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De Jesus, Mary Anne O.

Part 1
Date Coverage: April 24-25, 2014
Meeting Topics Problems with Topics Questions to be asked Suggested Activity Reactions
April 24,
2014
Electromagnetic
Spectrum
Overcrowding
LF waves carry
little information
and susceptible to
interference
HF waves run the
risks of diffraction
The whole EM
spectrum is limited
theres a portion
that cannot simply
be used
Same frequencies
cannot be used at
the same place and
time
Transborder
Spillover
1. Is there a
research
dedicated for
the unused
portion of the
EM Spectrum?
2. Are guard
bands
contributing to
the unused
frequencies
since they keep
two adjacent
and operating
frequencies
from
overlapping
each other?
3. How do they
resolve
transborder
spillover?
4. It is just a
fleeting thought
but maybe the
concept of
frequency reuse
(in mobile
comms) can be
Professor brings it
up in the class for
discussion
Individual
consultation,
meaning the
student may
approach the
professor
regarding these
questions.
I did not
know or
consider
that EM
Spectrum is
actually a
natural
resource.
Though back
when I was
taking
earlier
comms
subjects and
knowing that
ITU allots
certain
frequencies,
it would be a
matter of
time before
the whole
spectrum
runs out.
De Jesus, Mary Anne O.

a solution for
the
overcrowding?
April 25,
2014
Microwave and
Infrared
Wave lengths of
radio light is
proportional to the
physical size of the
telescope
Microwaves can be
harmful because of
its short wavelength
which equals high
energy
Radars can be
fooled
It is still not enough
a technology to
discover
extraterrestrials
objectively
Infrared is not that
good for quick file
transfer

1. How much
microwave is
harmful to
humans?
2. Even if
microwave
cooking uses
longer
wavelengths,
isnt it harmful
nonetheless is
used for a long
time?
3. Does the
regular, baking
oven use
microwave,
too?
4. Is it true that
when calling
someone, do
not put the
cellphone near
your ears
unless they
already
answered the
call?
5. How much did
microwave
Professor brings it
up in the class for
discussion.
Individual
consultation,
meaning the
student may
approach the
professor
regarding these
questions.
It is always
nice to learn
a thing or
two about
how the
food I eat
are actually
cooked
through this
technology.
Also, it
helped me
become
more aware
of the
negative
effects of
microwaves.
Just because
they use
long
wavelengths
doesnt
mean they
are entirely
safe.
De Jesus, Mary Anne O.

technology do
in the field of
cosmic
background
exploration?

Topic Outline
1.1 Introduction to EM Spectrum
1.1.1 History of Electromagnetic Waves
Heinrich Hertz discovered electric and magnetic fields oscillating together back in 1880s.
After 10 years, Marconi utilized this as radio waves which is then the foundation to wireless
communications.
1.1.2 Definition of Electromagnetic Radiation
Electromagnetic radiation consists of electric and magnetic fields oscillating together which gives its
ability to traverse space with the absence of physical media. This also refers to the emission and
transmission of radiant energy.
1.1.3 Problems with Electromagnetic Spectrum
Overcrowding
Limited resources
Radio spectrum is becoming scarce
Transborder Spillover
Some portions of EM spectrum are not usable
1.2 Theoretical Concept
1.2.1 Waves
1.2.1.1 Composition of Waves
1.2.1.1.1 Frequency
Dictates how fast the waves are generating at a given time.
1.2.1.1.2 Wavelength
De Jesus, Mary Anne O.

Indicates the length of the wave and the amount of energy it carries.
1.2.1.2 Properties of Waves
1.2.1.2.1 Refraction
The wave changes in direction of propagation due to a change in the medium. This
usually happens in fiber optics wherein two glass tubes were not joined together
perfectly.
1.2.1.2.2 Reflection
The wave changes in direction upon hitting a different media and it returns to its
origin
1.2.1.2.3 Diffraction
It is the scattering of wave when encountering obstacles.
1.2.1.2.4 Interference
This happens when two waves form another wave some sort of a resultant wave
which has greater or lower amplitude.
1.2.2 Sources
1.2.2.1 Cosmic Bodies
Stars
Supernova
White Dwarves
1.3 EM Spectrum
1.3.1 What comprises the EM Spectrum
1.3.1.1 Radio waves
Radio waves is a band with a frequency range of 30 kHz to 300GHz which actually holds the
record for having the longest wavelength in the spectrum.
1.3.1.2 Microwave
These are a band of waves found in the electromagnetic spectrum where high frequencies are
usually found. It can be traced as a portion of the EM spectrum between the radio and the
infrared.
1.3.1.3 Infrared
De Jesus, Mary Anne O.

