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Job/Viva /Interview Questions

For
Textile Engineers
Job/Viva /Interview Questions
For
Textile Engineers
Job/Viva /Interview Questions
For
Textile Engineers
Viva QYMT
1. What is the first process/ machine in yarn production?
Ans. Blow room.
2. What is the second process/ machine in yarn production?
Ans. Carding machine.
3. What process / machine is used after carding?
Ans. Draw frame.
4. What process is used after draw frame?
Ans. Simplex.
5. What process is used after simplex?
Ans. Ring frame.
6. Show the flow chart of carded yarn production.
Ans.
7. Show the flow chart of combed yarn production.
Ans.
8. What is the production of blow room?
Ans. Lap.
9. What is the production of carding machine?
Ans. Sliver.
10. What is the production of draw frame?
Ans. Sliver/Drawing sliver
11. What is the production of simplex?
Ans. Roving.
12. What is the production of ring frame?
Ans. Yarn.
13. 1 lb(pound) =?
Ans. 840 yds=1 Hank=0.4536 kg=453.6 gm=16 ounce(oz).
14. What is the input of blow room?
Ans. Bale.
15. What is the input of carding machine?
Ans. Lap/Now chute feed system is being used.
16. What is the input of combing?
Ans. Sliver lap and number of doubling is usually 20-24.
17. What is the input of simplex?
Ans. Drawn sliver, Sliver hank 0.12/0.14/0.16,etc.
18. What is the input of ring frame?
Ans. Roving/Roving hank may be 0.75/0.80,etc.
19. What is fiber fineness?
Ans. Fineness is one of the most important parameter determining the yarn quality (Fine or
Coarse).
20. How fineness is specified for cotton?
Ans. Fineness is specified by micronaire value for cotton.
21. The maturity of cotton is defined in terms of the development of cell wall (Yes/no). Ans. Yes.
22. A fully mature fibre has a well developed thick cell-wall (Yes/no).
Ans. Yes.
23. An immature fibre has a very thin cell-wall (Yes/no).
Ans. Yes.
24. In mature fibre, dye absorption is high (yes/no)
Ans. Yes
25. In immature fibre, dye absorption is low (yes/no).
Ans. Yes
26. What is staple length?
Ans. The average length of spinnable fibre is called staple length.
27. If staple length is increase then yarn quality is also increase (yes/no).
Ans. Yes
28. Toughness of fibre has a direct effect on yarn and fibre strength (yes/no).
Ans. Yes
29. If fibre strength is higher, then yarn and fabric strength is also higher (yes/ no).
Ans. Yes
30. Short fibres deteriorate the yarn strength and uniformity (true/false).
Ans. True.
31. What is the minimum strength for a textile fibre?
Ans. Approximately 6 CN/tex (about 6km breaking length)
32. What do you know about Presley index =?
Ans. Breaking load in Ibs/Bundle weight in mg.
33. What is fibre elongation?
Ans. Elongation is specified as a percentage of the starting length.
34. What is bale management?
Ans. Testing, sorting and mixing bales according to the properties of fibre for producing specific
good quality yarn at minimum cost is called bale management.
35. When bale mixing is done?
Ans. Before the blow room/Before the bales going into blow room.
36. What are the basic operations in the blow room?
Ans.
I) Opening
II) Cleaning
III) Mixing & blending
IV) Even feed of material to the card.
37. What is carding?
Ans. Carding may be defined as the reduction of an entangled mass of fibre to a filmy web by
working them between two closely spaced, relatively moving surface clothed with sharp wire
points.
38. Objective of carding.
Ans.
- To open up the cotton in to single fibre state.
- To reduce the number of neps, short fibres.
- To produce a thick untwisted rope of fibre called sliver.
39. Carding is called the heart/mother of spinning (true/ false).
Ans. True.
40. What are the main objectives of draw frame?
Ans.
- Straightening & parallelization of fibres by drafting & drawing.
- Minimization of irregularity by doubling.
- Blending & mixing of fibres.
- To produce a more uniform sliver of definite wt/yds.
41. What are the faults of blow room?
Ans.
1. Soft lap,
2. Conical lap,
3. Barrel shaped,
4. Split lap,
5. Ragged selvedge,
6. Lap licking.
42. Find out the hank of the lap when the weight of the lap is 14 oz/yds.
Ans.
14 oz contains = 1 yds,
1 oz contains = 1/14 yds,
16 oz or 1 lb contains = 16/14 yds
=16/14840 hank=0.00136 hank
So hank of lap = 0.00136.
43. Find out the wt/yds of the lap when hank of the lap is 0.0014?
Ans.
Weight of 0.0014840 yds = 1 lbs or 16 oz
1.176 yds = 16 oz
1 yds = 16/ 1.176 oz = 13.6 oz
So weight of lap = 13. 6 oz/yds
44. For cotton, higher the count, finer the yarn (yes/no).
Ans. Yes
45. For jute, lower the count, finer the yarn (yes/ no).
Ans. Yes.
46. What is the name of combing waste?
Ans. Noils.
47. What is the meaning of TPI?
Ans. Turns per Inch/Twist per inch
48. What is the ring frame wastage?
Ans. Pnewmafil, banda, sweep, hard waste.
49. What is roving?
Ans. A roving is a continuous slightly twisted strand of fibres which has not received its final
drawing for yarn. Roving hank=0.70 to 0.85, TPI=about 1.15
50. What are the faults of yarn?
Ans.
(i) Irregular yarn
(ii) Thick & thin places
(iii) Slubs
(iv) Nepped yarn
(v) Spinners double
(vi) Crackers
(vii) Bad piecing
(viii) Hairiness
(ix) Soft yarn
(x) Hard & non elastic yarn
(xi) Rough yarn
51. Over twisted yarn become poor in strength (yes/ no). Ans.Yes
52. What is stress?
Ans. Stress is the ratio between the applied force and cross sectional area of the specimen,
Stress = applied force/ cross sectional area = F/A.
Unit of stress is N/m
2
, dyne/cm
2
, which is also called Pascal (Pa).
53. What is tenacity?
Ans. The tenacity of a fibre is the mass stress at break.
Unit gm/tex,
Tenacity = breaking load / mass stress or linear density,
Linear density = mass/unit length.
54. What is tensile strength?
Ans. Tensile strength = force required to break the specimen/ cross sectional area
55. What is yield point?
Ans. The point up to which, a material contains its elasticity is called yield point.
56. What are the basic textile materials?
Ans.
57. More fibre drawing produces more short fibre & resulted weak yarn (yes/no).
Ans. Yes
58. What is twist?
Ans. Twist is the spirality of bundle of fibres/ filaments.
59. Write down the types of yarn twist.
Ans.
i. z or clock wise &
ii. S or anti clock wise twist.
60. Twist increases the strength of yarn (true/ false). Ans. True
61. Write down the moisture regain of cotton fibre?
Ans. 8.5%
62. What is IPI?
Ans. It indicates yarns thick places, thin places and slubs.
63. What is count?
Ans. Count is a numerical expression which expresses /indicates coarseness or fineness of yarn.
Or, count is a number indicating the mass per unit length or the length per unit mass of yarn.
64. Different types of measurement.
Ans. 1 yard = 0.9144 m
1 m =1.0936 yards=7000 grain
1kg = 2.204 lbs,
1lbs(pound) = 453 .6gm = 7000 grains
1gm =15.43 grains
16 oz = 1 lb(pound)
36 inch = 1 yard
2.54 cm = 1 inch
1 Hank=840 yards=1 pound
65. What is yarn twist?
Ans. The spiral disposition of the components of thread which is usually the result of relative
rotation of the two ends is called yarn twist.
66. Rotor yarn is s twisted (yes/no).
Ans. Yes
67. Ring process yarn is z twisted (yes/no).
Ans. Yes
68. What is strain?
Ans. Strain = elongation / initial length
69. What is the unit of Strain?
Ans. No unit.
70. What is the meaning of CSP?
Ans. Count Strength Product
CSP= Count Strength
71. If yarn is regular then CSP is higher (yes/no).
Ans. Yes
72. Different relations.
Ans.
i) Denier = 9 Tex
ii) Ne Denier = 5315
iii)Tex Ne = 590.6
iv) Tex Metric = 1000
v) Denier Metric = 9000
73. what are the unusable waste in spinning mill?
Ans: (a)dropping-II,(b)flat strips of coarse count,(c)Floor sweeping-II,(d)dust etc.
74. HVI(high volume instrument) is a very important m/c of Q.C lab in spinning mill.(yes/no)
Ans. Yes
75. what tests are done by HVI m/c?
Ans. (a)fineness,(b)trash,(c)length,(d)strength,(e)Color.
76. How can you determine yarn count in English system?
Ans. Count (Ne) =length(yds)/length weight unit/weight in gm
= (120yds/840yds) (1lbs or 453.6gm/weight in gm)
=64.8/Weight in gm
77.write down the name of count of direct system?
Ans. Txe,K tex,D tex,Mili tex,Denier,lb/spyndle, Woolen.
78.write down the name of count of indirect system and with details?
Ans.
Count unit lengt unit mass uses
a. English (Ne) 840yds(hank) lb cotton
b.Metric (Nm) Km(hank) Kg cotton
c.Worsted 560yds (hank) lb worsted
79. what do you mean by one lea?
Ans. one lea=120 yds.
80. what do you mean by WIRA?
Ans. Wool international research association.
81.write down the full meaning of some institution?
Ans. (a)BSTI = Bangladesh standard and testing institution.
(b) ISO = international organization for standardization.
(c) BS = British standard
(d) AQL = Acceptable quality level.
(e) BCIRA = British cotton industries research association.
(f) ITET= institute of textile engineers and technologist.
(g)AAMA=American apparel manufacturer association.
(h)AAQC=American association of quality control.
82. what is the meaning of MIC?
Ans. Microgram per inch.
83. In direct system which one is fixed (mass/length)?
Ans. Mass
84. In indirect system which one is fixed (mass/length)?
Ans. Length
85. English count is denoted by Ne (yas/no)?
Ans. Yes.
86. Metric count is denoted by Nm(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
87. Sliver and roving count is expressed by hank(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
88. In spinning mill, up to roving the count value is expressed by hank then count (true/false)?
Ans. True
89. the shape of yarn become round due to twist (yas/no)?
Ans. Yas
90. Name the types of fiber?
Ans.normal fiber, thin walled fiber, Dead fibers .
91. How can you express fiber fineness?
Ans. Weight per unit length.
92. beater are responsible for removing almost all of the impurity extructed in the blow room
(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
93. Name the last m/c of blow room?
Ans. Scutcher
94. what is the meaning of CV%?
Ans. Coefficient of variation percentage.
95. Where sliver is collected and which form?
Ans. In can and coiler form.
96. in ring frame where yarn is collected?
Ans. Bobbin
97. Name the modern cone winding machine?
Ans. Auto-coner machine/Savio orion
98. cotton fiber is dissolved with 70% H2SO4 (yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
99.All yarn of ring processing is Z-twist and rotor yarn is S-twist.(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
100. where flyer is used in a spinning mill?
Ans. Simplex m/c.
101. what is spinning?
Ans. The process by which yarn is made from fiber.
102. what is the raw material in spinning?
Ans. Fiber
103. what is michonair value?
Ans. Micro gram per inch.
104. Write down the classification of fiber?
Ans. (i) natural, (II) Man made fiber.
105. Different between cotton and viscose?
Ans. Cotton = Natural fiber, strength increase in wet condition.
Viscose = Man made fiber, strength decrease in we condition.
106. What is the meaning of AFIS?
Ans. Advanced fiber information system.
107. what is the ratio between length and width of fiber?
Ans. 1000:1
108. Twist and twist direction of yarn affects the fabric structure(True/false)?
Ans. True
109. what is UR?
Ans. UR = uniformity ratio =(50% Spun length/2.5% span length)100
110. write down the system of yarn count measurement?
Ans. (I) Direct system: Tex,Denier.
(II)Indirect system: English, matric.
111. when fiber consider short?
Ans. Length shorter than 0.5 inch or 12.8mm.
112. Why yarn preparation is needed?
Ans. To increase weaving efficiency.
113. what is drafting?
Ans. The process of increasing the length per unit weight of slivers.
114. what is drawing?
Ans. It is the regular and uniform elongation of the sliver to make it light.
115. what is doubling?
Ans. The process of combining several sliver info one.
116. which one is best ,combed yarn or carded yarn?
Ans. Combed yarn.
117. Roving is wind into the bobbin(yes/no) ?
Ans. Yes.
118. write down the other name of simplex?
Ans. (I)speed frame,(II)Fly frame,(III)Roving frame.
119.some meaning-
Ans. DCP=Draft change pinion
LCP= Lifter change pinion
PW = poker wheel
TCP = Twist change pinion
120. write down the causes of roving breakage?
Ans. (I)Tension variation, (II) irregular roving.
121. write down the three types of flyer?
Ans.(I) Spindle mounted flyer,(II) top mounted flyer,(III) closed mounted flyer.
122. what is the backbone of the world textile trade?
Ans. Cotton.
123. silk fiber readily absorbs water (yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
124. jute plant have high CO2 assimilation rate (yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
125. what is the output of comber machine?
Ans. Combed sliver.
126. what is the output of the ring frame?
Ans. Yarn in bobbin form.
127. what is the first operation in blow room?
Ans. Opening
128. what is yarn?
Ans. It is an assemblage of fibers twisted or laid together to form continuous strand suitable for
use In weaving, knitting etc.
129. Manmade fiber are hydrophobic in nature(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes.
130. finer fiber produce stronger yarn(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
131. write down the forms of manmade fiber?
