond to a certain value of admissible current

!

=

4"

L

!

=

0

I

"

" = #r

2

B

z

(1)

Results:

Critical current values with Tikhonov criterion for instability are underestimated

Kruskal-Shafranov limit predicts critical current values between 550 and 650 [A] for

the analyzed conditions

Strongly influence of the magnetic field geometry on the admissible current for the

SX3 is evident from the analysis with Tikhonov criterion

At low current regime magnetic field geometry seems to be the most important

parameter to affect thruster functioning if compared for instance with variations in

the mass flow rate

Currently ongoing activities:

Criteria for magnetic field topology similarity: aimed to determine comparable

operational conditions w.r.t. magnetic field topology between different thruster

geometries (electrodes radii)

Preliminary consideration on a future experimental campaign related to Instabilities

investigation: aims, hardware availability, feasibility, expected outcomes

Consideration about Ionization current formulation for AFMPD thrusters

Similarity of magnetic field topology

between 2 different configurations is

crucial for:

I nstabi l i ti es behavi ors: arc

c u r r e n t s p a t t e r n s a n d

discharge voltage are strongly

affected by the magnetic field

geometry and strength

Thrust, efficiency: theoretical

determination and verification

of those parameters depends

g r e a t l y o n p r o p e r

characterization of magnetic

field in the plume

Possible future caharcterization

of discharge plume (electron

temperatue, particle number

density)

How to compare different geometric configurations? (different electrodes geometries)

Comparison of divergence of magnetic field lines at Anode and Cathode

reference points

!

"

A,z

!

"

A,B

!

"

C,B

!

"

A,z

=

!

"

A,B

=

!

"

C,B

=

angle between anode surface and magnetic field line

angle between anode magnetic field line and z axis

angle between cathode magnetic field line and z axis

Simply analysis of magnetic field geometry

performed with FEEM software includes the

study of an additional Inner magnetic coil in

order to achieve same similarity condition for

different configurations.

Following examples in figures are related to

the analysis with the current Outer coil set up,

operated with the following parameters:

SX3 Outer Coil (71 turns)

Total current = 452 Amps " Ba = 0.1 T

Voltage Drop = 8.83697 Volts

Flux Linkage = 0.940809 Webers

Flux/Current = 0.00208144 Henries

Voltage/Current = 0.0195508 Ohms

Power = 3994.31 Watts

Configuration 1:

Ra = 32.25 mm,

Rc = 12 mm

Configuration 2:

Ra = 43 mm,

Rc = 12 mm

Anal ysi s wi t h FEEM al l ows t o

determine also others figures of merit

for a given coil set up such as:

mean value of magnetic flux density

across anode surface,

average value of magnetic field for a

given length

power consumption of operated coil

set up

The definition of a feasible experimental campaign requires the identification of:

Instruments available at IRS

Variables that can be measured

Timing and set-up feasibility

Alternative I

Voltage & currents measurements:

Aimed to:

Assessment of predicted critical condition with the Kruskal-Shafranov limit

Indications for a modified Tikhonov criterion**

Assessment of the effect of magnetic field strength and geometry on critical current

Analysis of voltage spectrum in order to identify a dominant frequency peak

Possible hardware requirement for the electrostatic set-up

(Voltage Discharge current signals)

Required bandwidth up to 500 kHz

Acquisition sampling frequency up to 10 MHz

**See Current ongoing activities in the previous.

Alternative II

(In addition to exp measurements at point II)

Optical measurements of Electron temperature, plume length, plume oscillations

Aimed to:

Determination of plume characteristic

Analysis of emitted spectrum line in order to assess the presence of single, doubled

ionized charge ions

Assessment of the presence of spectral lines associated with the sputtering emission

from electrodes in critical conditions

Confrontation of Te with assumed values of temperature with Tikhonov criterion

Analysis of brightness spectrum in order to verify the existence of dominant frequencies

a) Note: Previous exp campaign has been already focused on measurements of voltage,

current, thrust, so in the following only some hints about the spectroscopy analysis are

provided

Emission Spectroscopy set-up

Hardware:

Spectrometer

Collimator

neutral filter

data recording & post process

Methods & Constraints

Identification of a suitable centerline-average emitted intensity

Assessment of required parameters

(intensity ratio resolution, wavelength range)

Model and assumption for the computation of the electron temperature

(es. relative line intensities approach)

Spectrometer calibration

Corrections (transmittance of the medium)

Vielen Dank fr Ihre freundliche Aufmerksamkeit.