Like the microwave, infrared is a band in the EM spectrum wherein it is sandwiched between the
visible light and the microwave band. However, infrared is divided into two regions: the near and
far infrareds.
1.3.1.4 Visible Light
Visible light is the sole band in the spectrum that can be seen by our naked eyes. Together, they
are seen as a single white light.
1.3.1.5 Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet waves are described as a portion in the EM spectrum located in between the visible
light band and the x-ray band. The term ultra appended into the color violet actually means it is
beyond the violet region of the visible light.
1.3.1.6 Gamma Rays
This is the last portion of the Electromagnetic Spectrum characterized as having the shortest
wavelength and the highest energy among all rays. That goes without saying that it is the
deadliest.
1.4 Microwaves and Infrared
1.4.1 Microwave
1.4.1.1 Definition of Microwaves
Some of its real world applications involve mostly the use of RADAR. To name of some of
them: Active and Passive Remote Sensing, RADAR itself and the most common would be the
microwave cooking.
1.4.1.2 Applications of Microwave
Cosmic Background Explorer
Radar
Cooking
1.4.2 Infrared
1.4.2.1 Definition of Infrared
In most applications, Infrared is used for wireless communications. The TV remote control, for
instance uses infrared to control the TV from the couch. First known method of mobile to mobile
file transfer is actually through infrared.
De Jesus, Mary Anne O.

1.4.2.2 Applications of Infrared
1.4.2.2.1 Wireless Communications
Mobile File Transfer
Remote Control
1.4.2.2.2 Medicine
Treating Skin Diseases
Treating Sore Muscles
READING ASSIGNMENT
1.1 EM Spectrum
1.1.1 EM Radiation
Definition
Electromagnetic radiation consists of electric and magnetic fields oscillating together which gives its ability to
traverse space with the absence of physical media. This also refers to the emission and transmission of radiant energy.
Theory
By its name, electromagnetic it is composed of two different energies: electric and magnetic. In theory, the
two coexists with each other because they actually generate each other. This means that electric fields induces magnetic
fields and magnetic fields, likewise induces electric fields.
Description
The oscillating electric and magnetic fields are 90 apart. .
De Jesus, Mary Anne O.


Figure 1.1.1.1. Graph of the Electromagnetic Field
Properties
Like any other waves, electromagnetic radiation has these wave properties:
Reflection the wave changes in direction upon hitting a different media and it returns to its origin
Refraction the wave changes in direction of propagation due to a change in the medium. This usually
happens in fiber optics wherein two glass tubes were not joined together perfectly.
Diffraction it is the scattering of wave when encountering obstacles.
Interference this happens when two waves form another wave some sort of a resultant wave
which has greater or lower amplitude.
Sources
Like any other matter, electromagnetic radiation has to have sources. It cannot be generated out of nowhere
because it will defy the Law of Conservation of Energy. Sources of radio waves are not only found within the earth but
also beyond. Cosmic objects such as stars, quasars even black holes provide them.

1.1.2 Wireless Transmission of Morse Code
De Jesus, Mary Anne O.

Marconi started experimenting with electromagnetic waves in the 1890s ten years after Heinrich Hertz
actually discover them. He was consequently credited as the inventor of radio in the 1900s. By that time, Morse Code
had been utilized in telegraphs to send information across the world. It was a wired communication but Marconi
thought differently. Instead of seeing what they wanted him to see, he opened his mind to the possibilities. If a wired
communication is possible, then there might be a way for wireless to work, too. Since he was studying and researching
deeply about radio waves, he tried the craziest ideas send signals over long distances without the help of wires. This
earned him criticisms from his colleagues.
Apparently, the detractors discouraged him by saying that wireless communications is impossible for long
distances due to the curvature of the earth but Marconi took it as a challenge. He disproved them by sending a message,
i.e. the Morse code symbol for s and it covered over 2,000 miles from England to Canada.
1.1.3 Electromagnetic Spectrum
In the past, visible light was the only known part of the spectrum. However, come 1800s, William Herschel
discovered Infrared. By definition, electromagnetic spectrum is the distribution of electromagnetic radiation according
to energy.

Figure 1.1.3.1. Visible Light Spectrum
De Jesus, Mary Anne O.


Notice that I, indigo is gone. Most people think that it was a separate color but it is not. It was formed due to the
region between blue and violet overlapping each other.