Ans. (I) Filament, (II)filament tow , (III)staple.
132. what is the manmade cellulose fiber?
Ans. Viscose.
133. write some name of natural cellulose fiber?
Ans. Cotton, flax, jute, hemp.
134. what is bi-component fiber?
Ans. Bi-component fibers are synthetic fibers which fibers filament contains two types of
polymer.
135. what is bi- component yarn?
Ans. A yarn having two different staple fiber.
136. If H-bond present in fiber then fiber gets more strength(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes.
137. what is the length width ratio of cotton?
Ans. 1:350 to 1:6000
138. In staple/spun yarn twist is must(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
139. Cotton is dissolved into 70% H2SO4(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
140. Viscose is dissolved into 35% H2SO4(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
141. Nylon is dissolved into 20% HCL/phenol(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
142. Polyester is dissolved into 100% nitro benzene at 100 (yes/no)?
Ans. Yes.
143. Burning smell of cotton is like as burning paper(yes/no)? Ans. Yes.
144. What is lint and linters?
Ans. Then cotton which are get after first time ginning to seeds cotton is called lint and for
second time ginning of cotton is called linters.
145. What is blow room?
Ans. The section or line where the compressed bale are converted into uniform lap of particular
length or made suitable for carding by opening, blending or mixing.
146. What is MR% of jute?
Ans. 13.75
147. What is MR% of viscose and silk?
Ans. 11.0
148. What is MC % of cotton?
Ans. 7.834
149. What is MR% of wool?
Ans. 16.0
150. What is MR% of nylon?
Ans. 4.0
151. What is MR% of polyester?
Ans. 0.4
152. What are the long staple fiber?
Ans. Jute, wool, flax, hemp.
153. How fiber is form?
Ans.
Elements

Monomer/molecules/macromolecules

Polymer chain

Fibrils/micels

Fiber
154. What are the requirement of fabric construction?
Ans. (I)EPI,(II)PPI,(III)warp count, (IV)weft count.
155. What are the factors that determine the yarn properties?
Ans. Fiber properties, fiber arrangement, twist per inch.
156. What is core spun yarn?
Ans. It is a continuous filament polyester core wrapped in cotton fiber.
157. Write down the main part of carding machine?
Ans.(I)Doffer,(II)cylinder,(III)taker-in.
158. What is swelling?
Ans. The change in dimension due to absorbing water or moisture of any textile material is
termed as swelling.
Swelling=(Swollen dimension-Dry dimension)/Dry dimension
159. Write down the formula of production in Lbs per hour of combing m/c?
Ans.
160. write down the formula of production per hr of blow room in lbs?
Ans.
161. write down the formula of production per hr of speed frame/simplex in lbs?
Ans.
162. which countries cotton is the best cotton in the world?
Ans. Mishor.
163. what is the botanical name of cotton?
Ans. Goosypium Herbacum, Goosypium Hirsutum.
164. what is ginning?
Ans. The procedure by which seeds and cottons are separated from seeds cotton is called
Ginning.
165. How much trash% in cotton?
Ans. Generally 1% to 10%.
166. what is blow room waste?
Ans. Dropping-II,Dust,filter waste.
167. What is carding waste?
Ans. Dropping-I, Tacker in waste,Flat strip, motes & flies, sliver waste
168. what is draw frame waste?
Ans. Sliver wastage.
169. what is the simplex wastage?
Ans. Sliver wastage, roving wastage.
170. what is the ring frame wastage?
Ans. Pneumafil, hard waste, bonda waste, etc.
171. what is the comber wastage and waste %?
Ans. Noils,(12-18)%.
172. what is cleaning efficiency in blow room?
Ans. CE% =( trash cotton - trash in lap/trash in cotton ) 100
173. Step cleaner m/c is placed at 45 degree angle (yes/no)/
Ans. Yes.
174. production of carding m/c?
Ans. Production = (Doffer speed Doffer dia )/36 (yds/min)
175. Count of direct system?
Ans.
176.Count of indirect system?
Ans.
Count unit length unit mass
English(Ne) 840yds(hank) lb
Metric(Nm) Km(hank) kg
Worsted 560yds lb
177. what is model length?
Ans. It is the length of group of fibers where the most number of fibers have equal length.
178. What is spun length?
Ans. It is the term by which we can determined the % of fiber length in case of cotton, wool etc.
179. What is staple length?
Ans. The average length of spinable fiber is called staple length.
** staple length = 0.91 effective length(U.S.A upland cotton)
180. what is effective length?
Ans. It is the term defined as the length of the main bulk of the longer fiber.
181. How the amount of twist is expressed?
Ans. Twist per inch(TPI) = yarn
Twist per meter (TPM) = roving
Twist per centimeter (TPCM)
182. what is mass stress?
Ans. Mass stress = Applied forse/linear density
Unit = CN/tex , gm/tex
183. what is elastic recovery?
Ans. Elastic recovery = Elastic extension/total extension.
184. what is the modern testing equipment for spinning mill?
Ans.(I)HVI(High volume instrument)
(II)AFIS(Advance fiber information system)
(III)Shirley analyzer = trash%
(IV)Moisture meter = MC%
(V)Moisture testing oven = MR%
185. If MIC value is increased what should be the fineness?
Ans. Fineness should be decreased.
186. what is pitch?
Ans. The distance between adjustment spindles.
187. What is the maximum count to be produce in rotor m/c and ring m/c in spinning?
Ans. Rotor m/c = not possible to produce more than 40
s
count.
Ring m/c = it is possible to produce about 300
s
count.
188. what is the feed material in ring and rotor m/c?
Ans. Ring m/c = roving
Rotor m/c = drawing sliver.
189.what is tex?
Ans. Count is the tex system in the weight in grams of 1000m or 1km of yarn.
190. How many types of draw frame ?
Ans. (I)Breaker draw frame, (II)finisher draw frame.
191. what is the output of winding?
Ans. Yarn in cone form.
192. Natural fibres are hydrophilic in nature? (Yes/No)
Ans. Yes.
193.What is the types of waste in a spinning mill?
Ans: (i) useable waste (ii) unusable waste.
194. the flyer is the essential part of speed frame(yes/no)?
Ans. Yes
195.What is neps?
Ans. Entanglement protruding fibres or entangled mass of fibres.
196. Write down the some name of yarn testing machine.
Ans. I) Uster evenness tester
II) Uster classimat
III) Uster auto sorter.
197. what is the useable waste in spinning mill?
Ans: (a)lap waste,(b) sliver waste,(c)roving waste,(d)bonda waste,(e) pneumafil waste .
198. What is fiber migration?
Ans. It means fiber distribution into the yarn.
199. Number of fibres in the yarn cross-section?
Ans. 60-70
200. What is the standard staple length of cotton fibre?
Ans. Generally 0.5 inch to 2.5 inch.
201. Write some yarn faults which are generally shown?
Ans. (I)Thick place, (II) Thin place, (III) Neps, (IV) slub, (V) Hairiness.
202. How many class or division of yarn preparation?
Ans. (I) Warp yarn preparation, (II) Weft yarn preparation.
203. What are the classes of winding machine for package of yarn?
Ans. (I) pirn winding m/c, (II) cop winding m/c, (III) spol winding m/c, (IV) Cheese winding
m/c, (V) cone winding m/c.
204. What are the action of blow room?
Ans. (I) Action of opposing spikes
(II) Action of air current
(III) Action of beaters, (IV) Regulating action
205. What is crimp?
Ans. The wavy shape of thread/yarn is called crimp.
206. How to produce bale?
Ans.
Seed cotton

Picking

Manual Mechanical

Ginning

Bale
207. Standard MR% &MC% of different fibre.
Ans.
Fibre MR% MC%
Cotton 8.5 7.834
Jute 13.75 12.1
Viscose 11.0 9.91
Nylon 4.0 3.1
Polyester 0.4
Acetate 6.0
Acrylic 1.5
Flax & Hamp 12.4 10.4
Silk 11.0 9.91
Wool 16.0 13.8
208. Comber Production (Kg/hr) =
Where, N= Nips per min
S= mm per nip
LD= Lap density
Np= Noil%
Nh= No. of head
E= Efficiency
Td= Tension draft
209. Simplex Production/hr
210. Ring Production/day
211. Total Draft =?
Total draft = BDMDFD
BD=Back draft
MD=Middle draft
FD=Front draft
Viva QGMT
1. What is clothing?
Ans. Clothing is one of the three basic needs of human being. Clothing is used for covering
human body or other bodies to fulfill or satisfy the requirements of those bodies with the object
of protection, decoration and identification.
2. Why woolen garments used in cooler climate?
Ans. The general configuration of wool fibre is helical and this configuration works as a wall for
passing of cold or warm.
3. What is design or sketch?
Ans. In clothing industry design means determining the shape and cutting patterns of garments
according to it.
4. What id basic block or block pattern?
Ans. Block patterns are the main or basic patterns which are constructed with definite and
standard body measurement, but they do not possess any style or extra attractiveness or any type
of allowances.
5. What is a pattern?
Ans. It is the model of all components of garments on a hard paper board.
6. Why pattern is produced?
Ans. (I) To make a set of templates of different components of garments.
(II) To make a large amount of production at a time.
(III) To minimize wastage and cost of garments.
7. what is working pattern or production pattern?
Ans. These are made on the basic of block pattern or basic block. Each block pattern is drawn or
sketched on the hard paper board with the help of pencil. Then the following allowances and
positions are added-
(I) sewing allowance
(II) Trimming allowance
(III) CBL
(IV)CFL
(V) Button attaching position
(VI) Button holing position
(VII) Plate etc.
8. What is invoice?
Ans. It is one kind of documents which contains the informations about selling items. Normally
there are two types of invoice-
(I) Proforma invoice- preliminary, (II) Commercial invoice-finally.
9. Seam line/attaching point is marked by U or V notch? (yes/no)
Ans. Yes
10. How grain line is indicated/mentioned in patterns?
Ans. By arrow mark.
11. What is grain line?
Ans. It is the line, which is marked on the patterns of a garment and the line indicates the warp
yarn, as a result, when the pattern is placed in the marking paper then the Grain line follow the
warp yarn of fabric.
12. Grain line of pattern must be parallel of the fabric? (yes/no)
Ans. Yes
13. Define category?
Ans. In garments export and import business a definite type of garments is specified by a definite
number which is called category.
14. What is approved sample?
Ans. The sample which is approved by the buyer is called approved sample.
15. What is counter sample?
Ans. The manufacturers produce several numbers of samples following the approved sample
which is known as counter samples. They facility the bulk production or hung on production
floor.
16. What do you mean by allowance?
Ans. In case of garments making some additional measurements are added with standard body
measurement which is termed as allowances. This allowances is 1cm or 1inch.there are two types
of allowance-(I) Trimming allowance. (II) Sewing allowances.
17. What is back taking?
Ans. During sewing we need to start or end it prior to 1cm or after 1cm respectively to secure the
sewing end. This is termed as back tacking.
18. What is bar tacking?
Ans. We continue sewing for several times within a vary short distance to increase the load or
strength of that particular portion which is termed as bar taking.e.g- edge of pocket, belt loop,
Fly piece etc.
19. What is blind stitch?
Ans. A particular type of stitch which is not visible from the face side of the garments.
20. What do you mean by C.B.L and C.F.L?
Ans. C.B.L= center back line, C.F.L= center front line
21. What are disposable garments?
Ans. The garments which are used for one time only called disposable garments. e.g. Medical
garments.
22. What do you mean by Flap?
Ans. Its the part of pocket which covers the pocket opening.
23. What is interlining?
Ans. A layer of fabric which is used between two layer of fabric to give the particular area
desired shape and to enhance the strength of that particular position which is called interlining.
e.g. collar, cuff.
24.What are the types of interlining?
Ans. (I) sewable interlining,(II) fusible interlining.
25. What do you mean by lining?
Ans. A layer of fabric which is used in the inner side of garments to increase the comfortability
of the garments which is called lining.e.g. suits, coats, ladies and babies wear.
26. What do you mean by FDI?
Ans. FDI= Foreign direct investment. These types of investment directly come from foreign
country.
27. What is overlocking or neatening?
Ans. The sewing process of cutting edge of the fabric. So that the slack yarn cannot be opened.
28. What is seaming?
Ans. The attaching procedure of different components of garments.
29. What is stitch?
Ans. The unit of sewing or seam.
30. What is seam?
Ans. The line of sewing of one or more than one layers of fabric/the line of joining of fabric.
31. What do you mean by trimmings or accessories?
Ans. Beside fabric the components which are needed to make a complete garments termed as
trimmings. e.g. Button, sewing thread, lining, interning etc.
32. What is ticket number?
Ans. It indicates the coarseness or fineness of a sewing thread.
33. What is L/C?
Ans. L/C means letter of credit. It is one kind of agreement between buyer and seller.
34. What is pattern grading?
Ans. Grading means the stepwise increase or decrease of a master pattern piece to create large or
small size. Grading alters the overall size of a design but not its general shape and appearance. If
buyer requires different sizes, we would have to grade the dimension. It may be S.L, X.L and
XXL.
35. What are the method of grading?
Ans. Grading can be apply two method (I) manual method,(II) computerized method.
36. Marker as a guideline for cutting?(yes/no)
Ans. Yes.
37. What is marker?
Ans. Marker is a thin paper which contain all necessary pattern pieces for all sized for a
particular style of garments. its a representation or drawing of the arrangement of the identified
materials.
38. Fabric width and length must be higher than the marker width and length? (yes/no)
Ans. Yes.