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IEPC, 1993

[2] Further Experimental Evidences of the Development of Kink Instabilities in MPD Thrusters, F. Paganucci, M. Andrenucci, M. Agostini, et al.

Centrospazio-ALTA, Consorzio RFX, ENEA - Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, (2005)

[3] Critical regimes and magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in a magneto-plasma-dynamic thruster, M. Andrenucci, F. Paganucci, and P.

Rossetti Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Pisa, and Centrospazio, V. Antoni and M. Bagatin Consorzio RFX, PHYSICS OF

PLASMAS (2004)

[4] A critical review of the State-of-the-Art in the performances of AF-MPDs, A.D. Kodys and E.Y. Choueiri, Joint Propulsion Conference Acts,

(2005)

[5] The Investigation of Applied-Field MPD Thrusters on the International Space Station, Monika Auweter-Kurtz, Gerd Krulle, Helmut Kurtz, (1998)

[6] An Investigation of Magnetic Field Effects on Plume Density and Temperature Profiles of an Applied-Field MPD Thruster S. Ray Bullock, R.M.

Myers (1993)

[7] Experimental Study of a 100-kW class Applied-Field MPD Thruster, R. Albertoni, P. Rossetti, F. Paganucci, M. Andrenucci et al 32nd

International Electric Propulsion Conference

[8] Theory of Onset in Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters, J.L. Lawless, V.V. Subramaniamt, Carnegie-Mellon University, (1987)

[9] Experimental MPD thruster investigations, H. L. Kurtz, M. Auweter-Kurtz, W. D. Merke, and H. O. Schrade, 19th International Electric

Propulsion Conference, no. AIAA-87-1019, 1987.

[10] Critical regime of a plasma accelerator, F. G. Baksht, B. Y. Moizhes, and A. B. Rybakov, Soviet Physics Technical Physics, vol. 18, p. 1613,

June 1974.

[11] Microinstabilities in a 10-Kilowatt Self-Field Magnetoplasmadynanic Thruster, Dennis L. Tilley, Edgar Y. Choueiri, Arnold J. Kelly, Robert G.

Jahn

[12] Instabilities in MPD thruster flows: 1. Space charge instabilities in unbounded and inhomogeneous plasmas, H P Wagner, H J Kaeppeler

and M Auweter-Kurtz (1998)

[13] Instabilities in MPD thruster flows: 2. Investigation of Drift and Gradient Driven Instabilities Using Multi-Fluid Plasma Models, H P Wagner,

H J Kaeppeler and M Auweter-Kurtz (1998)

[14] Experimental Test Campaign of Gas-fed Steady State Applied-Field Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster SX3, Adam Boxberger, Georg Herdrich,

IEPC, 2013

[15] Experimental Investigation of Steady-State Applied-Field Magnetoplasmadynamic Thrusters at Institute of Space Systems, Adam Boxberger,

Patrick Bambachy, Georg Herdrich, Stefanos Fasoulas, Institute of Space Systems, 2012

[16] Influence of Tailored Applied Magnetic Fields on High-Power MPD Thruster Current Transport and Onset-Related Phenomena, Robert C.

Moeller, James E. Polk, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, IEPC 2013

[17] Introduction to Kink Modes: the Kruskal-Shafranov Limit, Steve Cowley UCLA (2011)

[18] H. Goedbloed and S. Poedts Principles of Magneto-hydrodynamics, Cambridge (2004).

[19] Experimental study of a 100-kW class AF-MPD thruster, R. Albertoni, F. Paganucci, M. Andrenucci, et al., IEPC 2011

[20] Characteristics of electromagnetically accelerated plasma flow in an externally applied magnetic field, Hiroyuki Tobari, Akira Ando, Masaaki

Inutake, Physics of Plasmas (2007)

[21] MHD instabilities in magneto-plasma-dynamic thrusters, F Paganucci, M Zuin, M Agostini, M Andrenucci, V Antoni, et al. (2008)

[22] High-Speed Imaging of the First Kink Mode Instability in a Self-Field Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster, Jonathan, A. Walker, Samuel

Langendorf, Mitchell Walker et al., George Washington University, IEPC 2013

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