Region of Spectrum

Figure 1.1.3.2. Complete EM Spectrum


1.1.4 Radio Waves
Brief History
De Jesus, Mary Anne O.

Radio waves is a band with a frequency range of 30 kHz to 300GHz which actually holds the record for having the
longest wavelength in the spectrum. Heinrich Hertz first discovered it through a series of experiments involving coils back in
the 1880s. Roughly 10 years after, Marconi was able to utilize radio waves as a means of wireless communication.
Consequently, Marconi was able to prove that radio waves can transmit data without the use of physical medium. Radio waves
are at around 30Hz - 30GHz.

How Radio Waves Work
Gugliemo Marconi opened the road to wireless communications. Because of his experiment in transmitting "s" over
2000 miles worth of distance, it proved that information can be "mounted" on radio waves and let it travel all around the globe
to its destination. However, there is the factor of frequencies. Low frequencies carry very little information while higher
frequencies can carry more. One might think that using higher frequencies is definitely better and that is for another discussion.
There are many ways of embedding information into these waves: (1) Amplitude modulation carries data by varying the
amplitude or height of the wave. The most basic information to be transmitted is the binary number - 1 or 0. If the data is 1,
then that particular instance has a high amplitude wave. If the data is 0, then that particular instance has a low amplitude wave.
In AM, frequency will always be constant. (2) As for the frequency modulation, information is stored by means of varying the
frequency or the closeness of the waves from each other. If the data is 1, then the frequency is higher. If the data is slower, the
frequency is faster. In FM, the amplitude will always be constant.

1.1.5 LF Waves
Advantages and Disadvantages
De Jesus, Mary Anne O.

Low frequency waves are variations of radio waves. It is characterized by very long wavelengths that reach about ten
kilometers. An advantage of these waves in general is that aside from being able to travel greater distances than any other
waves, it can travel close to the ground. This means that any diffraction or absorption that are commonly experience by HF
waves is totally not working to LF waves. Military uses these kind of waves mostly for their two-way radio communications,
especially if two stations are too far apart for any physical contact.

However, LF waves are at a disadvantage in terms of information capacity. Longer wavelengths have to suffer the
disability to carry huge amount of data because frequency is associated to the information capacity. Aside from that, these
waves are very susceptible to interferences. This is why the military has devised certain commands known as 10-Q codes to
replace normal speeches into number codes for easy communication. Against actual words, numbers contain lesser syllables to
pronounce, hence, lesser information to transmit.

1.1.6 VHF Waves
Advantages and Disadvantages
High frequency waves are characterized by short wavelengths that can actually reach around 10-12 m in length and that
is truly short. However, with these waves, information capacity is considerably higher. This is why HF waves are very popular
and very much in demand in business. Because LF waves can travel great distances, this does not mean HF cannot. In
actuality, the "shortness" of the HF waves enables it to bounce between the ionosphere and the earth. Strategically spheriod,
the earth terrain enables these short bursts of waves to bounce around its curve and essentially travel long distances as good as
these LF waves. High frequency waves are commonly used in deep space exploration to enhance the sensitivity of the
telescopes. Also, it is being utilized in orbit-spectrum resources such as satellite to give coverage to the whole world.
De Jesus, Mary Anne O.

However, working in the outer space has it tolls, too, even on waves. VHF waves which can penetrate clouds, haze,
light etc. can enter space and into the satellite. However, space is not exactly clean per se, and in fact, full of dust particles that
that interfere with the traveling waves. Aside from that, raindrops in the atmosphere can diffract these waves and eventually
lose information.

1.2 Microwave and Infrared
1.2.1 Microwaves
Definition
These are a band of waves found in the electromagnetic spectrum where high frequencies are usually found. It can be
traced as a portion of the EM spectrum between the radio and the infrared.
Application
Some of its real world applications involve mostly the use of RADAR. To name of some of them: Active and Passive
Remote Sensing, RADAR itself and the most common would be the microwave cooking. Microwave ovens generally use
longer wavelengths. It was learned that short wavelengths give off more energy and thus, more harmful to the human body due
to the amount of radiation. So, microwave ovens uses longer wavelengths enough to force water, fats and sugar molecules to
move. This motion causes the food to heat up. Since microwaves are reflected by most metals, the casing are usually so. The
frequency to heat food is around 2.45 GHz. However, shorter waves do have a use. RADARs sent short bursts of microwaves
within its fixed radius. When a microwave hits an object, an echo is generated by the object. This echo actually contains
information about the object such as its size and location. The information is then recorded by the radar.