39. Grain line should be parallel to the warp direction in a woven fabric or the Wales in a knitted
fabric? (true/false)
Ans. True
40. What is formula of marker efficiency?
Ans. Marker efficiency= total area of pattern pieces in a marker/total area of marker 100%
41. The less the fabric wastage, the higher the marker efficiency?(true/false)
Ans. True.
42. The more the marker length, the higher the marker efficiency? (True/false)
Ans. True.
43. What do you mean by garments size?
Ans. The size of garments can be expressed by two methods-
(I) Alphabetical expression e.g. S,M,L,XL,XXL
(II) Numerical expression e.g. 38,39,40,41,42(in cm or in inch)
44. Write down the feature of T-shirt?
Ans. (I) casual tops, (II) Narrow neck line, (III) Usually short sleeve, (IV) No collar
45. Write down the feature of polo shirt?
Ans. (I) Tops, (II) short/long sleeve,(III) collar,(IV) short button placket or neck opening.
46. How can you divide all garments?
Ans. All types of garments can be divided mainly two groups (I) Tops part, (II) Bottom part.
47. Write down the feature of pull oven / sweater?
Ans. (I) warm shirt,(II) long sleeve, (III) waist band, (IV) pull on over head.
48. Write down the feature of Tank-loop?
Ans. (I) sleeve less pullover, (II) used over a shirt (III) warm shirt (IV) waist band, (V) pull on
over head.
49. Write down the feature of cardigan?
Ans. (I) Open front, (II) Fastened with a zip or button, (III) waist band.
50. What do you mean by CAD?
Ans. CAD means computer aided design: In apparel industry CAD systems are mainly used for
garments design, pattern preparation, pattern grading and marker marking.
51. What do you mean by CAM?
Ans. CAM means computer aided manufacturing. It includes computerized sewing machines,
fabric spreading machines, cutting systems.
52. Write some important meaning?
Ans. CM= Cost of making
CMT= Cost of making with trimmings
FOB= Freight on boat
C & F= Cost and freight
CIF= cost, insurance and freight
L/C= letter of credit
53. What is cloth spreading/laying?
Ans. To spread cloth as determined by needed quantity as per marking/ the smooth laying out of
fabric in superimposed layer of specified length.
54. What do you mean by fabric cutting?
Ans. To cut the cloth according to marker of patterns for sewing.
55. What are the methods of fabric cutting?
Ans. (A) Manual method
- Scissor
- Round knife
- Band knife
- Straight knife
- Die cutting
- Notcher & -Drill
(B) Computerized method
- Straight knife cutting
- Water jet cutting
- Leaser beam cutting
- Plasma torch cutting
56. What do you know about fusible interlining?
Ans. The interlining which is attaching to the garments component by the application of
temperature and pressure is called fusible interlining
57. How fusible interlining is manufactured?
Ans. By using a resin coating of thermoplastic materials on a piece of fabric.
58. For symmetrical fabric marker efficiency is high and less efficiency for asymmetrical
fabric? (True/false)
Ans. True.
59. The more large patterns and less small patterns reduce marker efficiency? (True/false)
Ans. True.
60. For more small patterns, marker efficiency will be increased? (True/false)
Ans. True.
61. What do you know about symmetrical fabric?
Ans. Fabric which can retain the same appearance in case of turning in 180 angle called
symmetrical fabric. e.g. solid dyed fabric.
62. What do you know about the asymmetrical fabric?
Ans. Asymmetrical fabric is those which can not retain the same appearance while turning in
180 angle. E.g. pile fabric, brushed fabric etc.
63. What are the methods of marker making?
Ans. (I) manual, (II) computerized.
64. What are the wastage of marker?
Ans. (I) inside wastage
(II) Outside wastage
-Ends of ply losses (2-4) inch
-Loss of fabric ends
-Selvedge losses
-Purchase losses
65. What is sample?
Ans. The garment which is needed for bulk production is called sample garment.
66. What is sewing?
Ans. The process of joining of fabric by the use of needle and sewing thread is called sewing.
67. What are the basic components of sewing?
Ans.
Needle
Throat plate
Pressure foot
Feed dogs
Sewing thread and fabric.
68. Write some name of sewing defects?
Ans.
Seam pucker
Broken or open stitch
Staggered stitch
Slipped or skipped stitch
Vertical stitch density.
69. What do you mean by seam puckering?
Ans. Stitching with unwanted gathering.
70. What do you mean by pressing and Finishing?
Ans. The process by which the unwanted crease and winkles are removed from the garments and
the outlook of the garments is improved as well.
71. Which iron is used for industrial purposes?
Ans. Steam irons.
72. What do you mean by label?
Ans. Label is an attached component of garment on which important information regarding the
garment are written or printed.
73. What do you mean by WWSC and RSWD?
Ans. WWSC = wash with similar color
RSWD = Re shape whilst damp.
74. Which inspection system widely used in garment industry?
Ans. 4-points system.
75. What do you mean by TAP and AQL?
Ans. TAP = Total acceptable product in a lot
AQL = Acceptable quality limit.
76. What do you mean by core spun thread/yarn?
Ans. This thread /yarn has continuous filament polyester wrapped in cotton fibres.
77. What do you mean by OE & CE zipper?
Ans. OE zipper = open end zipper - use in jacket
CE zipper = closed end zipper - use in baggage.
78. How many types of accessories?
Ans. Two types
(i) Visible accessories e.g. button, sewing thread etc
(ii)Invisible accessories e.g.
interlining
79. What do you know about synthetic thread/yarn?
Ans. This is large group of thread/yarn made mainly from nylon, polyester, rayon and polyamide
filaments or fibres.
80. What do you know about lings?
Ans. Lings is the measuring unit of button diameter. To measure the outer diameter of button we
use lings number.
1 ling = 1/40 inch = 0.025 inch = 0.636 mm
81. How many types of label?
Ans. There are mainly three types of label
(I) Main label, (II) size label, (III) care label.
The all other of label are called sub label.
82. What do you know about motif?
Ans. The special component which is attached outside of the garment for decorative purpose
called motif. e.g. company name, trade mark or other symbols can be written on the motif.
83. What do you know about dart and pleat ?
Ans. (I) dart = part of cloth is folded and stitched to slenderize it
(II) A pleat is a type of fold formed by doubling fabric back upon itself and securing it in
place or the pleat shows the form being folded and stitched.
84. How many types of woven fabric?
Ans. Three types (I) yarn dyed (II) solid dyed(s/d) (III) Denim
85. Desizing is mandatory or obvious before washing (True/False) Ans. True.
86. Why hot ash is necessary?
Ans. To clean the desize chemicals (introduction to cold water re-solidify the fat and wax)
87. Why M:L is important?
Ans. Without m:l we can not determine the required amount of dyes, chemicals and water during
dyeing, washing and other wet processing. Thats why m:l is important.
88. What is the mechanism of producing fading effect in garments manufacturing?
Ans. Three process of fading mechanism
(I) Chemical action.
(II) Mechanical action
(III) Biological action.
89. How many types of mechanical abrasion in garments washing?
Ans. Three types
(I) Garment to garment.
(II) Garment to m/c
(III) Garment to solid material (e.g. stone)
90. How many types of chemical action in garment washing?
Ans. Three types-
(I) Regular(Bleach wash)
(II) Irregular(Acid wash)
(III) Local(p.p.spray, p.p.sponge)
91. What is the factor depends on action of washing?
Ans.
(I) Time
(II) Temperature
(III) Mechanical abrasion
(IV) Chemical action
92. What do you mean by costing and pricing/?
Ans. Costing = Total consumption of garments without profit
Pricing = costing with profit.
93. What do you know about back to back L/C opening?
Ans. For purchasing fabric and accessories against main L/C.
94. What is lead time in garments?
Ans. Time start from L/C opening or order receive to garments delivery is called lead time.
Lead time local market = 45 days
Foreign market = 90-120 days
95. What is stock lot?
Ans. When goods are made for buyer but not possible to shipping as a result goods are stain at
store. This goods are called stock lot .
96. How many parts of jacket?
Ans. Three parts
(I) Upper part is called shell
(II) Inner part is called lining
(III) Middle part is called interlining.
97. Write down the other commercial name of interlining?
Ans. Padding / wedding/ Bedding / polyfil.
98. What types of garments are made from feather?
Ans. Overcoats,jackets,pillow,blanket etc.
99. What types of feather are used for making garments?
Ans. Duck chest feathers.
100. What do you mean by quality?
Ans. Quality is the difference between the products or It is the goodness or badness in a product
or the feather of a product which satisfy customers or end users.
101. If 40 or more than 40 defects are present in 100 square yards then the fabric is considered
as rejected in four point system (True/false)?
Ans. True.
102. When established garments industry in Bangladesh?
Ans. In 1960, REAZ garments.
103. What do you mean by garments final inspection?
Ans. Garments final inspection is to take decision whether the lot will be passed for shipment or
it will be rejected.
104. What are the different types of sampling inspection of garments?
Ans. (I) without inspection, (II) 100% inspection, (III) spot inspection, (IV) Arbitary inspection,
(V) Acceptance inspection.
105. Write down the section of shirt making?
Ans. (I) Collar section, (II) Cuff section, (III) Body section.
106. What do you mean by PD, WR, WP, and TC?
Ans. PD= Plain dyed, WR= Water repellent, WP= Water proof, TC= Tetron & cotton, SD= solid
dyed, YD= Yarn dyed.
107. What is pattern?
Ans. The pieces of thick paper are required in the form necessary to make or style of garments is
called pattern.
108. What do you mean by marking?
Ans. Drawing as patterns on the as per style.
109. What is consumption?
Ans. Needed quantity of cloth as per dz according to marker.
110. What do you mean by assortment?
Ans. To determine the quantity of garments according to size and colour.
111. What types of style of collar?
Ans. (I) One piece (Banded) collar, (II) two piece (banded) collar, (III) Sport open (no bended)
collar.
112. How many types of cuff according to style?
Ans. Four types (I) Notched, (II) Squared, (III) Rounded, (IV) Pointed.
113. How many types of cuff according to construction?
Ans. Two types(I) one piece cuff (The cuff which includes both front & back in one piece of
cloth), (II) Two piece cuff (two piece of cloth).
114. Write down the types of front of a shirt?
Ans. (I) Plain, (II) Top center, (III) French front.
115. How many types of sleeve?
Ans. (I) Long genbol, (II)Sleeve placket, (III) Hemmed sleeve.
116. How many types of yoke ?
Ans. (I) one piece plain yoke (yoke and back are one piece of cloth),
(II) Two piece single yoke (yoke is separated from the back but yoke is one piece)
(III) Two piece double yoke (yoke is separated from the back but yoke are two piece
of yokes)
117. How many types of pocket style?
Ans. (I) plain, (II) Hexagon, (III) Rounded, (IV) squared, (V) Hemmed.
118. How many types of bottom style of a shirt?
Ans. (I) Straight bottom, (II) Tailed bottom.
119. What are the styles or types of packing and folding of shirt?
Ans. (I) Stand up (collar is folded to remain at 90 angle from the floor level)
(II) Semi stand up (collar is folded to remain at 45 angle from the floor level)
(III) Flat pack (collar is laid to the floor level at 0 angle)
(IV) Hanger pack (collar is folded for a hanger).
120. What are the styles of shirt?
Ans. (I) Basic/regular, (II) Casual/Irregular, (III) Sport shirt, (IV) Blouse
121. What do you mean by numbering in garments?
Ans. This process is to put a number on the each part of a garment after cutting. So that the same
numbers of each part might be combined at the time of sewing.
122. What is sorting?
Ans. This process is to sort by size and color after cutting.
123. Write down the attention point when marking
(I) Jumping & bias should not occur
(II) Position marking
(III) Must fit the end of the net (one side) line
(IV) Must check the quantity whether all the parts are marked as directed.
124. When dies cutting is used?
Ans. For interlining cutting
125. What is inlay/sewing allowance?
Ans. The fabric which is kept excess of the seam line at the time of sewing is called inlay/sewing
allowance.
126. Inlay is sewing allowance but sewing allowance is not inlay? (Yes/No) Ans. Yes.
127. What do you mean by Gusset (Front facing)?
Ans. The part which is folded into the inside of the front. This is two types(I) Upper front
gusset, (II) Lower front gusset.
128. What do you know about inlay (sewing allowance)?
Ans. The part which is folded into the inside during sewing.
129. What is back stitching?
Ans. It is stitching to back after finishing the stitch length; it is normally 3-5 stitches.
130. What is error part?
Ans. When left and right are attached being interchanged with each other or both right or left are
attached in case of cuffs and sleeves is called error part.
131. Stitching and sewing, which is visible and invisible?
Stitchingvisible
Sewinginvisible
132. What is double stitching?
Ans. The stitching which has two lines keeping constant distance is called double stitching.
133. What do you know about slip out?
Ans. When the interlocking stitching stitches do not lock with each other along the sewing line
then it is called slip out.
134. What do you mean by floating?
Ans. few stitches, which are not passed through the cloth of proper interval during sewing is
known as floating.
135. Write down the classification of assortment/packing?
Ans. (I) Solid size, solid color, (II) Solid size, assort color, (III) Assort size, solid color, (IV)
Assort size, assort color.
136. What do you mean by Y-shirt?
Ans. Basic shirt/regular shirt/Dress shirt.
137. What do you mean by casual/irregular shirt?
Ans. various types of style.
138. What do you mean by sport shirt?
Ans. The shirt which is sporty and needs no neck tie.
139. What are the function of clothing?
Ans. 1. Protection 2. Decoration 3. Identification
140. What is the requirement of clothing?
Ans. 1. Suitability , 2. Appearance, 3. Comfort,4. Aftercare , 5. stability
141. How can we difference between a ladies shirt and a Gents shirt?
Ans. Buttons are on the opposite side to that of gents shirt,
i.e., Ladies shirt: Upper front part is right side.
Gents shirt: Upper front part is left side.
Ladies pant: Fly piece is right side.
Gents pant: fly piece is left side.
142. What is E-Textiles?
Ans. E-textile also known as electronic textiles are fabrics that enable computing, digital
components and electronics to be embedded in them.
The emphasis of e-textile will be on creating a women textile with embedded copper which will
provide the usual wear comfort and at the same time it will have a circuit with a few chips
sunning at few megahertz.
Example: In the field of medical prevention and rehabilitation it becomes highly necessary to
continuously monitor the patients health condition by keeping sensing devices close to the body
and e-textile can successfully accomplish senior functionality.
143. What is the reason for clothing?
Ans: (a) Modesty (b) Protection against adverse climate conditions
(c) Adornment (d) Identification
(e) Aristocratic reason
144. Size of Human?
Ans. 1. Men-(i). Short- 5 3 to 5 7 (ii). Regular- 58 to 6
(iii). Tall- above 6
2. Women-(i). Short 411 to 53 (ii). 54 to 57
(iii). Tall above 57
145. What is Production pattern/Garments pattern?
Ans. When necessary allowances are added to the working patterns, then they are called
production pattern.
146.What is Working pattern?
Ans. The patterns which are made with net dimension of a particular style called working
patterns.
147. What methods are used to make Block patterns?
Ans. i. Flat method ii. Modeling method
148. What are the methods of pattern grading?
Ans. (i).Manual grading, (ii). Computer aided grading.
149. What is half part grading?
Ans. If the increasing or decreasing is done in every sides of a pattern, then it is called half part
grading.
150. What is th part grading?
Ans. If the increasing or decreasing is done in either lengthwise or widthwise or in any two sides
of a pattern then it is called th part grading.
151. What is C.B.L (Center back line)?
Ans. Middle point of back neck up to the bottom end in the back part of a shirt.
152. What is C.F.L (Center front line)?
Ans. Line from the top button to the bottom end in the face side of a shirt.
153. What is collar stand or collar band?
Ans. Its the part of a collar in which collar stands in upward direction.
Collar stands in upward direction.
154. What is cuff?
Ans. It is the end point of sleeve of a shirt laying around the wrist.
155. What is Ticket number?
Ans. It indicates the coarseness or fineness of a sewing thread. e.g. 3/60, 2/80 etc.
156. What is Hemming?
Ans. The process of sewing of an edge or border on a piece of cloth, especially a finished edge,
as for a garment or curtain, made by folding an edge under and stitching it down. e.g. Bottom
edge of a shirt.
157. What is lead-time?
Ans. The time interval between the initiation and the completion of a production process.
158. How design can be developed?
Ans.
1. Sketching (Two dimension method): Usually developed on paper
2. Modeling (Three dimension method): Usually developed dummy or live model
3. Computer aided design (CAD): Usually developed using design related software.
159. T-shirt Feature.
Ans. i. Refers as casual
ii. Garments with narrow neckline,
iii. Garments with short or long sleeves,
iv. No collar/Cuff, and
v. Usually made of cotton.
160. Polo-shirt feature.
Used to cover the upper body part (Tops),
Garments with short/long sleeves,
Garments with collar and cuffs,
Short button placket or short chest opening, and
Made of either 100% cotton or CVC or PC.
161. Tank Top feature.
It is a sleeveless pull over,
It is used over a shirt,
Used as warm shirt,
Garments with waist band, and
It is put on over head.
162. Pull over/Sweater feature.
Used as warm shirts,
Garments with long sleeves,
Garments with waist band, and
Put on over head.
163. Cardigan feature.
Open front and fastened with a zipper or button,
Garments with waist band,
Used as warm shirts, and
Usually made of wool/acrylic.
164. Shirt feature.
Upper-body garment with a collar, cuffs and pocket,
A full vertical opening and fastened with buttons,
With short or long sleeves, and
Mens shirt having lower front part at right hand side and for women it is exactly opposite.
165. Sportswear feature.
Auto motorcycle racing wear
Bike wear
Golf apparel
Ski wear (winter garments)
Sports jersey and track tops
Sports shorts and trousers
Swim wear and beach wear
Training and jogging wear
166. What is the function of CAD in apparel industries?
1. Garments design.
2. Pattern design & pattern preparation.
3. Pattern grading
4. Marker making
167. What is the function of CAM in apparel industries?
Ans. 1. Fabric spreading. 2. Cutting systems.
3. Mover systems. 4. Sewing systems.
168. What is grading?
Ans. Grading means the stepwise increase or decrease of a master pattern piece to create large
or small size. Grading alters the overall size of a design but not its general shape & appearance.
169. What is the main objective of marker?
Ans. i. To minimize the fabric wastage
ii. To improve the quality of garments.
170. What are the main product are produced in garments Industry in Bangladesh?
Ans. Woven shirt, T-shirt, trouser, jacket, jogging shuts, sweaters, jersey etc.
171. How much currency earn from garments sector in Bangladesh every year?
Ans. Above 75%.
172. What is quota?
Ans. Kind of agreement between the exporter country where importer country mention a specific
number of garments.
173. When established garments industry in Bangladesh?
Ans. In 1960, REAZ garments.
174. What is the difference between the sewing and stitching?
Ans. Sewing=Invisible
Stitching=Visible
175. What is the difference between the yarn and thread?
Ans. Yarn= (i) Yarn is used for producing fabrics (Knit & Woven).
(ii) Normally it is single ply.
Thread= (i) Thread is used for garments sewing.
(iii) It is normally two or three or four plies.
176. What measurement unit used in America and Europe.
Ans. America use=Inch
Europe use=Centimeter (cm).
177. What are the sections of sewing used for making a shirt?
Ans. There are three sections- 1. Collar section
2. Cuff section
3. Body section
178. What type of woven fabric?
Ans. 1. Yarn dyed 2. Solid dyed 3. Denim.
179. What is Line Balancing?
Ans. Line Balancing is the allocation of sewing machines according to style and design of
garment. It depends on, what type of garments we have to produce.
180. What is Compliance?
Ans. Compliance means comply somethings that is yield to the wishes another. The main aim of
compliance is to ensuring the all labour rights and facilities according to the Buyer code of
conduct.
181. What are the different types of order?
Ans.
1. FOB (Free on boat) order
2. FOA (Free on air) order
3. C & F (Cost and freight) order
4. CIF (Cost, insurance and freight) order
5. CIFC (Cost, insurance, freight and commission) order
6. CMT (Cutting, making and trimmings) order
7. CM (Cost of making) order
8. TT (Telephonic transfer) order
9. Subcontract order
10. Exchange order.
182. What do you mean by FOB (Free on boat) order?
Ans. This is the export term of delivery and price quotation. The sellers send the goods for
export and delivers them on boat (the ship). The risk is passed from seller to buyer when the
goods are loaded in the ship at the port of departure. The buyer payes the freight charges. The
seller does not include the freight charge with his costing.
183. What do you mean by FOA (Free on air) order?
Ans. The seller delivers the goods to the air carrier at the air port of departure. The buyer bears
the risk from that moment and payes the air transport cost. The seller bears the cost of materials
and making, does not include air freight.
184. What do you mean by C & F (Cost and freight) order?
Ans. The sellers send the goods for export, payes the freight charge and deliver them on boat (the
ship). The risk is passes to the buyer when the goods are left the port of departure.
185. What do you mean by CIF (Cost, insurance and freight) order?
Ans. This is identical to the C&F term except that in addition, the seller ensures (pay the
insurance bill) the goods against loss and damage at his own cost.
186. What do you mean by CIFC (Cost, insurance, freight and commission) order?
Ans. At this type of order, the seller includes the cost of insurance, freight and commission for
local buying house.
187. What do you mean by CMT (Cutting, making and trimmings) order?
Ans. In this case, the buyer fixes the rate of CMT with the factory. So the seller does not add the
price of fabric with his costing, but at L/C buyer gives all money to the factory. The factory
collects only CMT money from the bank. Balance money return to the fabric supplier. This
ordering system is following the tailoring shop.
188. What do you mean by CM (Cost of making) order?
Ans. In this case, the buyer fixes the rate of CM only with the factory. So the seller does not add
the price of fabric and trimmings with his costing, but at L/C buyer gives all money to the
factory. The factory collects only CM money from the bank. Balance money return to the fabric
and accessories supplier.
189. What do you mean by TT (Telephonic transfer) order?
Ans. When order quantity is very small and need urgent delivery, in that case, buyer gives
purchase contract instead of L/C and sends money to seller bank by TT. After getting money, the
seller sends the goods to buyer.
190. What do you mean by Subcontract order?
Ans. It is indirect order, the order is received by another factory and when it is not possible for
that factory to complete the production within the time, in that case they share the order with
other factory by giving subcontract. The subcontract factory only gets the CM charge by local
money from the order taker.
191. What do you mean by Exchange order?
Ans. In this case, the buyer did not pay any money against buying garments from Bangladesh.
Instead of money, they are giving another goods or products, which is surplus in their country
but we need it very much. This type of business is very rare. They use L/C for doing this type of
business.
192. What do you mean by Proforma invoice?
Ans. Proforma invoice is temporary commercial invoice, which is send by exporter to importer.
It helps to open a letter of credit (L/C) in favor of exporter by importer. It helps the foreign buyer
to obtain an import license if it is necessary.
193. What do you mean by commercial invoice?
Ans. Commercial invoice is the final invoice and basic document. It contain all the details like
name & address of importer and exporter, description of goods, quantity, rate, value of goods,
details of shipment.
194. What do you mean by letter of credit (L/C)?
Ans. It is important document, which is used for doing the business, where Bank is responsible
for payment in favor of sellers. It is a means/instrument for opening a credit (L/C) in favor of
exporter by importer to make payment on fulfillment of conditions within given time.
Assortment
195. Give example of Assort size, Assort color for 12 pieces garments?
Ans. Red Yellow Blue
Small 1 2 1 =4
Medium 1 2 1 =4
Large 1 2 1 =4
=3 =6 =3 =12 pce
196. Give example of Assort size, Solid color for 12 pieces garments?
Ans. Small Medium Large
Red 4 4 4 =12 pcs
197. Give example of Solid size, Assort color for 12 pieces garments?
Ans. Red Yellow Blue
Small 4 4 4 =12 pcs
198. Give example of Solid size, Solid color for 12 pieces garments?
Ans. Red
Small 12 pcs
------------------------------------------
199. What is Tag gun?
Ans. It is used for attaching the Hang tag, Price ticket etc.
200. What do you mean by Bill of Exchange?
Ans. A Bill of Exchange is a legal document and order in writing, requesting the drawee
(Factory) to pay within the specified time. The drawer (supplier), drawee and payee (Bank) are
involved in this transaction. The Bill of Exchange also known as draft, can be right draft or
wsanee draft.
201. What do you mean by Bill of Landing?
Ans. Bill of Landing is a document issued by the shipping company acknowledging that the
goods have been shipped on board and undertaking that the goods as received will be delivered
to the consignee (Buyer).
When the export contract is CIF, then the exporter makes payment of the freight and gets
freight paid Bill of Landing. On the other hand, if the contract is FOB, the freight has to be
paid by the importer. In that case, the shipping company will issue a freight collect Bill of
Landing.
202. What do you mean by Shipping Bill?
Ans. The shipping bill is the main documents required by the customs authority for allowing
shipment. It contains description of export goods and other particulars as defined in The Sea
Customs Act, name of the vessel in which goods are to be shipped, Country of Destination etc.
203. What do you mean by Shipping Order?
Ans. It is a document issued by the shipping line intimating the shipper (Exporter) about the
reservation of space for shipment of cargo through a particular vessel from a specified port and
on a specified date.
204. What do you mean by Vehicle Ticket/Cart Ticket?
Ans. It is a gate pass for port gate .it is prepared for admittance of cargo through the port gate. It
contains details of cargo for export, the shipper name, cart, lorry number, gate number, marks on
package, quantity and description.
205. What is pattern engineering?
Ans. It is the engineering idea which is applied at the time of marking for reducing the
consumption of fabric. In this case consumption is reduced by overlapping the patterns or
reducing the patterns or dividing the patterns into two parts like cuff, side pocket of pant etc.
206. What is Style?
Ans. A style is a type of product that has one or more specific feature or characteristics that
distinguish it and make it different from other product of the same type. e.g. A crew neck is one
style of neck line and a turtle neck is another style.
207. What is Design?
Ans. Within a specific style there can be many variations in trimmings, texture, decoration or
other details like embroidery, screen printing etc. The individual interpretation or variations of
the same styles are called design. One style can be many designs.
208. What is Fashion?
Ans. Fashion means consumer acceptance, the prevailing or accepted style in dress or personal
decoration established or adopted during a particular time or season.
The most widely recognize fashion authority, the late Dr. Paul-H-Nystrom (1928) define fashion
is similar words as Nothing more or less than the prevailing style at any given time.
209. What do you mean by D/P (Document of payment)?
Ans. Under this method, the goods are shipped and documents are sent to the importer through
the banking channel. The documents are handed over to the clearing (C&F) agent for clearing the
goods from the port.
210. What do you mean by D/A (Documents in Acceptance)?
Ans. Under this method of payment terms, importer takes delivery of the documents on
acceptance of a claim in the form of Bill of Exchange from the bank through whom documents
are sent after goods are shipped.
In this method there is risk of non-acceptance of bill and non-payment due to bankruptcy.