1.2.2 Infrared
Definition
De Jesus, Mary Anne O.

Like the microwave, infrared is a band in the EM spectrum wherein it is sandwiched between the visible light and the
microwave band. However, infrared is divided into two regions: the near and far infrareds. Near infrared is characterized by its
proximity to the visible light band while the far infrared is characterized by its proximity to the microwave band.
Application
In most applications, Infrared is used for wireless communications. The TV remote control, for instance uses infrared to
control the TV from the couch. First known method of mobile to mobile file transfer is actually through infrared. Optical
mouse and other computer peripherals also use infrared. In the field of medicine, doctors use infrared lamps to treat their
patients who were suffering from skin diseases. The discoloration caused by the red light enabled them to see the type of
disease they have. In some cases, sore muscles are also treated by it. The heat generated by the IR light passes through the skin
of the patient.

1.2.3 Parkes Radio Telescope
History
This telescope was built in the year 1961. Though with the fast-paced advancement in technology required the internal
controls to upgrade, its structure was left the same. As of now, it is being operated by CASS (CSIRO Astronomy and Space
Science).
Application
Back in 1961, it was unable to give high definition images due to the big wavelengths of radio waves, as discussed
earlier. Now, it is being utilize din Radio Astronomy. Since there is no good medium in space, not to mention there are no
repeaters, radio waves are very weak by the time they reach the atmosphere of the earth. Coupled with various interferences
found in this world it is really impossible to generate a clearer image of the waves. However, with the upgraded telescope, the
signals are processed by the computers and uses it to generate pictures of objects in space.
De Jesus, Mary Anne O.

Trivia
The dish is not fixed to the top of its tower, rather sits on it. Also, the telescope due to upgrades is now a raging
thousand times more sensitive than its former self.

Figure 1.2.3.1 Parkes Radio Telescope
1.2.4 Cosmic Background Explorer
Trivia
o Thanks to microwaves and the technology to access them, the Universe overflowing with microwave radiation can
now be perused. Scientists found out remains of the supposed theory of how the Universe came to be The Big Bang. If
you turn your TV on a blank channel, a small amount of the static sound there is apparently from the remains.
De Jesus, Mary Anne O.

o This is actually a device developed by NASAs Goddard Space Flight center wherein its goal is to measure the radiations
from both infrared and microwave from the earliest known Universe that is around 14 Billion years ago up to the
futuristic supposed universe.
o It was launched back in November 18, 1989.
o It consisted of three major instruments:
DIRBE (Diffused Infrared Background Experiment)
>Discovered cosmic interference background or known as CIB
DMR (Differential Microwave Radiometer
>Discovered galaxies, galaxy structures (spiral, twins, discs) etc.
FIRAS (Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer)
>Discovered the radiant energy released within the first year of the supposed Big Bang

1.3 References

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Science Mission Directorate. (2010). Radio Waves. Retrieved April 26, 2014,
from
Mission:Science website: http://missionscience.nasa.gov/ems/05_radiowaves.html

Communications System. (n.d.). What are radio waves?. Retrieved April 26, 2014, from
http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/projects/vss/docs/communications/1-what-are-radio-waves.html

Electromagnetic Radiation. (n.d.). Electromagnetic Radiation. Retrieved April 26, 2014, from
http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/electromagnetic_radiation.html

O'Connell, R. (n.d.). 2. INTRODUCTION TO TELESCOPES. ASTR 1230, O'CONNELL [FALL 2011]. Lecture Notes. Retrieved
April 26, 2014, from https://www.astro.virginia.edu/class/oconnell/astr1230/telescopes.html

De Jesus, Mary Anne O.

Marconi sends first Atlantic wireless transmission. (n.d.). History.com. Retrieved April 26, 2014, from
http://www.history.com/this-
day-in-history/marconi-sends-first-atlantic-wireless-transmission

Marconi receives radio signal over Atlantic. (n.d.). PBS. Retrieved April 26, 2014, from
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dt01ma.html

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Science Mission Directorate. (2010). Microwaves. Retrieved April 26, 2014,
from
Mission:Science website: http://missionscience.nasa.gov/ems/06_microwaves.html

Michaud, P. (1999, February 8). Infrared Radiation - Warmth From The Cold of Space. What is Infrared Radiation?.
Retrieved April 26, 2014, from http://www.gemini.edu/public/infrared.html

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2008, June 28). LAMBDA. Retrieved April 26, 2014, from
http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/cobe/

CSIRO. (2011, April 19). <i>About 'the Dish'</i>. Retrieved April 26, 2014, from
http://www.csiro.au/Portals/Education/Programs/Parkes-Radio-Telescope/About-the-Dish.aspx

Kaine-Krolak, M., & Novak, M. (n.d.). An Introduction to Infrared Technology: Applications in the Home, Classroom,
Workplace,
and Beyond .... An Introduction to Infrared Technology: Applications in the Home, Classroom, Workplace, and Beyond ....
Retrieved April 26, 2014, from http://trace.wisc.edu/docs/ir_intro/ir_intro.htm