211. What are the processes for fixation of export prices?
Ans. There are three processes-
1. FOB (Free on board)
2. C & F (Cost & Freight) (FOB cost+ Freight = C & F ) and
3. CIF (Cost, insurance & freight) (C&F cost + Insurance = CIF)
212. What is consumption?
Ans. In the garments trade, consumption means quantity of raw materials with a view to
determine the price of a garment. In order to calculate the above quantity how much fabric,
sewing thread, button, label, zipper and other accessories are required to produce a garment up to
the exporting is called consumption.
GARMENTS TERMS AND DEFINITION
Arm scye: The arm hole of sleeve in a particular garment is named as arm scye.
Allowance: Additional measurement which added with body measurement in case of garments
making.
Aplique: Additional fabric added in the face side of the garments for increasing the beauty of the
dress which is called aplique.
Back rise: Distance between CRUTCH TO CENTER BACK WAIST LINE.
Basting: It is the temporary sewing by hand or m/c before doing final stitching for better fitting.
Bust point: Focusing point of the chest is called bust point.
Bodice: The part of ladies dress which stay neck to waist.
Back stitch: A type of hand stitch which is use for garment sewing.
Bodkin: The m/c used for making hole on the fabric is called bodkin.
Cheese: it is cylinder shape thread package in which thread in cross wound.
Closing: It is an operation in which side seam is join in the garment or join lining with fore part.
Collar: It is the part of the garment (shirt, polo-shirt etc) which stay round the neck.
Fork/Crutch/crotch: The part in which inside leg seam of the part is join, this part is called
crutch.
Cuff: It is the end point of a sleeve of a shirt laying around the wrist.
Cone: It is a triangle form of thread packages.
Clem: It is a small dart which produced by sewing but not cut the fabric.
Crease: To give crease mark on the fabric or garments/ any kind of creasing or folding in
clothes.
Double faced: The fabric which both side is same and both side can be focused, it is called
double faced.
Darning/mending: When fabric hole is repaired by needle and yarn.
Dummy: This is a duplicate model of doll similar to human body construction used for garments
fittings.
Ends: Wrap direction threads of fabric are called ends.
Fore part: The face side of the garments which use on the upper part of the body is called fore
part.
Front rise: Distance between crutch to face side of waist band of a garment/pant is called front
rise.
Fusing: The method by which fusible interlining is joining with the garments is called fusing.
Gusset: To increase the strength or fitting or shape of garments, some extra fabrics are used
which is called gusset.
Neatening: The process of sewing in cutting edge of the fabric so that the slack yarn can not be
opened.
SMV: Standard minutes value.
TST: Total standard time.
CNT/NT: Computing normal time/Normal time.
SAM: Sum of all minutes.
CST: Computing standard time.
CPM: Cost price per minute.
CMT: Cost of making with trimmings/Cutting, making and Trimmings cost/Cost of making
time.
N.S.A: No sewing allowance.
Off Pressing: Final pressing after sewing the garments.
Off Grain: When weft yarn is not maintaining 90 with selvedge.
Cross Pocket; Side pocket of trouser.
Sewing Out: When stitching is done by keeping sewing allowance inside.
Sewing Round: When lining is attached with shell at the edge of all parts of a garments.
Seam Busting; When pressing is done on seam for placing fabric both side equally.
Shirring: When elastic thread is used as looper thread for making gathering stitch.
Straight Line System: Line system production.
Thread Marking: Temporary stitching for testing fitting of a garments.
Templet: It is plastic or metal or hand paper, which is used for making pattern or use as guide for
fabric cutting.
Crocking; Colour is fading after rubbing from dry or wet cloth.
Double Faceed: Symmetric fabric, both side same.
Drape; The shape of fabric, after hanging.
Donkey: Pressing board, is used for pressing.
Drop Loop; When waist band loop is placed 1-2 cm below of top waist line.
Ease or Loose Dress: Keeping excess fabric for comfort using.
Epaulet: Strap on shoulder for a shirt or jacket.
Faced Cloth: When face side of fabric is different from other side. e.g. Flannel fabric.
Fall: Collar fall, back width of collar after folding.
Fofk; Crutch of trouser.
Fullness; Extra fabric is used for getting shape of a part of a dress. e.g. Sleeve head.
Forearm Line: A line from middle of front arm hole to the end of sleeve at thumb.
Fagot Stitch; Zigzag stitch by maintaining gap between two fabrics.
Grinning; Sewing by loose thread tensions, as a result gap in sewing line.
Grown-on-Facing: Plain front facing (Facing made by fabric folding inside).
Godet: When interlining is used under embroidery.
Hanger Appeal: The shape of garments when hang on Hanger.
Interfacing: When interlining is used inside facing.
Inset: When extra fabric is used for better fitting.
Jigger: Button, which is attach inside of the garments. e.g. shank button of double brast coat.
Laying-up: Process of fabric laying.
Leaf Edge; The edge of collar which is hanging after folding.
Linking: In sweater Factory, when two fabrics are joined by linking machine.
Lashing: When interlining is attached with facing by using Blind stitch machine.
Make through (Sample man): Who attach all parts of a garments.
Making-up; It is process to make garments from fabric.
Marking-in: Marking, when pencil is moved around the patterns.
VIVA QUESTIONS ----WPT
Singeing: Singeing is a process carried out to remove loose hairy fibre protruding from the
surface of the cloth/yarn by burning them.
Why singeing is necessary?
To obtain smooth surface
To increase luster
Optical levelness of dyeing & clean out of printing design.
Types of singeing m/c ( plate, roller, gas)
1. Plate singeing m/c
2. Roller singeing m/c
3. Gas singeing m/c
Desizing: Desizing is the first step of textile wet processing finishing technology employed to
remove sizing material from the fabric.
Why Desizing is necessary?
To remove starch from the fabric.
To increase absorbency of the fabric.
To increase luster of dyed & printed fabric.
For perfect action of scouring & bleaching.
Give some example of common sizes
1. Starch: Corn, photo, Sago.
2. Natural gun: Tragacanth, Locust-beam etc.
3. Protein: Glue, gelatin.
4. Synthetic sizing agent: PVA, PAN, CMC (Carboxy methyl cellulose).
5. Additives: Deformer, Tallow, Oil & greases.
6. Enzyme: Enzyme is one kind of bio-catalyst. Its molecular weight is high & they are living
organism.
The action of enzyme is controlled by-
Temp
Concentration
Time
P
H
of the solution
Problem by size material-
Stiffens the fabric handle
Reduce the absorbency of fabric
Reduce the absorbency chemical
Size may absorbed by chemical
Starch: Made by amylase & amylosepectin.
-amylase: Which attack the chain at random, so degree of polymerization of starch is rapidly
reduced.
-amylase: Which successively remove the terminal maltose from reducing ending polymer
chain is shortened.
Bleaching is not necessary for which type of fabric-
For dark shade fabric such as red, black & navy blue.
Man made fabrics.
Bleaching is done for-
White, light & medium shade fabric
What % of fabric strength after scouring ?
20-30%
Caustic Soda:
Neutralize acidic material
Saponity glycerides, wax & Oil.
Sequestering agent: Deactivate metal ions, reduce hardness of water.
Wetting agent & detergent: To reduce surface tension, emulsity oil, fats, waxes.
Oxidizing bleaching agent:-
O
3
one (O
3
)
H
2
O
2
Ca (OCl)
2
K
2
Cr
2
o
7
KMnO4
Reducing bleaching agent:-
Zinc dust (Zn)
Stannous chloride (SnCl
2
)
Ferrus Sulphate (FeSO
4
)
Sulphur di-oxide (SO
2
)
Hydrozen Sulphate (H
2
S)
Shouring: Treating the fabric with 1% HCl or H
2
SO
4
to remove CaCO
3
is known as shouring.
Disadvantage of Ca(OCl)
2
: Ca(OCl)
2
reacts with atmosphere CO
2
& H
2
O to give CaCO
3
as
white participate CaCO
3
deposit on fabric causes harsh feeling & uneven dyeing. But this is not
done in case of Na(OCl).
Na
2
CO
3
: To maintain the p
H
Why hypochlorite /chlorite bleaching is not used in wool & Silk?
Ans. Hypochlorite/chlorite bleaching is not used in wool and silk because Cl of hypochlorite
reacts with protein and thus the main bleaching action is not done & fabrics become discolored
& hampered.
PPM: Per mullion parts of water or mg/l or gm/m
3
.
How hardness of H
2
O is expressed?
Ans. The hardness of water is expressed by the amount of metal on present in water.
Problem causes by hard water-
Reduce cleaning efficiency
Reduce absorbency & lusture.
Reduce dye diffusion
Uneven dyeing
Soap: Soap is a metallic salt of a saturated or unsaturated higher fatty acids.
Factors for color vision:
1. Light
2. Substrate
3. Observer
Detergent: A detergent is compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning &
acts mainly on the oily films that trap dirt particulars.
Dyes: Dyes are colored unsaturated organic chemical compounds which are responsible for the
color of dyed & printed textile materials.
Which agent is known as universal bleaching agent?
Hydrogen per oxide (H
2
O
2
)
Ideal p
H
of fibre after neutralization:
5.5-6.5
Light: This is the first element of color perception light is energy.
Textile printing: Textile printing is the most important and versatile of the technologies used to
add design, color & racialist to textile fabrics.
Effects of electrolyte-
Electrolyte increases exhaustion of dyeing.
Types of vat dyes-
There are two types of vat dyes- those are below
1. Indigoid
2. Anthraquinion
Classify of hard water: Two types of hard water
1. Temporary 2. Parmament.
Source of hardness:
1. water
2. Fabric
3. Chemical
What is bleaching powder?
Ans. A complex mixtures of calcium hypochlorite & calcium oxide.
Why H
2
O
2
is called universal bleaching agent?
Ans. All types of fabric are bleaching in this agent.
Both sides of fabric is signed in which singeing m/c.
Gas singeing m/c
When signed fabric produce spot?
Ans. If fabric contain ZnCl
2
or MgCl
2
ZnCl
2
+H
2
O = ZnO + HCl
HCl + Cellulose = Hydrolysis spot
Which fabric is difficult to operate by gas singeing m/c.
Synthetic fabric
After Desizing absorbency of the fabric increase or decrease?
Increase
What are the methods of desizing?
Methods of Desizing
Hydrolytic desizing Oxidative desizing
1. Rot steeping 1. Bromite desizing
2. Alkali steeping 2.
Chlorite desizing
3. Acid steeping 3. Ammonium per
sulphate desizing.
What is pancreatic enzyme: The pancreatic enzymes are prepared from the pancreases of the
slaughtered animals.
Trade name: Vivesal, Novotermosol.
What is malt-extract enzyme: These enzymes are obtain by extraction of freshly germinated
barley corn.
Trade name: Diaster, Papidase.
What is bacterial enzyme: Obtain by termination from bacillus substitute which grown on rice
and it break down the stretch into water somble dextrins.
Trade name: Rapider, Biolase
After desizing which test is done to ensure the desizing.
At first produce 100cc solution with KI. I
2
and water.
Then some drops of this solution falls into the sizing material randomly. Then the following
incident may occur-
1. Deep blue color Present of starch/Not done desizing
2. Violet colorPresent partially degraded starch/desizing is done partially.
3. Brown Completely degraded starch/desizing is done complete
What are the forms of scouring:
(i) Yarn form (ii) Fabric from
-Hank form -Rope form (knit)
-Package form -Open width form (knit, woven)
-Continuous sheets form (woven)
What are the types of scouring ?
i) Batch process
ii) Semi-continuous process
iii) Continuous process
Stripping: If the textile goods become uneven dyeing and unsuitable for using,the color has to
be destroyed. The process is called stripping.
Curing: The application of heat, usually to polymerase or set remains applied to textile
materials.
Degree of polymerization: The number of monomers or repeating units is one polymer. More
specially, it is the average molecular weight.
Oleophilic: Having a strong affinity for oie; readily absorbs oil, grease, wax etc.
Primary additive colors-
1. Red
2. Blue
3. Green
Specifying of color-
1. Hue
2. Value
3. Chroma
Azoic dyes are also called -
Naphthol dyes
Ice colors
Developed color
Magic color
Whiteness: The attribute by which an object color is judged to approach a preferred white.
Buffer: It is a saturated solution of acid salt or alkali-salt mixture.
Expression of mixtures:
1. w/w-weight to weight
2. w/v-weight to volume
3. v/v-volume to volume
How to prepare 0.1% stock solution:
10 ml or 1 ml of 1% solution need to mix with 90 ml or 9 ml water respectively.
Dyeing Glossary
Absorbency: The ability of one material to take up another material.
Absorption: The process of gases or liquids being taken up into the pores of a fiber, yarn, or
fabric.
Acetic acid: An organic acid (CH3COOH) widely used in textile applications. It is used in
textile wet processing, dyeing and printing, and in the manufacture of cellulose acetate and
cellulose triacetate.
Acetic, anhydride: Anhydrous acetic acid [(CH3CO)2O]. It is used in the acetylation process in
the manufacture of cellulose acetate.
Acetone: Diemthyl ketone (CH3COOH). One of the most powerful organic solvents. Acetone
dissolves secondary cellulose acetate and other derivatives of cellulose. It is miscible with water
and has a low boiling point(55-56
o
C)
Acid dyes: An anionic dye having substantivity for fibers (e.g. Protein, polyamide) which
contain cationic groups usually in acidic or neutral aqueous dyebaths. Acid dyes are often
applied to fabric in organic or inorganic acid dyeing solution.
Acid-dyeable variants: Polymers modified chemically to make them receptive to acid dyes.
Acidic: A term describing a material having a pH of less than 7.0 in water.
\Activated oxygen bleach: A bleaching system comprising an oxygen bleach and a bleach
activator.
Add-on: The amount of materials applied to a textile is known add-on; it is calculated as the
weight of solids left on a given weight of fabric after impregnation and drying. The percentage
add-on is computed by the formula {(w
2
-w
1
) 100}/ w
1
; where w
1
is the initial weight of
material before impregnation (wet-out), and w
2
is the weight of material after impregnation and
drying.
Additive: A supplementary material combined with a base material to provide special properties.
Adsorption: The attraction of gases, liquids or solids to surface areas of textile fibers, yarns,
fabrics or any materials.
Aerobic: A biological process active only in the presence of oxygen.
Affinity: Chemical attraction; the tendency of two elements or substances to unite or Combine
together, such as fiber and dyestuff. Affinity is usually expressed in units of joules (or calories)
per mole.
Aftertreatment: Any treatment done after fabric production. In dyeing, it refers to treating dyed
material in ways to improve properties; in nonwovens, it refers to finishing processes carried out
after a web has been formed and bonded. Examples are embossing, creping, softening, printing
and dyeing.
Alkaline: A term used to describe a material having a pH greater than 7.0 in water.
Anaerobic: A biological process active only in the absence of free oxygen.
Aniline dyes: Dyes derived chemically from aniline or other coal tar derivatives.
Anionic dye: A dye dissociates in aqueous dyebath and provide negatively charged colored ion.
Anthraquinone dyes: Dyes that have Anthraquinone as their base and the carbonyl group
(>C=O) as the chromophore. Anthraquinone-based dyes are found in most of the synthetic dye
classes.
Antichlor: A chemical, such as sodium thiosulfate , used to remove excess chlorine after
bleaching.
Azo dyes: Dyes characterized by the presence of an azo group (-N=N-) as the chromophore. Azo
dyes are found in many of the synthetic dye classes.
Azoic dyes: The dyes, produced by interaction of a diazotized amine (azoic diazo component)
and a coupling component (azoic coupling component).
Bacterial Amylase Unit (BAU): A measure of starch degradation as shown by the quantity of
an enzyme that will dextrinize one milligram of starch per minute under the specified
experimental conditions.
Basic dyes: A class of positive-ion-carrying dyes known for their brilliant hues. Basic dyes are
composed of large-molecule, water-soluble salts that have a direct affinity for wool and silk and
can be applied to cotton with a mordant.
Batch: A group of units of products of the same type, structure, colour and finish, class and
composition, manufactured under essentially the same conditions and essentially at the same
time, and submitted at any one time for inspection and testing. Similar word Lot.
Bath ratio: Ratio of bath to fiber as 20:1, 10:1 or 1:20, 1:10
Binder: An adhesive applied in pigment application to make a bond between fibers and pigment.
Bleaching: A process of whitening fibers, yarns, or fabrics by removing the natural and artificial
impurities to obtain clear whites for finished fabric, or in preparation for dyeing and finishing.
The materials may be treated with chemicals or exposed to sun, air, and moisture.
Carbonizing: A chemical process for eliminating cellulosic material from, synthetic and wool or
other animal fibers. The material is reacted with sulfuric acid or hydrogen chloride gas followed
by heating. When the material is dry, the carbonized cellulose material is dust-like and can be
removed.
Carrier: A product added to a dye-bath to promote the dyeing of hydrophobic manufactured
fibers and characterized by affinity for, and ability to swell, the fiber.
Cat-ion: A positively charged ion.
Cationic dyes: A dye that dissociates in an acidified, aqueous solution to give a positively
charged colored ion.
Caustic Soda: The common name for sodium hydroxide(NaOH)
Chrome dye: A mordant dye capable of forming a chelate complex with a chromium ion.
CIE: Commission internationaly de IEclairage.
CMC: Carboxymethyl cellulose. Synthetic size used in cotton fabric processing.
Colorant: A colouring matter, a dye or pigment which can produce colour in a substrate like
fiber, yarn or fabric.
Coloration: A series of textile operation involved to impart color in textiles. It embraces dyeing,
printing, painting, spraying and preparatory treatment as well.
Color: 1. (Sensation) that characteristic of the visual sensation which enables the eye to
distinguish differences in its quality, such as may be caused by differences in spatial distribution
or fluctuation with time.
2. (of an object) the particular visual sensation caused by the light emitted by, transmitted through,
or reflected from the object.
Colour can be described approximately in terms of Hue, Saturation, and Lightness, or specified
numerically by chromaticity coordinates. Alternatively , colour can be specified by reference to
visual standards e.g. the Munsell Color Atlas.
Colorfastness: Resistance to fading; i.e the property of a dye to retain its color when the dyed
(or printed) textile material is exposed to conditions or agents such as light, perspiration,
atmospheric gases, or washing that can remove or destroy the color.
Color strength: A measure of the ability of a dye to impart color to other materials. Color
strength is evaluated by light absorption in the visible region of the spectrum.
Colorist: In textile coloration, a person experienced in developing color formulas, evaluating
samples for color and producing colored samples to meet standards.
Color index (CI): A listing of dyes and chemical structures published by the Society of Dyers
and Colorists. Each structure is assigned a name according to chemical composition. Each dye is
assigned a number according to its class and shade. A correlating structure number is given when
available.
Compatibility:In textile dyeing, propensity of individual dye components in a combination
shade to exhaust at similar rates resulting in a buildup of shade that is constant, or nearly
constant, in hue throughout the dyeing process.
Copper chelating value (CuCV): The milligrams of copper sulfate pentahydrate chelated by
one gram of a chelating agent or product containing a chelating agent.
Cross dyeing: A process of dyeing textiles containing fibers having different dye affinities to
achieve a multicolored effect.
Desizing: The process removal of size materials from greige (gray) fabric to prepare for dyeing.
Dip: Immersion of a textile material in some processing liquid. The term is usually used in
connection with a padding or slashing process.
Direct dyes: A class of dyestuffs that are applied directly to the substrate in a neutral or alkaline
bath. They produce full shades on cotton and linen without mordanting and can also be applied
to rayon, silk and wool. Direct dyes give bright shades but exhibit poor washfastness.
Disperse dyes: A class of water-insoluble or slightly soluble dyes originally introduced for
dyeing cellulose acetate and usually applied from fine aqueous suspensions. Disperse dyes are
widely used for dyeing most of the manufactured fibers.
Dyes/dyestuff: Substances that add color to textiles. They are incorporated into the fiber by
chemical reaction, absorption, or dispersion. Dyes may be divided into natural and synthetic
types. Natural dyes are extracted from root bark, flowers and marine growth. Synthetic dyes are
chemically compounded through many processes from coal tar or other sources of hydrocarbon
molecules. On basis of application it is classified as Acid dye, Azoic dye, Basic dye, Direct dye,
Disperse dye, Mordant dye, Reactive dye, Sulphur dye, Vat dye etc. Fluorescent whitening agent
is also a dye.
Dyeing: A process of coloring fibers, yarns, fabrics or garments with either natural or synthetic
dyes under specified conditions.
Dyeing auxiliaries: Various substances that can be added to the dyebath to aid dyeing. They
may necessary to transfer the dye from the bath to the fiber or they may provide improvements in
leveling, penetration etc. Also call dyeing assistants.
Dye liquor: The liquid that contains the dye and the reagents necessary for dyeing.
Ecmc: In color difference evaluation, a single number defining the total color difference in CMC
units of a trial from a standard.
Emulsion: A suspension of finely divided liquid droplets in a second liquid, i,e., oil in water or
vice versa.
Exhaustion: During wet processing, the ratio at any time between the amount of dye or
substance taken up by the substrate and the amount originally available.
Fixation: The process of setting a dye after dyeing of printing, usually by steaming or other
heart treatment.
Fluorescent: A substance that is added to a textile (uncolored or colored) to increase the
apparent light reflectance in the visible region by the conversion of ultraviolet radiation into
visible light and so to increase the apparent brightness or whiteness of the textile. Similar words
brightener.
Florescent whitening agent (FWA): Colorant that absorbs near ultraviolet (UV) radiation and
re-emits visible (violet-blue) radiation. This causes a yellowish material to which it has been
applied to appear whiter.
Foam: Dispersion of gas in a liquid or solid. The gas bubbles may be any size. The term covers a
wide range of useful products such as insulating foam, cushions, etc. It also describes the
undesirable froth in polymer melts, dye baths, etc.
Hue: The attribute of color perception by means of which an object is judged to be red, orange,
yellow, green, blue, violet or a combination of these.
Hydrolysis: A double decomposition reaction involving the addition of the elements of water
and the formation of an acid and a base, an acid and an alcohol, or an acid and phenol.
Hydrophilic: Having strong affinity for or the ability to absorb water.
Hydrophobic: Lacking affinity for or the ability to absorb water.
Indigo: Originally a natural blue vat dye extracted from plants, especially the indigofera tinctoria
plant. Most indigo dyes today are synthetic. They are frequently used on dungarees and denims.
Ingrain dye: A colorant, which is formed, in situ, in the substrate by the development and
coupling of one more intermediate compounds. The term was originally used for colorants
obtained from oxidation bases and by azoic techniques, but is now reserved for other types of
colorant formed in situ.
Inhibitor: A substance that retards or prevents a chemical or physical change. In textiles, a
chemical agent that is added to prevent fading, degradation, or other undesirable effects.
Isoelectric: Same charge in a certain condition. When positive and negative charges are equal.
The isoelectric point is pH value at which the molecule carries no electrical charge or the
negative and positive charges are equal.
Isotherm: Constant temperature line used on graphs of climatic conditions or thermodynamic
relations, such as pressure-volume relations at constant temperature.
Jet dyeing machine: A high-temperature piecedyeing machine that circulates the dye liquor
through a Venturi jet, thus imparting a driving force to move the fabric. The fabric, in rope form,
is sewn together to form a loop.
Kier: A large metal tank, capable to being heated uniformly, used for wet processing.
Kier boiling: Process of boiling cellulosic materials in alkaline liquors in a kier at or above
atmospheric pressure.
Laboratory sample: A portion of material taken to represent the lot sample, or the original
material and used in the laboratory as a source of test specimens.
Leuco dye: A soluble, reduced form of a dye from which the original dye may be regenerated by
oxidation.
Liquor ratio: In wet processing the ratio of the weight of liquid used to the weight of goods
treated.
Lot: A unit of production or a group of other units or packages that is taken for sampling or
statistical examination, having one or more common properties and being readily separable from
other similar units.
Metal-complex dye: A dye having a coordinated metal atom in its molecule. Unless the term
metal-complex dye is used in direct association with a particular application class of dye, e.g.
metal-complex disperse dye or metal-complex reactive dye, its use is inexact and inadvisable.
Migration: Movement of an added substance (e.g. dye or alkali) from one area to textiles to
another. Commonly used to express the movement of color from the dyed area to the undyed
area of cloth.
Mock Dyeing: A heat stabilization process for yarns. The yarns are wound onto packages and
subjected to package dyeing conditions (water, pressure, temperature) but without dye an
chemicals in the bath.
Mordant: A chemical used in some textile fibers to provide affinity for dyes. Or a substance,
usually a metallic compound, applied to a substrate to form with a dye a complex which is
retained by the substrate more firmly than the dye itself.
Mordant dye: A dye that is fixed with a suitable mordant.
Optical Brightener: A colorless compounds that, when applied to fabric, absorbs the ultraviolet
radiation in light but emits radiation in the visible spectrum.
OWB: On the weight of bath.
OWF: On the weight of fabric/fibre
OWG: On the weight of goods.
OWV: On the weight of value.
Pad: A machine for impregnating fabrics with chemicals. It consists essentially of a trough
followed by two or more pairs of squeeze rolls.
pH: Value indicating the acidity or alkalinity of a material. It is the negative logarithm of the
effective hydrogen ion concentration. A pH of 7.0 is neutral; less than 7.0 is acidic; and more
than 7.0 is basic.
Pick-up: % or weight added per unit weight of fabric.
Pigment: An insoluble, finely divided substance, such as titanium dioxide, used to deluster or
color fibers, yarns or fabrics.
Premetallized acid dye: An acid dye manufactured by reacting an equivalent of a suitable metal
ion with one equivalent of a dye, or with two equivalents of the same or different dyes, capable
of chelating the metal.
Preparation: In textile manufacturing, those processing operations performed on greige fabric,
colored fabric, textile yarns or fibers to ready them for dyeing, printing or finishing. For
example, typical greige cotton fabric preparation includes singeing, desizing, scouring, bleaching
and (optionally) mercerizing.
Reactive dye: A dye that, under suitable conditions, is capable of reacting chemically with a
substrate to form a covalent dye-substrate linkage.
Reduction clearing (RC): The removals of unabsorbed disperse dye from the surface of
polyester at the end of the dyeing or printing process by treatment in a sodium hydroxide/sodium
hydrosulfite bath. A surface-active agent may be employed in the process.
Retarder (Retardants): A chemical that, when added to the dyebath, decreases the rate of
dyeing but does not affect the final exhaustion.
Saponification: Specifically in relation to manufactured fibers, saponification is the process of
removing part or all of the groups from acetate or triacetate fiber, leaving regenerated cellulose.
Saturation: The maximum intensity or purity of a color. If the color is as brilliant as possible, it
is at saturation; if the color is subdued or grayed, it is dull, weak, and low in intensity.
Scouring: In textile processing, treatment of textile materials in aqueous or other solutions to
remove nature fats, waxes, proteins and other constituents as well as dirt, oil and other
impurities.
Shade: A common term loosely used to describe broadly a particular color or depth, e.g. pale
shade, 2% shade, mode shade, fashion shade.
Shading: In colored textile fabrics, gradual changes in hue, chroma and/or lightness lengthwise
or widthwise. When unintended, shading is considered a defect; may be international for styling
purposes.
Sizing: A generic term for compounds that are applied to warp yarn to bind the fiber together
and stiffen the yarn to provide abrasion resistance during weaving, Starch, gelatin, oil, wax and
manufactured polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol, polystyrene, polyacrylic acid, and
polyacetates are employed.
Softener: 1. A product designed to impart a soft mellowness to the fabric. Examples are glucose,
glycerine, tallow, or any one of a number of quaternary ammonium compounds.
2. A substance that reduces the hardness of water by removing or sequestering the
calcium and magnesium ions.
3. A substance used to reduce friction during mixing and processing when dry powders are added
to polymers.
Solubilized sulfur dye: A thiosulfuric acid derivative of a sulfur dye which during dyeing is
converted to the substantive alkali-soluble thiol form.
Solubilized vat dye: A water-soluble salt of the sulfuric ester of a leuco vat dye. After
application to the fiber the parent vat dye is regenerated by hydrolysis and oxidation.
Solvent dye: A dye which is soluble in organic solvents, but not in water, and is widely used in
lacquers, inks, waxes, plastics, soaps, cosmetics, fuels and colored smokes.
Souring: Any treatment of textile materials in dilute acid. Its purpose is the neutralization of any
alkali that is present.
Substantivity: The attraction, under the precise conditions of test, between a substrate and a dye
(or other substance) where the latter is selectively extracted from the application medium by the
substrate.
Substrate:
1. In textiles, a fiber, fiber assembly, yarn, fabric or garment to which another material is
applied.
2. Fabric to which coatings or other fabrics are applied. It can be of woven, knit, nonwovens, or
weft-insertion construction. Generally, substrate properties are dependent both on fiber type and
fabric construction. Usually the fabric is scoured, heat-set and otherwise finished prior to coating
or bonding. Many smooth-surfaced manufactured fiber fabrics require impregnation with a latex
prior to coating to ensure adequate adhesion.
Sulfur dye: A dye, containing sulfur both as an integral part of the chromophore and in attached
polysulfide chains, normally applied in the alkali-soluble reduced (leuco) form from a sodium
sulfide solution and subsequently oxidized to the insoluble form in the fiber.
Uneven dyeing: A fabric dyeing that shows variations in shade resulting from incorrect
processing or dyeing methods or from use of faulty materials.
Union dyeing: A process of dyeing textiles containing fibers having different dye affinities to
achieve the appearance of a uniform, homogenous color.
Unlevelness: In textile dyeing and finishing, non-uniform distribution of a dye or chemical in or
on a substrate.
Vat dyes: A water-insoluble dye, usually containing keto groups, which is normally, applied to
the fiber from an alkaline aqueous solution of the reduced enol (Leuco) form which is
subsequently oxidized in the fiber to the insoluble form.
Wet pick-up: In textile processing, the amount of liquid, and material carried by the liquid,
applied to a textile. Wet pick-up is usually determined as a percentage of either the dry or
conditioned weight of the textile prior to processing.
What is stain resistance finish: It is the finish to prevent water & or oils from penetrating the
fabric using potential aqueous & oily stain to bead up & roll off.
What is soil release finish: Soil release is the term used to describe clean ability of fabrics by
the laundering process.
What is antimicrobial finished: Antimicrobial finish is one kind of chemical finish which is
improve fabric durability on various substrates, impact on people & their environment, they
interact with good & bad microorganism.
What is textile finishing: Finishing has been defined by textile instate as Descriptive of
processes, physical or chemical, applied to a substrate to produce a desired effect. It is chemical
or mechanical treatments performed on fibre, yarn or fabric to improve appearance, texture, or
performance.
What is Calender: A machine in which heavy roller rotates in contact under presser, used to
smooth & flatten fabric to close the intersections between the yarns & to confer a surface glaze.
What do you mean by DP & Curing: DP means Durable Press OR Permanent press, it is a
finishing treatment designed to impart to a textile material or garments the retention of specific
contours including defined creases & pleats resistant to normal usage, washing or dry.
Curing is a process following application of a finish to textile fabrics in which appropriate
conditions are used to effect a chemical reaction.
Foam Finishing: The application of one or more liquid chemicals finishes in the form of a foam
to a textile material with the advantage of low wet pick-up
Wet pick-up: The weight of liquor taken up by a given weight of the fabric after impregnation,
spraying, or coating element.
Wicking: The passage of liquids along or through a textile material or along the interstices
formed by textile element & coating polymer of a coated fabrics.
Wrinkle recovery/resistance: A laboratory test to measure angle (degrees) of recovery from
wrinkling or creasing.
Surfactant: An agent, soluble or dispersible in a liquid, which decreases the surface tension of
the liquid contraction of surface active agent
Dye: A substances usually organic, soluble or dispersed in its medium of application & which is
design to be absorbed or adsorbed by, made to react with, or deposited within a substrate in order
to impart color with some degree of permanence.
Colorant: Any chemical that is colored or can become colored in a particular environment/under
certain condition& can be applied/ used to impart the property of color to a team.
Pigment: A substance consisting of small particles that is insoluble in the applied medium & is
used primarily for its coloring properties.
Dyeing: Dyeing is the application of color to the whole textile material with some degree of
color fastness. Dyeing is essentially a mass transfer process where the dye diffuses in solution,
adsorbs onto the fibre surface & finally within the fibre.
Affinity: It is the difference between the chemical potential of dye in its standard state in the
fibre & the corresponding chemical potential in the dye bath i.e. tendency of a dye to move from
dye bath into a substrate.
Substantivity: The attraction between a substrate & a dye or other substrate under precise
condition of test whereby the test is selectively extracted from the application medium of
substrate.
Exhaustion: For a single dye the exhaustion is defined as the mass of the dye taken up by the
material divided by the total initial mass of the dye in the bath but for a bath of constant volume.
CS= concentration of dye in solution, Cf=concentration of dye in fibre after dyeing
Exhaustion %=Cf/Cs100
Fixation: Fixation is basically how much the dye reacts with the fabric. It depends on how
much dye is fixed onto the fabric after considering all the washes.
Fixation %= [{Co (C
1
+CW
!
+CW
2
+..)}/C
o
]100
C
o
= Concentration of dye initially
C
1
= Concentration of dye after dying
CW
1,
, CW
2
are concentration of the dye in each wash.
Textile printing: Printing is the processes by which dyes & pigments are applied locally or
discontinuous to produce various design.
Styles of printing: Direct style, Discharge style, Resist style, Raised style, Flock style, Cripm
style, Burn out style
Discharge printing: always sharp in outline, bright in appearance & give perfect & sparking
whites due to bleaching effect on the discharge agent.
Resist printing: Generally subdued & the color are less bright, the outlines of the printing
motifs are less sharp.
Methods of Printing: Block printing, Stencil printing, roller printing, screen printing, Transfer
printing, Digital Inkjet Printing
Pigment printing: In pigment printing insoluble pigments which have no affinity for the fibres
are fixed on the textiles with binding agent in the pattern required.
Binder: The binder is a film forming substance made up of long chain macromolecules which
when applied to textile together with the pigment; produce a three dimensionally linked network.
Fabric softener: A softener is a chemical that alters the fabric hand making, it more pleasing to
touch. The more pleasing eel is a combination of a smooth sensation, characteristics of silk & of
material being less stiff.
Surfactants: surfactants lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading & the
interfacial tension between two liquids.
Wetting agent: it is a chemical substance that increases the spreading & penetrating properties
of a liquid by lowering its surface tension that is the tendency of its molecules to adhere to each
other.
Detergent: A detergent is a compound or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning &
acts mainly on the oily films that trap dirt particles.
Emulsifying agent: Emulsifying agent are surfactants that convert water insoluble oils into
stable, aqueous suspensions.
Dying Kinetics: The rate of transfer of dye in solution from the dye into substrate.
Diffusion: Diffusion means penetration/movement of substance owning the existence of conc. Gradient
i.e. movement of particles between the two surfaces having different density from higher to
lower one.
Mineral color: Mineral color contains metallic insoluble precipitates which are deeply colored.
These insoluble precipitates have found great application as pigment for paint. For other
purposes of dyeing, the precipitates themselves are not used but they actually created in and on
the fibers from the soluble substances
What is hard water: Water described as "hard" is high in dissolved minerals, specifically
calcium and magnesium. Hard water is not a health risk, but a nuisance because of mineral
buildup on fixtures and poor soap and/or detergent performance.
Soap: soap is a metallic salt of saturated or unsaturated higher fatty acid. There may be pb, Mg,
Ca or other metallic salts.
Thickener: Thickener is a thick mass which impart stickiness & plasticity to the printing paste
so that it may be applied on the fabric surface without bleeding or spreading & be capable of
maintaining the design outline.
Ageing: Ageing consists of exposing printing goods to more or less prolonged action of steam at
atmospheric pressure to assist in the diffusion & fixation of the dyes
Color: Color is the result of an interaction between a chromospheres group or color bearing
group & light.
Light: That aspect of radiant energy which human observer is aware through visual sensation
arising from stimulation of the retina by radiant energy.
Metamerism: A pair of sample is said to be metameric if their colors match under one light
source & not match under different light source, this phenomena is called Metamerism.
Foam: Foam is a dispersion of gas in a liquid. The gas may be generally air, otherwise inert gas.
Foam is different from emulsion.
Emulsion: Emulsion is a mixture of two or more immiscible liquids e.g (water + oil) with
emulsification agent.
Why foam is used?
Ans. In wet processing technology cost is very high mainly due to high consumption of energy
which itself is the result of high consumption of water. The idea of replacing water in the use of
foam reduces the total processing cost by reducing these costs- 1. Heating cost. 2. Effluent
treatment cost. 3. Chemical & dye stuff cost
Solvent Dyeing: The use of solvents as dye bath media instead of water becomes quite a popular
concept, where solvent carries the dye molecules to the interior of fibre & then recovered.
Introduction of Hydrophobic fibres like cellulose acetate has pronounced dyeing problem as no
synthetic & natural dye at that time , are capable of dye it.
Heat setting: Heat-setting is a heat treatment by which shape retention, crease resistance,
resilience and elasticity are imparted to the fibres. It also brings changes in strength,
stretchability, softness, dyeability and sometimes on the color of the material. All these changes
are connected with the structural and chemical modifications occurring in the fibre.
Viva Questions
1. What is knitting?
Ans. It is the process of producing fabric by transferring continuous yarns into interlocking
loops, each row of loop hanging from the one immediately preceding it.
2. How many sets of yarn are used in knitting?
Ans. One set (warp or weft).
3. How many sets of yarn are used in weaving?
Ans. Two sets (warp and weft).
4. Is sizing required in knitted fabric?
Ans. No.
5. What is weaving?
Ans. the process of interlacing two sets of yarns namely warp and weft, at right angle to make a
fabric, according to design.
6. Write down the types/ classification of knitting.
Ans. Two types,
I) warp knitting & II) weft knitting.
7. Is yarn preparation is needed in knitting? Ans. No.
8. Is knitting fabric produce by inter looping? Ans. Yes.
9. Is weaving fabric produce by interlacing? Ans. Yes.
10. In which knitting, a fabric is produce by single yarn?
Ans. Weft knitting.
11. What is face loop?
Ans. The loop where heads are below and hanks are above is called face loop.
12. What is back loop?
Ans. The loop where heads are above and hanks are below is called back loop.
13. What is the basic knitted structure?
Ans. I) single jersey or plain
ii) 1x1 rib
iii) 1x1 inter lock
iv) 1x1 purl.
14. Write down the weft knitting elements.
Ans. (i) Needle
(ii) Sinker
(iii) Cam
15. Write down the types of needle.
Ans. (i) Latch needle
(ii) Bearded needle
(iii) Compound needle
16. Write down the types of knit wear.
Ans. (I) cut and sew knit wear (ii) fully fashion knit wear.
17. Write down the basic stitches of knitting structure.
Ans. (i) knit stitch
(ii) Miss/ float stitch
(iii) Tuck stitch
18. How can you identify single jersey fabric?
Ans. In single jersey fabrics, all face loops are present in one side and all back loops are present
in other side of the fabric.
19. How can you identify double jersey fabric?
Ans. In double jersey fabrics, face & back loops are present in every side of the fabric.
20. The size of held loop is always bigger than knit loop (yes/no).
Ans. Yes.
21. Write down the warp knitting elements.
Ans. (i) Needle
(ii) Cam
(iii) Sinker
(iv) Guide.
22. Needle individually works in which knitting?
Ans. Weft knitting m/c.
23. Needles work unitedly in warp knitting (yes/no). Ans. Yes.
24. What is pitch?
Ans. The distance between one needle and another.
25. Technical face and back is of same in rib structure (yes/no).
Ans. Yes.
26. What is a coarse?
Ans. A coarse is a predominantly horizontal row of needle loops.
27. What is a wale?
Ans. A wale is a predominantly vertical column of intermeshed needle loops.
28. what is the first type of needle?
Ans. Bearded needle.
29. What is the problem of bearded needle?
Ans. Presser bar is used as closing elements.
30. What is the function of sinker that performed?
Ans. (i) loop formation (ii) holding down( iii) knocking over.
31. What is cam?
Ans. Cams are the devices which convert the rotary machine drive into a suitable reciprocating
action for the needles or other elements.
32. Write down the types of cam.
Ans. i. engineering cam,
ii. Knitting cam.
33. What is needle loop?
Ans. The needle loop is the basic unit of knitted structure.
34. Write down the types of clearing cam.
Ans. i. knit cam,
ii. Tuck cam,
iii. Miss cam
35. What is the basic knitting action of a needle?
Ans. i. rest position,
ii. Opening,
iii. Clearing,
iv. Yarn feeding
v. Landing,
vi. Knock over.
36. What is held loop?
Ans. A held loop is an old loop that the needle has retained
37. Where the interlock fabrics are used?
Ans. Under garments clothing.
38. Inter lock has the technical face of plain fabric on both side (yes/no).
Ans. Yes.
39. In interlock fabric, reverse or back loop is not seen (yes/no). Ans. Yes.
40. Technical face & back is of different in single Jersey fabric (yes/no)
Ans. Yes
41. What do you mean by GSM?
Ans. Gram per square meter.
42. What do you mean by oz/sq. yd?
Ans. Ounce per square yard.
43. Where GSM is used?
Ans. The term GSM is popularly used in knitted industry because buying & selling are done on
the basis of weight of the fabrics.
44. What is the GSM range for finer fabrics? Ans. Below 150
45. What is the meaning of CVC & PC/TC?
Ans. CVC = Chief value of cotton (i.e. cotton more than 50%)
PC/TC=Polyester&Cotton / Tetron&Cotton (i.e.polyester more than 50%)
46. Write down the formula to determine the GSM.
Ans.
47. Write down the process sequence of textile industry?
Ans:
52. What types of loops produce in knitting?
Ans. Interlocking or Interlooping loops.
53. Weft knitting produce in which form?
Ans. Tubular form.
54. In which/loop, shanks are above and heads are below?
Ans. Face loop.
55. What is sinker loop?
Ans. The loop that joins two adjacent needle loop.
56. What is the basic unit of knitted structure?
Ans. Stitch/loop
57. Legs or shanks are below and heads are above in back loop (Yes/No).
Ans. Yes.
58. In where alternate face and back loops produced by two sets needle?
Ans. Rib structure.
59. In interlock fabric, is back loop invisible?
Ans. Yes.
60. Which is the only movable cam in the cam box?
Ans. Stitch cam.
61. What is the principal element of knitting m/c?
Ans. Needle.
62. What fabric produced by adhesive and punching?
Ans. Non-woven fabric.
63. Write the process sequence of woven fabric production?
Ans. (A) Yarn preparation
i.Winding iv. Drawing in and denting
ii.Warping v. Leasing
iii. Sizing vi. Tyeing in / Knotting
(B) Weaving
(C) Inspection
(D) Folding
(E) Transfer to DPF(Dyeing, Printing & Finishing)
64. The weave with long floats of threads produce loose structure and short floats produce firm
structure (True/False).
Ans. True
65. What are the types of fabric?
Ans. (i) woven fabric (ii) knit fabric (iii) Non woven fabric
66. What is non woven fabric?
Ans. Sheets of fibers are held together by adhesives, stitching or needle punching to give a
usable fabric.
67. What do you mean warp & weft yarn?
Ans. Warp yarn = the lengthwise set of yarn
Weft yarn =the widthwise set of yarn.
68. Write down the classification of woven fabric with example.
Ans. (i) According to raw material e.g. cotton fabric, wool fabric, silk fabric
(ii) According to processing e.g. solid dyed, yarn dyed
(iii) According to their weaves or construction e.g. plain fabric, twill fabric, satin fabric
(iv) According to their structures e.g. single cloth, double cloth, pile fabric
(v) According to end uses e.g. Clothing, floor covering, furnishing
69. In weaving process, which is first, sizing or winding?
Ans. Winding (winding warping sizing)
70. Why yarn preparation is required for weaving?
Ans. (i) To wind the yarn uniformly on suitable package
(ii) To have desired length of yarn on the package
(iii) To improve weaving efficiency.
71. What are the classifications of winding m/c?
Ans. (i) Pirn winding m/c
(ii) Cop winding m/c
(iii) Spool winding m/c
(iv) Cheese winding m/c
(v) Cone winding m/c
72. What types of traversing method?
Ans. (i) Reciprocating
(ii) Rotating
73. Ribboning is a winding fault (yes / no) Ans. Yes
74. Write down the types of yarn tensioner used in winding.
Ans. (a) Capstan Tensioner
(b) Additive Tensioner
(c) Combined Tensioner
(d) Gate Tensioner
(e) Lever Tensioner or automatic control tensioner.
75. Write down the types of guide.
Ans. (i) Type A A yarn end is required for threading
(ii) Type B A yarn end is not required for threading
76. Some measurement:
77. Find out the length of yarn on a cone of 2.5 lbs of 30/1 Ne yarn.
Ans:
78. Find out the weight of yarn on a cone of 9 counts of 10000m?
Ans:
79. What are the types of warping?
Ans. Two types_ (i) Direct or high speed or beam warping
(ii) Sectional or pattern or drum warping
80. What do mean by the given construction?
Ans:
81. What is the other name of warp yarn? Ans. Ends
82. What is sizing?
Ans. Sizing is the process of giving a protective coating on the warp yarn to minimize yarn
breakage during weaving.
83. What materials form the base of the size?
Ans. Starch or gum
84. What are the types of loom?
Ans. (i) Hand loom & (ii) Power loom
85. What are the types of power loom?
Ans. (i) Modern/shuttle less loom & (ii) conventional/shuttle loom.
86. Write down the loom driving system?
Ans. (i) Hand driving (hand loom) & (ii) Electric motor driving (power loom)
87. Write down/ what are the different types of shed?
Ans. (i) Bottom close shed
(ii) Center close shed
(iii) Semi-open shed
(iv) Open shed
88. What is shedding?
Ans. Shedding is the act of dividing the warp threads according to design into two parts, to
allow the passage of shuttle/weft inserting element from one side of the loom to the other.
89. Write down/what are the types of shedding mechanism?
Ans. (i) Paddle/treadle shedding (used in hand loom)
(ii) Tappet shedding (used in power loom)
(iii) Dobby shedding (used in power loom, at past used in hand loom)
(iv) Jacquard shedding (both hand & power loom are used now)
(v) Combined shedding
90. Normally tapped shedding mechanism produces square design (e.g. 4x4, 6x6, 7x7, etc.)
(Yes /no)
Ans. Yes.
91. We can produce basic weave structures (i.e plain, twills satin) in tapped shedding
(yes/no)
Ans. Yes
92. Where open shed is used?
Ans. Tapped loom
93. Where bottom & center close shed are used?
Ans. Hand jacquard looms to produce delicate fabrics.
94. Where semi-open shed is used?
Ans. Double lift dobby & Jacquard.
95. One shedding + one picking + one beating =?
Ans. One weaving cycle/ loom cycle/picks cycle
96. One picking tapped insert one pick(True or False)?
Ans. True
97. What is the result of unequal shedding?
Ans. Wrong design & stitching
98. What are the maximum numbers of heald frame controlling capacity in tapped shedding
mechanism?
Ans. 14
99. Dobby shedding mechanism can produce both square and rectangular size design
(yes/no)
Ans. Yes
100. What types of design can be produced by Jacquard looms?
Ans. Any design
101. What are the maximum numbers of warp threads controlling capacity in Jacquard loom?
Ans. 1800
102. What is picking?
Ans. To propel the shuttle or any other weft inserting elements.
103. Write down the faults of picking
Ans. (i) Early picking (ii) Late picking (iii) Smash or Bang-off
(iv) Short picking (v) Harsh picking (vi) Shuttle flying out
104. Some meaning
Ans. PPM = picks per minute
PPI = picks per inch
EPI = Ends per inch
RS = Reed space
105. Actual production of a m/c is always less than that calculated production (True/False)
Ans. True
106. What is the object of beat-up mechanism?
Ans. To push the newly inserted weft yarn (last pick) to the fell of the cloth.
107. What is the function of take-up mechanism?
Ans. To wind the already woven fabric on the cloth roller with the progress of weaving.
108. What is pick spacing?
Ans. The space occupied by a pick in fabric
109. What is let-off mechanism?
Ans. To unwind the equivalent length of warp sheet from the warp beams with the progress
of take-up during weaving.
110. What are the basic weave structures?
Ans. (i) Plain (ii) Twill and (iii) Satin
111. Write down/Classify the types of sett.
Ans. (i) Warp sett (No. of warp/inch)
(ii) Weft sett (no. of weft/inch)
112. What is weave?
Ans. Interlacement of the ends and picks with each other produces a coherent structure. The
repeating pattern of interlacing is called the weave.
113. What is warp & weft crimp?
Ans. The waviness of the yarns due to interlacing of warp and weft in producing fabric is
called crimp.
114. Define cover factor?
Ans:
115. What is Cloth cover factor?
Ans:
116. What is the main feature of twill weave?
Ans. A twill weave is characterized by diagonal lines of warp & weft floats on the face of the
fabric.
117. What are the derivatives of twill?
Ans. (i) zigzag / pointed / waved twill (iv) combined twill
(ii) Herring bone twill (v) Fancy twill
(iii) Broken twill (vi) Continuous twill
118. Write down the classification of drafting?
Ans. (i) Straight draft (v) special draft
(ii) Pointed draft (vi) skip draft
(iii) Flat pointed draft (vii) mixed draft
(iv) Broken draft
119. What is color & weave effect?
Ans. Simple weaves such as plain, twill and matt may be used in conjunction with two color
warp and weft patterns to produce small geometrical designs in two colors that is called color &
weave effect.
120. Where double cloth is used?
Ans. Decorative fabrics, such as sofa cover, furnishing cloth.
121. What is denim fabric?
Ans. A strong warp faces cotton cloth used for overalls, jeans, skirts etc. largely made in
3/1 twill weave.
122. Some fabric detail.
Ans. Jean = 2/1 twill cotton cloth made warp or weft face.
Poplin = A plain woven warp rib fabric with fine warp and thick weft.
123. What is winding?
Ans. The transferring of yarn from one package to another is called winding.
124. Write down the classes of winding?
Ans. On the basis of package hardness/softness-
(a) Soft winding (b) Hard winding
On the basis of your coil on the package (traversing)
(a) Precision winding and
(b) Non-precision winding
125. What are the types of packages?
Ans. Fundamentally three different types of packages
(a) The parallel would package.
(b) The near-parallel wound packages and
(c) The cross wound packages.
126. What are the classes of winding m/c basis on package of yarn produced?
Ans. (a) Pirn winding m/c
(b) Cop winding m/c
(c) Spool winding m/c
(d) Cheese winding m/c
(e) Cone winding m/c
127. What are the ways in which a yarn package may be unwound?
Ans. There are two ways in which a yarn package may be unwound-
(a) Side withdrawal and (b) Over end withdrawal.
128. What are the faults of winding?
Ans. Faults-
(a) Too soft or hard package
(b) Improper knots.
(c) Dirty package
(d) Incorrect winding speed
(e) Unsatisfactory package shape.
(f) Ribboning
(g) Balloning
129. Mention the Auxiliary functions of winding machine?
Ans. The Auxiliary functions of a winding machine include-
(a) Creeling (b) Piecing (c) Doffing.
130. What is warping?
Ans. The parallel winding of a set of warp yarns from many yarn packages (cone/cheese) on a
flanged bobbin (warping beam) at uniform spacing, tension and length is called warping.
131. How many types of warping?
Ans. There are mainly two types of warping-
(a) Direct or high speed or beam warping
(b) Sectional or pattern or drum warping.
132. Write the components of warping machine?
Ans. A warping machine consists of three main parts:
(a) Creel (b) Headstock (c) Control unit.
133. Mention different types of Gum/Starch?
134. Classify the sizing method?
Ans. On the basis of size % on the yarn-
- Light sizing- 10% - 15%
- Pure sizing - 16% - 25%
- Medium sizing - 26% - 50%
- Heavy sizing - 50% - 100%
On the basis of application process-
(a) Surface sizing
(b) Core sizing
(c) Optimal sizing
135. What are the reason of clothing?
Ans.
(a) Modesty
(b) Protection against adverse climate conditions
(c) Adornment
(d) Identification
(e) Aristocratic reason
136. What the breaks that used to stop the loom?
Ans.
(a) Mechanical
(b) Pneumatic (used air)
(c) Hydraulic (used liquid)
137. Some important terms -
* The ratio of RPM of crank shaft and bottom shaft is always 2:1
** RPM of crank shaft = PPM of the loom
138. Can we mount more than two shedding tappet in a loom? Ans. No
139. What is dwell?
Ans. The stationary period of heald frames in open shed condition during which time, the
shuttle travel from one side of the loom to the other side.
140. How many heald frames can be controlled by Dobby shedding mechanism?
Ans. Theoretically maximum 48 but practically 36 can be controlled. But for cotton yarn
weaving 24 controlled.
141. Minimum how many heald frame is controlled by Dobby shedding?
Ans. Minimum 12.
142. Maximum how many heald frame is controlled by Jacquard shedding?
Ans. 1800
143. What are the primary motion?
Ans. The primary motion are as follows-
(a) Shedding
(b) Picking
(c) Beating
144. What are the secondary motion?
Ans. The secondary motion are as follows :
(a) Let off
(b) Take-up
145. What are the tertiary motion
Ans. The tertiary motion are as follows-
(a) Warp stop motion
(b) Weft stop motion
(c) Warp protector
(d) Weft protector
146. Formulate of efficiency of a loom?
Ans:
147. Formula of loom production?
Ans:
148. What is efficiency?
Ans. The weaving efficiency describes how effectively a set of looms work in normal working
environment.
149. Winding Production formula.
150. Reeling production formula.
Ans:
151. Some Necessary formula: