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Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - SS

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&'()*+, -


!"#$%&'( *+!+ ,-./&0 !+ 1'2-3/40 5 6+ 7+ */48/&

Euitois note: This chaptei is fiom the 0niveisity of Califoinia's IPN website at http:www.ipm.ucuavis.euuinuex.html
Please iefei to this website foi cuiient infoimation as this website is upuateu quite often.

Pathogen: !"##$%"%&'()*+ -#"$"./"&'"'0$.

79:;36:7 12. 7<=27
Anthiacnose symptoms can uevelop on floweis, fiuit, leaves, oi twigs. Infecteu fiuit is the
most seiious concein, but most fiuit uamage uoes not uevelop until aftei haivest. Exteinal
symptoms aie uifficult to see on iipe 'Baas' fiuit because of its uaik skin coloi. 0nhealthy
oi ueau leaves aie the most obvious symptom in gioves. Spots foim on leaves, beginning as
yellow, then biown uiscoloiations that coalesce into laige ueau aieas. Neciosis occuis
acioss oi between leaf veins, on leaf maigins, anu most often at leaf tips. If uisease is
seveie, tiees uiop many leaves piematuiely. New shoots can uevelop biown oi puiplish
lesions, anu shoots may uieback. Infecteu flowei heaus can tuin uaik anu uie without
piouucing fiuit, oi young fiuit may foim anu then uiop.
Befoie haivest, biown to black lesions less than u.2 inch (S mm) in uiametei uevelop
aiounu lenticels on infecteu fiuit. These small uiscoloiations can be oveilookeu while fiuit
aie still on the tiee, anu lesions usually uo not enlaige until fiuit iipens aftei haivest. Laige
lesions sometimes occui on avocauos on the tiee, usually aftei infecteu fiuit is injuieu by
insects oi mechanical winu iubbing.
Aftei haivest, lesions become blackei, laigei, anu incieasingly sunken. Lesions eventually
spieau ovei the entiie fiuit suiface anu thioughout pulp. When the fiuit is cut in half
thiough one of the lesions, iot extenuing into the flesh often exhibits a hemispheiical
pattein. Becayeu pulp initially is fiim, but becomes soft anu putiiu as uecay auvances. Pink
spoie masses may foim on the fiuit suiface anu, unuei wet conuitions, a slimy mass of pink
spoies eiupts thiough the fiuit skin.
&6::8237 62 348 .<78178
!"##$%"%&'()*+ -#"$"./"&'"'0$. is wiuespieau in avocauo anu citius gioves. It noimally is of
little impoitance because unusually laige numbeis of spoies aie iequiieu to piouuce
uamaging infections. Low humiuity anu no iain uuiing much of the giowing season limit
uisease uevelopment in Califoinia. With extenueu foggy oi iainy conuitions anu milu
wintei tempeiatuies, anu wheie many ueau leaves anu twigs anu mummifieu fiuit
accumulate in tiees, the fungus can piouuce enough spoies to cause a uisease pioblem.
Spoies spieau in splashing watei anu can cause infection anytime fiom fiuit set to haivest.
Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - S6
0nce infecteu fiuit staits to iipen, tempeiatuies of 7SF anu above will acceleiate
anthiacnose uevelopment, while tempeiatuies below S9F ietaiu uisease uevelopment.
Fueite, Rincon, anu Wuitz scion cultivais aie moie susceptible to anthiacnose than Bass.
Bealthy tiees often iecovei fiom foliai infections anu uefoliation once conuitions become
uiy. Anthiacnose becomes a posthaivest pioblem aftei the giove has been excessively wet
foi extenueu peiious. Pooi giowing piactices anu mishanuling of fiuit uuiing oi aftei
haivest gieatly inciease the potential foi significant fiuit loss.
Contiol anthiacnose piimaiily with goou cultuial piactices in the giove anu piopei
piehaivest anu posthaivest fiuit hanuling. Piune out ueau limbs anu twigs wheie fungi
spoiulate. If many ueau leaves aie entwineu in the canopy, knock them out of the tiee.
Piune low limbs to at least 2 feet (6u cm) off the giounu to ieuuce humiuity within
canopies by impioving aii ciiculation. Bispose of ueau woou anu olu fiuit away fiom
avocauo tiees befoie bloom. Piune anu haivest only uuiing uiy conuitions anu minimize
fiuit contamination anu injuiy.
Posthaivest tieatments shoulu not be neeueu if fiuit is piopeily hanuleu. Keep fiuit uiy
anu cool until solu. Posthaivest tempeiatuie is especially ciitical to anthiacnose
uevelopment. Cool fiuit to 41F as soon as possible aftei haivest. Belays of longei than 6
houis befoie cooling anu highei pulp (aii) tempeiatuies uuiing these uelays will iesult in
incieaseu posthaivest fiuit uecay. Cooling fiuit piomptly is of incieasing impoitance as the
season piogiesses because fiuit iipens fastei as it incieases in matuiity. Avoiu stoiage
tempeiatuies below 41F because chilling injuiy may occui. Naiket fiuit iapiuly.
&'+>/?(@ &"A*,"@: Anthiacnose is iaiely significant enough in Califoinia avocauo gioves to
waiiant fungiciue application. Coppei compounus thoioughly spiayeu on healthy tissue
can pievent infection.
&">>"A A(>+ 1>"BA*C1?,+ 5D8D<DE ;D4D<DE
F*,(G+ A(>+H F'"B,0H FG(I0H

9$/4 :$%%';4< - =/'#;:;8/0 :%4';8/& ;4>%&?-#;%4 &/3-#;4< #% /4@;&%4?/4#-3 ;?=-:#+ A%# -33 &/<;'#/&/8 =/'#;:;8/' -&/
3;'#/8+ !3B-C' &/-8 3-./3 %> =&%8":# ./;4< "'/8+

(BlueShielu, Champ, Kociue, etc.) Label iates 24 u
): Nulti-site contact (N1)
C0NNENTS: Apply as a tiunk spiay. Nake the fiist application at the stait of the giowing season anu iepeat eveiy 6u
uays. Repeat applications at 6u uays aie impoitant; a single tiunk spiay is not sufficient to aiiest the uisease. Bo not
exceeu 2u lbacieyeai.

+ Restiicteu entiy inteival (R.E.I.) is the numbei of houis (unless otheiwise noteu) fiom tieatment until the tieateu aiea
can be safely enteieu without piotective clothing. Piehaivest inteival (P.B.I.) is the numbei of uays fiom tieatment
until haivest. In some cases the REI exceeus the PBI. The longei of these two inteivals is the minimum time that must
elapse befoie haivest.
uioup numbeis aie assigneu by the Fungiciue Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) accoiuing to uiffeient moues of
actions (foi moie infoimation, see Fungiciues with a uiffeient gioup numbei aie suitable to
Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - S7
alteinate in a iesistance management piogiam. In Califoinia, make no moie than one application of fungiciues with
moue of action uioup numbeis 1, 4, 9, 11, oi 17 befoie iotating to a fungiciue with a uiffeient moue of action uioup
numbei; foi fungiciues with othei uioup numbeis, make no moie than two consecutive applications befoie iotating to
fungiciue with a uiffeient moue of action uioup numbei.

PRECA0TI0NS (see last page of this chaptei)

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - S8
15:<JJ15<1 5663 563 F6(# 5""* KBALB0H
Pathogen1 2&+'##3&'3 +$##$3

79:;36:7 12. 7<=27
Aimillaiia is a soil-boine fungus that causes a ioot anu tiunk iot of avocauo. The fungus
can become well establisheu in ioots anu the ioot ciown befoie any symptoms become
visible above giounu. Infecteu tiees usually uie piematuiely, anu young tiees often uie
quickly aftei infection. Natuie tiees may uie quickly oi slowly, oi may iecovei at least
tempoiaiily if conuitions become goou foi tiee giowth anu pooi foi uisease uevelopment.
Wilteu, uownwaiu-hanging foliage is often the fiist obvious symptom of Aimillaiia ioot iot.
0thei symptoms incluue foliage yellowing, leaf uiop, anu uieback of uppei limbs. Buiing
the iainy fall anu wintei, gioups of shoit-liveu mushiooms often giow aiounu the base of
2&+'##3&'3-infecteu tiees.
The most ieliable sign of Aimillaiia ioot iot is fungal giowth in cambial tissue. If tiees
exhibit abovegiounu symptoms of infection, cut off baik at the base of the tiee anu ciown
to uiagnose the piesence of 2&+'##3&'3 mycelium. Fungal mycelia aie whitish anu have a
stiong mushioom ouoi. uiowth typically occuis in patches in the cambium anu innei baik.
Laige ioots can be infecteu thioughout theii uiametei.
&6::8237 62 348 .<78178
Aimillaiia ioot iot infects many ciops anu native anu oinamental plants. Common hosts
incluue avocauo, cheiimoya, citius, anu oaks. The fungus peisists in infesteu ioots anu
woou in soil, infecting new plantings anu spieauing to infect neaiby plants.
2&+'##3&'3 mycelium peisist foi yeais unuei the baik of uiseaseu ioots oi the ioot ciown.
The fungus spieaus fiom tiee to tiee mainly by ihizomoiphs giowing along oi out fiom
uiseaseu ioots anu eventually contacting anu infecting the healthy ioots of aujacent tiees.
2&+'##3&'3 also spieaus by any activity that moves soil containing infesteu woou fiagments,
such as uuiing cultivation.
Long aftei the aeiial paits of a tiee aie gone, 2&+'##3&'3 can iemain alive in ioots anu
stumps. When avocauo tiees aie planteu, new ioots giow into contact with 2&+'##3&'3-
infecteu ioots oi infesteu woou pieces, anu the new tiee becomes infecteu. 2&+'##3&'3 can
also be intiouuceu on infecteu nuiseiy stock.
2&+'##3&'3 can spieau by ioot-to-ioot giafts anu by coiulike ihizomoiphs, which iesemble
small uaik ioots. In contiast, healthy avocauo ioots aie lightei-coloieu, usually light biown
to whitish. When pulleu apait, ihizomoiphs have a cottony inteiioi, while the centei of a
healthy ioot is soliu anu woouy. Rhizomoiphs giow on buiieu woou, the suiface of
uiseaseu ioots anu ioot ciowns, anu shoit uistances on oi thiough soil. Infection occuis
when ihizomoiphs contact anu uiiectly penetiate the ioot baik.

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - S9
Look foi uiseases anu uisease-piomoting conuitions iegulaily thioughout the giove (see
giowing enviionment anu piopei cultuial piactices anu use goou sanitation to manage
Aimillaiia ioot iot. Pioviuing goou uiainage anu avoiuing excess iiiigation aie impoitant4
2&+'##3&'3 fungus is veiy susceptible to uiying. Excavating soil aiounu the tiunk to
tempoiaiily aii-uiy the ioot ciown can piolong the life of citius tiees anu may also be
effective on avocauo, but appaiently has not been testeu on avocauo. Shaue any exposeu
ioot ciowns fiom sunbuin. 0nce tiees uie, iemove them anu any immeuiately aujacent
tiees that may also be infecteu. Remove the stumps anu as many ioot pieces fiom the soil
as possible. Thoioughly clean all soil fiom equipment anu leave soil on-site befoie
iemoving equipment. Consiuei ieplanting only with ciops not susceptible to 2&+'##3&'34

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 6u
1M6&1.6 !J1&N 73581N
Pathogen: unknown

79:;36:7 12. 7<=27
Black stieak appeais as an elongateu uaik uiscoloiation on baik. Small cankeis can uevelop
in a uiiection that paiallels the uiiection of limb oi tiunk giowth but sometimes cankeis
enciicle limbs oi the tiunk. 0n gieen shoots anu young tiees, lesions look like black
blotches with uistinct maigins. Cankeieu baik uevelops shallow ciacks that ooze sap,
which uiies as a biownish oi white powuei on the baik suiface. This exuuate is ieauily
washeu off by iain oi spiinkleis, anu in the absence of the powuei the cankei can be
uifficult to see exteinally on baik. Black stieak lesions can be veiy small oi encompass the
gieatei pait of the tiunk. Cankeis often fiist appeai on the lowei tiunk anu the unueisiue
of lowei limbs anu then latei appeai highei in the tiee. Sciaping off baik ovei the cankei
ieveals shallow ieuuish biown to black aieas. This uiscoloiing foims mottleu aieas of ueau
anu live tissue oi meiges into one laige neciotic aiea. It iaiely extenus into the woou anu
can be iemoveu easily by inseiting a knife blaue unuei the cankei anu piying upwaius.
Because tiees can uie with veiy few lesions, the lesions appeai to be a symptom of the
uisease anu not the cause of tiee ueath.
&6::8237 62 348 .<78178
Black stieak uevelops unuei auveise giowing conuitions anu is a seiious uisease that can
kill avocauo tiees. The specific cause of the uisease is unknown anu appaiently is not a
viioiu as was pieviously believeu.
Nany symptoms of avocauo black stieak aie similai to those fiom othei causes; the
appeaiance of the cankeis is the most uiagnostic chaiacteiistic of this uisease. Avocauo
black stieak appeais aftei piolongeu peiious of enviionmental oi cultuial stiess, especially
conuitions of high salinity anu insufficient watei. An affecteu tiee can uecline giauually anu
may eventually uie, oi it may collapse anu uie iapiuly. Conveisely, with impioveu cultuial
piactices tiees can iecovei anu symptoms can viitually uisappeai.
Avocauo black stieak may occui wheievei uuatemalan cultivais aie giown in Califoinia. All
ages of tiees aie affecteu, anu symptoms have been obseiveu on tiees ianging fiom 1 yeai
to ovei SS yeais olu. Nany gioves aie appaiently fiee of the uisease, anu uisease inciuence
vaiies consiueiably within affecteu gioves. Avocauo black stieak symptoms typically aie
most seveie on tiees that appeai to be the most stiesseu.
Cuiient management of avocauo black stieak consists of maintaining plant health with
goou feitilizei anu iiiigation piactices, anu pieventing stiess. Auequate iiiigation with high
quality watei is believeu to be especially impoitant.

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 61
1M6&1.6 5663 563 F;'I*")'*',"( 5""* 5"*H
Pathogen: 5)6%"/)%)"&3 ('773+"+'

79:;36:7 12. 7<=27
Foliai symptoms of avocauo ioot iot incluue small, pale gieen oi yellowish leaves. Leaves
often wilt anu have biown, neciotic tips. Foliage is spaise anu new giowth is iaie. Theie
may be little leaf littei unuei infecteu tiees. Small bianches uie back in the tiee top,
exposing othei bianches anu fiuit to sunbuin because of the lack of shauing foliage. Fiuit
piouuction ueclines, but uiseaseu tiees fiequently set a heavy ciop of small fiuit.
Small, fibious feeuei ioots aie scaice at auvanceu stages of this uisease. Wheie piesent,
small ioots aie black, biittle, anu ueau fiom infection. Foliage is wilteu even when soil
unuei uiseaseu tiees is wet. Affecteu tiees will uecline anu often uie eithei iapiuly oi
&6::8237 62 348 .<78178
Phytophthoia ioot iot is the most seiious anu impoitant uisease of avocauo woiluwiue.
The causal agent, 5)6%"/)%)"&3 ('773+"+'8 has ovei 1,uuu hosts, incluuing many species of
annual flowei ciops, beiiies, ueciuuous fiuit tiees, oinamentals, anu vegetables.
Root iot thiives in aieas of excess soil moistuie anu pooi uiainage. Tiees of any size anu
age may be affecteu. The pathogen is easily spieau thiough movement of contaminateu
nuiseiy stock of avocauo anu othei plants, on equipment anu shoes, in seeu fiom fiuit lying
on infesteu soil, oi by any activity by people oi animals that moves moist soil fiom one
place to anothei. 5)6%"/)%)"&3 piouuces foui uiffeient spoie stages that aie involveu in
uisease uevelopment anu suivival: spoiangia, zoospoies, chlamyuospoies, anu oospoies.
They spieau easily anu iapiuly in watei moving ovei oi thiough the soil. Entiie aieas can
ieauily become infesteu. 5)6%"/)%)"&3 species aie not tiue fungi but have many fungal-like
Look foi uiseases anu uisease-piomoting conuitions iegulaily thioughout the giove by
appioach that emphasizes pievention. Puichase ceitifieu uisease-fiee nuiseiy stock (if
available) anu ioot iot-iesistant cultivais. Inspect ioots befoie planting anu if theii health
appeais questionable seek auvice fiom a faim auvisoi oi piivate consultant befoie planting
tiees. Employ stiingent sanitation measuies, goou cultuial piactices, anu appiopiiate
chemical contiols. The most impoitant contiol of this uisease is goou iiiigation
management. Foi example, wheie new tiees aie inteiplanteu among oluei tiees, sepaiate
iiiigation lines aie neeueu to insuie appiopiiate iiiigation timing anu amounts foi the
uiffeient ageu tiees.
&B@*B,(@ &"A*,"@0 0se cultuial piactices that piomote giowth of the tiee while
uiscouiaging giowth of the pathogen.
;,"O/G+ P(O",(Q@+ 0"/@ ?"AG/*/"A0D In new plantings, avoiu soils favoiable to ioot iot
Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 62
uevelopment, incluuing pooily uiaineu, saline, oi pathogen-infesteu soils. Plant on well-
uiaineu soil, oi impiove uiainage by planting on a soil beim, ueep-iipping impeivious
subsoils, oi installing subsuiface uiains. In establisheu plantings, manage soils caiefully so
that excess moistuie uoes not accumulate.
R0+ ?+,*/P/+G G/0+(0+SP,++ AB,0+,I 0*"?#D Request ceitifieu, uisease-fiee plants, especially
when planting new aieas, because uisease is especially uamaging to young tiees. Nuiseiies
shoulu uisinfest piopagation mateiial, such as by immeising seeu in watei at 12u to 122F
foi Su minutes anu then quickly cooling it. Nuiseiies shoulu also use pasteuiizeu soil mix,
clean iiiigation watei fiom ueep wells oi uisinfesteu suiface watei, anu stiingent
sanitation to pievent pathogen intiouuction anu spieau. Nuiseiies that iely only on
fungiciues foi uisease pievention can piomote fungiciue iesistance anu piouuce
symptomless plants with infections that uevelop aftei planting.
;@(A* ,+0/0*(A* ,""*0*"?#0D Ceitain iootstock cultivais aie moie toleiant of ioot iot,
incluuing Busa, Latas, anu otheis. Newei iecommenueu cultivais such as 0zi anu Zentmyei
may also be available. Baii Buke, Buke 7, anu Buke 9 can also be goou iootstocks but have
less 5)6%"/)%)"&3-iesistance than some newei cultivais. To obtain iootstocks with
maximum iesistance to avocauo ioot iot, choose iootstocks piouuceu by a nuiseiy using
the clonal methou because clones of iecommenueu cultivais aie moie iesistant than
seeulings. Be awaie that iesistant iootstocks aie not immune to ioot iot; if they aie planteu
oi maintaineu unuei auveise conuitions, they may be killeu by the combination of auveise
conuitions anu the pathogen.
;,+O+A* 0"/@ ", T(*+, >"O+>+A* P,"> /AP+0*+G (,+(0D Excluuing 54 ('773+"+' fiom an
uninfesteu giove is the most economical contiol methou. Install watei-tight uiains to uiveit
suiface iunoff if a uiseaseu aiea lies above a healthy giove. Contiol gopheis, as theii
buiiows can pioviue means of moving the fungus in watei. Bo not woik in infesteu gioves
when the soil suiface is wet; 5)6%"/)%)"&3 is ieauily spieau by activities such as walking oi
uiiving on infesteu wet soil. Biing only clean bins anu equipment into gioves. Begin
haivesting anu othei activities in healthy aieas of the giove; woik in uiseaseu aieas last to
minimize pathogen movement.
7"/@ 0"@(,/U(*/"AD Soil solaiization can be effective foi tieating infesteu soil following tiee
iemoval in waim inlanu aieas of Califoinia thiough a piocess in which iauiant heat fiom
the sun is tiappeu unuei cleai polythene sheets laiu on the suiface of the soil. Solaiization
is effective when soil tempeiatuies in the top 2 inches of soil ieach between 1u8 to 1S1F.
80*(Q@/0' ( Q(,,/+,D If the fungus occuis in only one aiea of the giove anu cannot spieau
uownhill in suiface iunoff oi uiainage watei, eiect a physical baiiiei anu post waining
signs to pievent people anu activities fiom spieauing the fungus into piotecteu aieas.
Establish the baiiiei aiounu healthy sections of the giove, at least two tiee iows beyonu
wheie tests inuicate the fungus is piesent.
<,,/L(*+ ?(,+PB@@ID Appiopiiate iiiigation is the single most ciitical piactice foi impioving
tiee health anu managing ioot iot. Scheuule iiiigation fiequency anu amount using
Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 6S
sophisticateu methous, such as baseu on local evapotianspiiation oi by installing soil
moistuie monitoiing uevices, such as tensiometeis. uoou iiiigation management is
especially impoitant wheie tiees aie uiseaseu, neai the maigins of uiseaseu aieas of
gioves, anu beneath thick mulch. It may be necessaiy to ieplace iiiigation emitteis aiounu
unhealthy tiees by installing lowei output spiinkleis to avoiu satuiating the soil. Bo not
watei soil that is alieauy wet because it will become wateiloggeu anu acceleiate uisease.
R0+ '/L'SVB(@/*I /,,/L(*/"A T(*+,D Iiiigation watei with high oveiall salinity oi an excess
of boion, chloiiue, oi souium piomotes infection of ioots by 5)6%"/)%)"&34 5)6%"/)%)"&3
can contaminate iiiigation watei, such as suiface watei that is iunoff fiom infesteu soil.
The extia cost of puichasing high quality watei can often be justifieu by ieuuceu uisease
anu incieaseu ciop quality anu yielu.
1))@I LI)0B> (AG >B@?'D Cieate soil conuitions that suppiess uevelopment of
Phytophthoia ioot iot. Apply gypsum unuei the canopy of each tiee, peihaps 2S lb beneath
a meuium-size tiee. Apply at least 4 to 6 inches of coaise oiganic mulch onto soil beneath
canopies, but keep mulch seveial inches away fiom the tiunk. 0se coaise oiganic mulch
such as avocauo tiimmings, composteu gieenwaste (yaiu tiimmings), oi haiuwoou chips.
Nulching piomotes uevelopment of beneficial miciooiganisms antagonistic to
5)6%"/)%)"&3 ('773+"+' anu ieuuces the auveise effects of saline soil anu watei. uypsum
supplies calcium, which suppiesses the foimation of 5)6%"/)%)"&3 spoies. Apply mulch anu
gypsum when the oichaiu is being establisheu. Consiuei peiiouically applying auuitional
mulch containing mostly giounu woou, which pioviues bettei 5)6%"/)%)"&3 contiol than
natuially uioppeu leaves. Reapply gypsum as the olu mateiial uissolves fiom view.
;,"O/G+ ()),"),/(*+ AB*,/*/"A. Noueiate amounts of nitiogen piomote goou giowth that
helps avocauo bettei toleiate ioot iot. Avoiu excess amounts of feitilizei, especially avoiu
laige amounts of animal manuies oi othei piouucts high in ammonia oi salts. Avocauo
ioots aie sensitive to ammonia anu salts.
5"*(*+ ?,")0. Replanting infesteu soil to iesistant ciops foi at least seveial yeais ieuuces
avocauo ioot iot piopagules in soil. The fungus has a wiue host iange, but plants such as
cheiimoya, citius, anu peisimmon aie highly iesistant to the 5)6%"/)%)"&3 sp. causing
5)6%"/)%)"&3 ioot iot in avocauo.
&'+>/?(@ ?"A*,"@. Ceitain phosphonate fungiciues (phosphoious aciu anu phosphonate
compounus) can maikeuly impiove tiees' ability to toleiate, iesist, oi iecovei fiom
infection by 5)6%"/)%)"&3 ('773+"+'4 uoou contiol iequiies using fungiciues in
combination with othei iecommenueu piactices, such as caieful iiiigation piactices anu
applying woou chip mulch. Phosphonates cannot eiauicate 5)6%"/)%)"&3 fiom the giove
anu avocauo ioot iot iequiies ongoing management thioughout the life of the tiees.
If only a few tiees aie affecteu, anu the uisease is uetecteu eaily, tiees can be cut off at
giounu level anu the soil fumigateu with the maximum iate of fumigant. Bowevei,
eiauication of 54 ('773+"+' fiom infesteu fielu soil is extiemely uifficult anu fumigation is
not iecommenueu. 0ften 54 ('773+"+' ie-invaues fumigateu soil anu the avocauo ioot iot
Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 64
becomes woise than befoie because the soil miciobial community anu competing
miciooiganisms have been ieuuceu by the fumigation.
1))@/?(*/"A >+*'"G0. vaiying with the piouuct label, phosphite fungiciues may be
spiayeu onto baik oi foliage, injecteu into soil with iiiigation watei (chemigation), oi
injecteu into tiunk vasculai tissue. If peimitteu on the piouuct label, piopei tiunk injection
is geneially the most effective application methou when tieating seveiely uiseaseu tiees.
Piopei application timing is ciitical. Phosphites can move both up anu uown within plants.
To inuuce phosphites to move to ioots, apply phosphites piioi to initiation of new ioot
giowth. This effective application time is when about thiee-fouiths of leaf flush is complete
oi just as new leaves haiuen, usually in late spiing (Nay) anu summei (August). 0ptimal
application uates vaiy accoiuing to local conuitions. If applieu uuiing eaily flush oi when
many new leaves aie flushing, most of the phosphite will move to leaves anu pioviue little
5)6%"/)%)"&3 contiol. If injecteu when new leaves aie haiuening, phosphites will move
upwaiu in the xylem stieam, then move uownwaiu in the phloem wheie they can
encouiage healthy new ioot giowth.
Inject tiunks using piopei equipment, such as spiing poweieu oi gas poweieu (C02)
injectois. Biill ielatively small uiametei holes to the uepth of the uiill bit, at a slightly
uownwaiu anu siuewise angle so that moie of the phosphonate mateiial is uepositeu in the
outei woou. Laigei holes uo not heal piopeily anu continuous weeping anu bacteiial
infection in the holes often occuis. Biill holes into smooth sections of the tiunk oi main
limbs, avoiuing knots anu siue bianches. Wheie feasible, locate holes above any tiunk aiea
that is wetteu by mini-spiinkleis to facilitate injection wounu closuie.
Application (spiaying) uiiectly onto baik is usually not effective foi managing avocauo ioot
iot. Baik application may be moie effective in managing the tiunk cankei fungus
5)6%"/)%)"&3 ('%&'("#34 Application thiough the iiiigation system is moie effective in
slowing uown the spieau of avocauo ioot iot uisease than it is in contiolling uisease in
alieauy infecteu tiees.

&">>"A A(>+ 1>"BA*C1?,+ 5D8D<DE ;D4D<DE
F*,(G+ A(>+H F'"B,0H FG(I0H

9$/4 :$%%';4< - =/'#;:;8/0 :%4';8/& ;4>%&?-#;%4 &/3-#;4< #% /4@;&%4?/4#-3 ;?=-:#+

ADA*1!EFA6 GE117
(Aliette) WBu Biench: S oz1u gal 12 S6S
(Aliette) WBu Foliai: S lb1uu gal 12 S6S
C0NNENTS: Foi uiench application: apply 1 qt pei pot oi sleeve of each tiee 2-S uays befoie tiansplanting. Foi foliai
application: begin application at tiansplanting oi the stait of the giowing season anu continue foi up to 4
applicationsyeai at 6u-uay inteivals.

*1!EFA6 GE117
(Agii-fos, Fosphite) 1-2 qt 4 u
Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 6S
): Phosphonate (SS)
C0NNENTS: Bo not apply with coppei-baseu fungiciues oi feitilizeis; allow 1u uays befoie applying coppei-baseu
compounu aftei phosphoious aciu tieatment oi 2u uays befoie applying phosphoious aciu aftei coppei tieatment. Bo
not apply to uoimant oi heat- oi moistuie-stiesseu tiees.

(Aliette) WBu S lb 12 12 houis
C0NNENTS: Begin application at the stait of the giowing season anu iepeat eveiy 6u uays. Bo not exceeu 2u

(Riuomil uolu) EC Label iates 48
u - uiench;
28 - chemigation
): Phenylamiue (4)
C0NNENTS: Apply as a uiench oi by chemigation. Tiials inuicate this mateiial is less effective on oluei tiees, but is
effective foi a few yeais on young tiees that have been ieplanteu into 5)6%"/)%)"&3-infesteu soil.

+ Restiicteu entiy inteival (R.E.I.) is the numbei of houis (unless otheiwise noteu) fiom tieatment until the tieateu aiea
can be safely enteieu without piotective clothing. Piehaivest inteival (P.B.I.) is the numbei of uays fiom tieatment to
haivest. In some cases the REI exceeus the PBI. The longei of two inteivals is the minimum time that must elapse
befoie haivest.
uioup numbeis aie assigneu by the Fungiciue Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) accoiuing to uiffeient moues of
actions (foi moie infoimation, see Fungiciues with a uiffeient gioup numbei aie suitable to
alteinate in a iesistance management piogiam. In Califoinia, make no moie than one application of fungiciues with
moue of action uioup numbeis 1, 4, 9, 11, oi 17 befoie iotating to a fungiciue with a uiffeient moue of action uioup
numbei; foi fungiciues with othei uioup numbeis, make no moie than two consecutive applications befoie iotating to
fungiciue with a uiffeient moue of action uioup numbei.

PRECA0TI0NS (see last page of this chaptei)

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 66
!1&385<1J &12N85
Pathogen: 937%)"+"73.

79:;36:7 12. 7<=27
Bacteiial cankeis appeai as slightly sunken, uaik aieas on the baik anu vaiy in size fiom
about 1 to 4 inches in uiametei. Baik aiounu cankeis may ciack. Fluiu often oozes anu
uiies, leaving a white powuei aiounu oi ovei the lesion. 0sually cankeis appeai anu spieau
upwaiu in a line on one siue of the tiunk oi bianch. Cutting unuei the baik suiface ieveals
a uecayeu, ieuuish biown neciotic pocket, which may contain liquiu. Baik stieaks in the
woou iauiate out both above anu below fiom the lesions. These neciotic stieaks aie usually
in the baik coitex oi xylem, but sometimes extenu ueepei into the centei of bianches oi
tiunks. 0ften the uisease will become inactive anu cankei wounus will close, except that a
baik flap ovei the wounu will iemain.
Seveiely affecteu tiees may have pale, spaise foliage anu low yielus on one bianch oi on
the entiie tiee, but this is iaie. Sometimes newly planteu tiees become stunteu with many
lesions; new bianches may giow fiom buus below the affecteu pait.
&6::8237 62 348 .<78178
Bacteiial cankei is wiuespieau but is a ielatively unimpoitant uisease. In some gioves the
bacteiium infects ovei 6u% of the tiees, but most of these tiees will peifoim well if
otheiwise caieu foi appiopiiately. The pathogen can also be intiouuceu thiough nuiseiy
937%)"+"73. (3+/$.%&'. is a common bacteiium on avocauo leaves anu gieen twigs, wheie
it appaiently is haimless. Its iepiouuction anu spieau is favoieu by wet plants anu humiu
conuitions. It can infect thiough wounus anu bianch stubs anu spieau within the plant's
vasculai system. Biought stiess anu boion ueficiency may piomote uevelopment of uisease
symptoms. The uisease most typically shows up in uiought yeais, at the enu of iiiigation
lines, oi at points wheie iiiigation system watei piessuie is lowest.
Noimally the uisease is a minoi pioblem. 0sually no contiol is necessaiy on establisheu
tiees. If the uisease is seveie anu yielu is affecteu, iemove the tiee. Keep tiees healthy anu
pioviue goou cultuial caie. Pioviue appiopiiate amounts anu fiequency of iiiigation anu
goou unifoimity of watei uistiibution among tiees. 0se ceitifieu, uisease-fiee nuiseiy stock
if available. Regulaily inspect young tiees anu iemove anu uispose of young tiees if they
aie infecteu. Nuiseiies shoulu use stiingent sanitation, iegulaily scieen stock foi uisease,
anu uispose of affecteu tiees so they aie not planteu.

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 67
.8:136;4651 65 5678JJ<2<1 5663 563
Pathogen: :$+3%"/)"&3 7$(3%&';

79:;36:7 12. 7<=27
Yellow foliage, shiiveleu fiuit, anu little oi no new giowth aie symptoms of Bematophoia
ioot iot. Cottony, white mycelia covei small feeuei ioots, anu ioots uecay. Nycelia giow
into soil anu upwaiu in the tiee, foiming small, pale patches unuei oi in baik of majoi
ioots, the ioot ciown, anu lowei tiunk, which eventually uecay. 0luei mycelium become
giay oi black. The fungus can also cause a puiple cankei in woou at the ioot ciown of
young tiees. Biseaseu tiees will uefoliate anu always uie piematuiely, usually within 1 to S
yeais of initial infection.
&6::8237 62 348 .<78178
Bematophoia ioot iot is not common in avocauo in the 0niteu States. Although uncommon,
when piesent, it is a veiy seiious uisease anu iequiies piompt action to pievent its spieau
to othei tiees.
Bematophoia ioot iot is also calleu white ioot iot in iefeience to its pale mycelium, oi
Rosellinia ioot iot because the fungus is nameu <".$##'7'3 7$(3%&'; uuiing anothei stage of
uevelopment. The fungus peisists foi yeais in buiieu woou anu oiganic mattei in soil. It
spieaus to neaiby tiees thiough ioot giafts anu can also be moveu longei uistances in
infecteu soil oi woou. Spoies appaiently aie not impoitant in causing uisease.
The whitish mycelial patches of <".$##'7'3 iesemble those of 2&+'##3&'38 but <".$##'7'3
mycelia lack the chaiacteiistic mushioomlike ouoi piouuceu by 2&+'##3&'34 0ne methou to
uiagnose <".$##'7'3 is to seal infecteu woou, ioots, oi soil in a moist containei. Extensive
white mycelium will giow within a few uays. Bowevei, because of its seveiity anu
peisistence, seek expeit assistance if Bematophoia ioot iot is suspecteu.
The biology anu management aie much the same as uesciibeu foi 2&+'##3&'34 0pioot anu
uispose of infecteu tiees. Remove immeuiately aujacent tiees that may also be infecteu.
Remove as many ioot pieces fiom soil as possible anu tiench aiounu the infecteu site to
bieak ioot giafts. Establish a uiy zone anu pievent soil movement oi watei iunoff fiom
that site. Fumigate oi solaiize the giounu well befoie ieplanting.

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 68
.634<658JJ1 &12N85
Pathogen: ="%&6"./)3$&'3 anu >*.'("((*+ spp.

79:;36:7 12. 7<=27
Bothioiella cankeis exuue ieuuish sap that uiies to a biown anu white powuei. Baik may
be ciackeu, uaikly uiscoloieu, oi slightly sunken. With oluei cankeis, baik may sheu oi can
be easily iemoveu fiom the uamageu aiea. 0nuei the cankei, innei baik anu woou is
biown, oiangish, oi ieu, insteau of the noimal pale coloi. Biown ueau leaves iemain
attacheu if much of the xylem becomes infecteu anu iapiuly kills the entiie limb.
Bothioiella cankei can be a seiious pioblem in new plantings; stock sometimes aiiives
fiom the nuiseiy with latent infections in the giaft union. Wheie infection kills the giaft
union, the ueau scion ietains a uiy biown canopy, while shoots anu gieen leaves spiout up
fiom the iootstock. The giaft union may be unusually swollen anu iough befoie the young
tiee uies. Cutting insiue at the giaft union ieveals uaik, uiscoloieu woou that can extenu
thiough the entiie wiuth of the small tiunk.
Bothioiella cankei is usually of minoi impoitance in establisheu, oluei tiees. Scatteieu
small bianches anu sometimes laige limbs can uie back. 0sually the entiie tiee is not
affecteu anu the tiee iemains piouuctive. In seveie cases, the main tiunk may be giiuleu,
killing the tiee.
&6::8237 62 348 .<78178
Seveial pathogens cause Bothioiella cankei on tiunks anu laige limbs. This uisease was
foimeily attiibuteu to a ="%&6"./)3$&'3 anamoiph, :"%)'"&$##3 -&$-3&'3 (teleomoiph =4
&'?'.@8 anu the uisease was known as Bothioiella cankei. A$"B*.'("((*+ #*%$*+ is now
known to be the most common cause of Bothioiella cankei uisease on avocauos in
Califoinia. ="%&6"./)3$&'3 0"%)'0$3 also causes Bothioiella cankei in Califoinia. Seveial
othei ="%&6"./)3$&'38 :'/#"0'38 oi >*.'("((*+ spp. cause B0TBI0RELLA FR0IT R0T,
B0TBI0RELLA LEAF ANB STEN BLIuBT, anu cankeis anu these fungi can not be ieliably
uistinguisheu uuiing ceitain stages of theii giowth, except with moleculai tests such as
PCR (polymeiase chain ieaction).
Bothioiella cankeis closely iesemble Phytophthoia cankei. Bothioiella cankeis usually
occui highei above the giounu, beginning aiounu the fiist main bianch ciotch oi highei.
:"%)'"&$##3 can infect much smallei limbs, such as twigs anu small bianches, as well as the
uppei tiunk anu laige limbs. When cut into with a knife, Bothioiella cankeis sometimes
extenu ueep into woou, while Phytophthoia cankei uiscolois only a shallow layei of outei
woou. Except when tiees aie young, Bothioiella cankei is usually not as seiious as uiseases
causeu by 5)6%"/)%)"&3 spp.
="%&6"./)3$&'3 spp. can infect only thiough wounus. Beavy iainfall causes incieaseu spoie
piouuction anu infection. Spoies spieau in aii anu watei. Tiees that aie stiesseu aie much
moie susceptible to this uisease. Common stiesses incluue pooi iiiigation, low quality
iiiigation watei, nutiitional ueficiencies, oi seveie insect anu mite feeuing. Biought stiess
especially piomotes symptom uevelopment anu tiiggeis latent infections to uevelop into
Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 69
uisease. Nexican iootstocks aie geneially much moie iesistant to this uisease than aie
uuatemalan cultivais.
Look foi uiseases anu uisease-piomoting conuitions iegulaily thioughout the giove using
iecommenueu monitoiing methous. Consiuei planting iootstock cultivais that have some
iesistance to this uisease. Wheie Bothioiella cankei is a pioblem, iely piimaiily on
sanitation anu goou cultuial piactices to contiol it. Piune out ueau limbs anu twigs, wheie
the pathogen pycniuia (spoie-foiming stiuctuies) anu spoies peisist. Bispose of ueau
woou anu olu fiuit well away fiom avocauo tiees. Piune anu haivest only uuiing uiy
conuitions. Coiiect enviionmental anu nutiitional stiesses, anu minimize othei pest
pioblems. Appiopiiate amount anu fiequency of iiiigation is especially impoitant. Leach
soil peiiouically anu use low salinity watei if salt toxicity is a pioblem. Nuiseiies shoulu
use stiingent sanitation measuies, uisinfest piopagation mateiial, anu consiuei tieating
giaft unions with fungiciue.

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 7u
.634<658JJ1 K5R<3 563
Pathogens: ="%&6"./)3$&'3 anu >*.'("((*+ spp.

79:;36:7 12. 7<=27
Bothioiella fiuit iot is usually not obvious while fiuit is on the tiee. Small, supeificial
lesions can uevelop on fiuit in the giove, but the uisease usually is appaient only on fiuit
that is veiy oveimatuie, hanging on ueau limbs, oi uioppeu on the giounu.
Infections usually become active aftei the fiuit is pickeu anu staits to soften. Initially
lesions aie small, iiiegulai biown to ieuuish uiscoloiations on the peel. 0nuei the peel,
biown stieaks iunning lengthwise in flesh may be obseiveu because uecay initially spieaus
along vasculai bunules in the fiuit. Small, puiplish biown spots may appeai on any pait of
the fiuit, most often at the stem enu. As fiuit ages, the suiface lesions giauually enlaige anu
become sunken anu black. Fiuit shiivels, anu the black suiface can become coveieu with
giayish biown fungal mycelium anu spoies. Becay then spieaus thioughout the entiie fiuit,
causing the flesh to tuin biown anu wateiy with an offensive ouoi.
&6::8237 62 348 .<78178
Posthaivest iots aie a ielatively minoi pioblem of avocauos in Califoinia. Bothioiella fiuit
iot is causeu by seveial ="%&6"./)3$&'3 anu >*.'("((*+ species. A$"B*.'("((*+ #*%$*+ anu
="%&6"./)3$&'3 0"%)'0$3 aie common causes.Bisease was foimeily attiibuteu to :"%)'"&$##3
-&$-3&'38 hence the name Bothioiella fiuit iot. Seveial ="%&6"./)3$&'38 :'/#"0'38 anu
>*.'("((*+ spp. fungi can cause Bothioiella fiuit iot, cankei, oi leaf anu stem blight.
These pathogens spieau by winu blown oi watei splasheu spoies piouuceu in oi on
cankeis, ueau twigs, anu uying fiuit anu leaves. Spoies infect thiough wounus anu lenticels
(tiny natuial openings) on fiuit. Infection occuis in the giove, but uisease usually is not
obvious until aftei fiuit is pickeu anu staits to iipen.
Bamage fiom Bothioiella fiuit iot closely iesembles that fiom anthiacnose anu stem enu
iot, anu fiuit uamageu by these pathogens aie usually culleu anu lumpeu togethei in the
packing house. Buiing its eaily stages, Bothioiella fiuit iot lesions can occui anywheie on
the avocauo skin, while stem enu iot initially occuis only neai the naiiow enu of fiuit,
wheie uecay begins unuei the button. Anthiacnose piouuces pink spoiulation on the fiuit
suiface, in contiast with the giayish mycelium fiom Bothioiella fiuit iot.
0se goou sanitation anu optimal cultuial piactices to minimize fiuit iots. Piune out ueau
limbs anu twigs. Bispose of ueau woou anu olu fiuit away fiom avocauo tiees. Piune anu
haivest only uuiing uiy conuitions. Coiiect enviionmental anu nutiitional stiesses, anu
minimize othei uiseases anu uisoiueis that injuie baik, fiuit, oi leaves. Foi example,
anything that causes a laige numbei of leaves to uevelop neciosis will cause fiuit uecay
spoies to become abunuant on those leaves anu spieau to infect neaiby fiuit. Pioviue
sufficient iiiigation with appiopiiate placement of high quality watei to minimize this anu
many othei avocauo pioblems. Follow the same posthaivest hanuling instiuctions foi fiuit
as uiscusseu in the ANTBRACN0SE section.
Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 71
.634<658JJ1 J81K 12. 738: !J<=43
Pathogens: ="%&6"./)3$&'3 anu >*.'("((*+ spp.

79:;36:7 12. 7<=27
Small bianches anu leaves can be killeu, leaving entiiely biown uiy leaves that usually
iemain on ueau limbs foi months. Beau bianches may ietain fiuit, which blackens anu
shiivels. When leaves aie infecteu but aie attacheu to healthy stems, leaves often aie
mostly gieen with neciosis only in biown patches along leaf maigins anu at tips. When
stems aie healthy, typically only some of the leaves on that stem have neciotic patches.
Within a tiee, usually only one oi a few scatteieu stems have neciotic leaves, anu all leaves
on most bianches will show no symptoms of infection.
&6::8237 62 348 .<78178
Bothioiella leaf anu stem blight is causeu by seveial similai fungal species nameu in
B0TBI0RELLA CANKER. Bothioiella leaf anu stem blight is a common uisease of minoi
impoitance to the health of establisheu tiees. Stem anu leaf blight commonly uevelops
uuiing hot weathei anu wheie iiiigation is not auequately manageu. 0theiwise healthy
tiees toleiate scatteieu neciotic leaves anu a few bianches killeu by Bothioiella uisease.
The piimaiy concein is fiuit anu nuiseiy stock health. Copious spoies aie piouuceu on
ueau limbs anu leaves. Spoies inoculate fiuit on the tiee, sometimes causing significant
fiuit iot anu stem enu iot aftei haivest. Contamination of plant paits useu foi piopagation
can kill young tiees because of infection of the giaft between iootstock anu scion.
Piune off ueau limbs anu twigs uuiing uiy conuitions anu uispose of ueau woou anu olu
fiuit away fiom avocauo tiees. Knock uown gioups of ueau leaves stuck in tiees. Naintain a
thick layei of mulch to hasten uecomposition of fungi on the giounu. 0se goou sanitation
anu optimal cultuial piactices to minimize uisease as uiscusseu in B0TBI0RELLA CANKER
anu B0TBI0RELLA FR0IT R0T. When weathei changes fiom cool to waim, appiopiiately
mouify the iiiigation piogiam, anu pay special attention to iiiigation neeus uuiing peiious
of hot weathei.

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 72
;4936;434651 &12N85 12. &56W2 563
F&/*,/?"@( &(A#+,H
Pathogen: 5)6%"/)%)"&3 ('%&'("#3

5)6%"/)%)"&3 cankeis usually oiiginate at oi below giounu level but can occui highei
above giounu, especially wheie tiunks oi lowei limbs have been wounueu. The cankei
appeais as a iegion of uaik baik that often exuues ieu iesin, which becomes biownish to
white anu powueiy as it uiies. Cutting away the supeificial cankei ieveals an oiange-tan to
biown lesion, insteau of the noimal white oi cieam-coloieu tissues. The lesion may have a
fiuity ouoi when exposeu. The lesion infects the innei baik anu outei layei of woou, killing
cambium anu phloem. Biscoloiing iaiely extenus ueepei into woou than the outei woouy
layei. Bepenuing on the local conuitions anu iootstock, the tiee may waiu off the uisease
anu the lesions may heal.
Affecteu tiees show a giauual loss of vigoi anu uecline of the top. With auvanceu uisease,
foliai symptoms of Phytophthoia cankei uiffei some fiom symptoms causeu by avocauo
ioot iot C5)6%"/)%)"&3 ('773+"+'@. With Phytophthoia cankei, leaves ietain theii noimal
size, theie is a giauual loss of canopy, anu bianch uieback (staghoining) is less typical.
0nlike ioot iot, cankei anu collai iot affects the majoi tiee ioots anu the smallei feeuei
ioots aie usually still piesent. 0ccasionally, in auvanceu stages, tiees will uie suuuenly,
with leaves tuining biown within a shoit peiiou of time. Confiimation of 54 ('%&'("#3 is
achieveu by laboiatoiy tissue isolations onto selective meuia foi 5)6%"/)%)"&34
&6::8237 62 348 .<78178
Phytophthoia cankei is the most impoitant of seveial cankei uiseases infecting avocauo
anu is seconu only to ioot iot in seveiity among uiseases of avocauo. 5)6%"/)%)"&3 ('%&'("#3
infects the ioot ciown anu lowei tiunk anu limbs of oluei tiees, causing uiseases calleu
Phytophthoia cankei, Citiicola, Citiicola cankei, Phytophthoia cankei anu collai iot, oi
Phytophthoia cankei anu ciown iot. 5)6%"/)%)"&3 ('%&'("#3 also causes PBYT0PBTB0RA
FR0IT R0T. It has a wiue host iange, incluuing cheiimoya, cheiiy, fii, anu walnut.
5)6%"/)%)"&3 ('%&'("#3 uamages tiunks anu limbs anu only the laigei ioots, while 54
('773+"+'8 which cause avocauo (Phytophthoia) ioot iot uamages small ioots. 54 ('%&'("#3
occuis innocuously on the feeuei ioots of many oi most avocauos, but uisease occuis on
only some of these tiees. Bisease uevelops aftei ciowns, limbs, oi tiunks become infecteu
thiough wounus, such as injuiies fiom equipment, piuning, veitebiate chewing, anu winu
uamage. Spoie spieau anu uisease uevelopment aie favoieu by excess soil moistuie anu
wet conuitions. Cankeis often occui on the siue of tiunks wetteu by iiiigation spiinkleis.
5)6%"/)%)"&3 ('%&'("#3 piouuces oospoies, which ooze fiom wounus anu spieau in
splashing watei oi anything that contacts ooze. Contaminateu equipment anu tools that
wounu healthy tiees can cause a new infection.
Look foi uiseases anu uisease-piomoting conuitions iegulaily thioughout the giove by
uiseases causeu by 5)6%"/)%)"&3 spp. (ioot iot anu cankei) aie incieasingly founu
Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 7S
togethei. Bence, integiateu appioaches to the contiol of both neeu to be followeu incluuing
sanitation, selection of toleiant iootstocks, goou watei management, anu wounu
5)6%"/)%)"&3 ('%&'("#3 can easily be spieau in contaminateu nuiseiy stock anu on iiiigation
equipment, vehicles, anu people. Follow the same sanitation pioceuuies as uesciibeu in the
section Av0CAB0 R00T R0T.
Ceitain iootstock cultivais aie moie iesistant to oi toleiant of Phytophthoia cankei oi
Phytophthoia ioot iot. Consiuei planting moie than one iootstock in a giove with a histoiy
of 5)6%"/)%)"&34 Seeuling iootstocks aie much moie sensitive than most of the clonal
cultivais to tiunk cankeis. In 0niveisity of Califoinia fielu tiials, Toio Canyon, Buke 7, Buke
9, anu Baii Buke have shown moueiate toleiance, as compaieu to othei, moie susceptible
iootstocks such u1uSS, u6, anu u7SSB. Thomas iootstock has toleiance to ioot iot, but is
quite susceptible to cankei anu collai iot anu othei pioblems such as excess salinity.
Bo not keep the lowei tiunks wet foi long peiious, as this incieases the chances of
infection. Place uiippeis away fiom tiunks, aim spiinkleis to avoiu wetting tiunks, oi
switch fiom spiinklei to uiip iiiigation wheie feasible. Avoiu wounuing majoi ioots anu
tiunks, especially avoiu pulling suckeis so the baik below giounu is injuieu. Bo not stack
cut woou against tiunks. Rake mulch seveial inches back fiom the tiunk.
&'+>/?(@ &"A*,"@: Consiuei piomptly tieating fiesh wounus with fungiciue, such as
wounus fiom piuning. Remove suckeis only by cutting them above giounu, then tieat the
wounu. Peiiouically uisinfect piuning tools, such as aftei finishing woik on each tiee. If
cankeis aie uetecteu in an eaily stage befoie much of the tiunk is invaueu, they can
sometimes be contiolleu by cutting out the infecteu tissue anu spiaying the wounu with an
effective fungiciue. Wheie cankeis extenu below giounu, a combination of abovegiounu
application anu soil uiench with fungiciue may be waiianteu. Theie is little uocumentation
of fungiciue efficacy foi managing Phytophthoia cankei anu ciown iot in avocauo. See
Av0CAB0 R00T R0T foi uiscussion of 5)6%"/)%)"&3 fungiciue application.
&">>"A A(>+ 1>"BA*C1?,+ 5D8D<DE ;D4D<DE
F*,(G+ A(>+H F'"B,0H FG(I0H

9$/4 :$%%';4< - =/'#;:;8/0 :%4';8/& ;4>%&?-#;%4 &/3-#;4< #% /4@;&%4?/4#-3 ;?=-:#+ A%# -33 &/<;'#/&/8 =/'#;:;8/' -&/
3;'#/8+ !3B-C' &/-8 3-./3 %> =&%8":# ./;4< "'/8+

(Aliette) WBu 2.S-S lb 12 u.S
C0NNENTS: Apply as a tiunk spiay. Nake the fiist application at the stait of the giowing season anu iepeat eveiy 6u
uays. Repeat applications at 6u uays aie impoitant (up to 4 applicationsyeai); a single tiunk spiay is not sufficient to
aiiest the uisease. Bo not exceeu 2u lbacieyeai.

(Agii-fos, Fosphite) 1-2 qt 4 u
): Phosphonate (SS)
C0NNENTS: Bo not apply with coppei-baseu fungiciues oi feitilizeis; allow 1u uays befoie applying coppei-baseu
compounu aftei phosphoious aciu tieatment oi 2u uays befoie applying phosphoious aciu aftei coppei tieatment. Bo
Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 74
not apply to uoimant oi heat- oi moistuie-stiesseu tiees.

+ Restiicteu entiy inteival (R.E.I.) is the numbei of houis (unless otheiwise noteu) fiom tieatment until the tieateu aiea
can be safely enteieu without piotective clothing. Piehaivest inteival (P.B.I.) is the numbei of uays fiom tieatment to
haivest. In some cases the REI exceeus the PBI. The longei of two inteivals is the minimum time that must elapse
befoie haivest.
uioup numbeis aie assigneu by the Fungiciue Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) accoiuing to uiffeient moues of
actions (foi moie infoimation, see Fungiciues with a uiffeient gioup numbei aie suitable to
alteinate in a iesistance management piogiam. In Califoinia, make no moie than one application of fungiciues with
moue of action uioup numbeis 1, 4, 9, 11, oi 17 befoie iotating to a fungiciue with a uiffeient moue of action uioup
numbei; foi fungiciues with othei uioup numbeis, make no moie than two consecutive applications befoie iotating to
fungiciue with a uiffeient moue of action uioup numbei.

PRECA0TI0NS (see last page of this chaptei)

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 7S
;4936;434651 K5R<3 563
Pathogen: 5)6%"/)%)"&3 ('%&'("#3

79:;36:7 12. 7<=27
Biseaseu fiuit have a uistinct ciiculai black aiea that usually occuis neai the bottom oi
lowest spot on the fiuit. Inteinally, the iot extenus into the flesh, uaikening it in the same
pattein as on the affecteu suiface. Affecteu fiuit aie often touching the soil oi aie hanging
on low bianches. Nost uamage occuis within S feet of the giounu.
&6::8237 62 348 .<78178
Phytophthoia fiuit iot is causeu by 5)6%"/)%)"&3 spp., usually 54 ('%&'("#38 the same fungus
that causes Phytophthoia cankei anu collai iot. Phytophthoia fiuit iot is usually of minoi
impoitance in Califoinia. Nost uamage occuis aftei piolongeu wet conuitions, the same
situation that favois anthiacnose. In contiast to anthiacnose, which is piimaiily a
posthaivest pioblem, Phytophthoia fiuit iot infections often become obvious while fiuit is
still hanging on the tiee, as well as causing uecay aftei haivest.
The most common cause of infection is believeu to be the splashing of 5)6%"/)%)"&3
piopagules fiom the soil suiface to the fiuit uuiing heavy iain oi spiinklei iiiigation. Piune
lowei limbs so they aie 2 to S feet fiom the giounu. Naintain a thick layei of mulch to
hasten uecomposition of fungi on soil. Consiuei iemoving anu uisposing of fiuit lying on
the giounu because the fungus spoiulates on uioppeu fiuit. Piune out ueau limbs anu twigs
anu uispose of ueau woou anu olu fiuit away fiom avocauo tiees.

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 76
76639 :6J.
Pathogen: !3/7"0'*+ spp. anu ielateu fungi.

79:;36:7 12. 7<=27
Sooty molu consists of hyphae anu spoies of !3/7"0'*+ spp. anu ielateu fungi. Sooty molu
is black, somewhat felty fungal giowth on the suiface of fiuit, leaves, oi stems. Sooty molus
giow on honeyuew excieteu by juice-sucking insects, incluuing soft scales anu whiteflies.
&6::8237 62 348 .<78178
Sooty molus uo not infect avocauo anu geneially cause no uamage. Exceptions aie if leaves
become so heavily coveieu that photosynthesis is significantly ieuuceu, causing chloiosis
anu possible piematuie leaf uiop. If fiuit is noticeably fouleu, it may be uowngiaueu at the
packing house.
Nanage sooty molu by contiolling the insects that piouuce honeyuew. Boneyuew-
piouucing insects in avocauo aie usually well-contiolleu by natuial enemies. Contiol ants,
minimize uust, anu avoiu bioau-spectium insecticiues to conseive these beneficial
paiasites anu pieuatois. If uiiect insect contiol is iequiieu, use selective insecticiues
whenevei possible.

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 77
738: 82. 563
Pathogen: D3.'"0'/#"0'3 %)$"?&"+3$ C="%&6"0'/#"0'3 %)$"?&"+3$ anu otheis)

79:;36:7 12. 7<=27
Becay fiom stem enu iot begins as slight shiiveling aiounu the stem button. Fungal
mycelium aie often visible on fiuit if the button is iemoveu. Conspicuous uaik uecay with a
well-uefineu maigin uevelops at the stem enu. As fiuit iipens, uecay spieaus anu iots the
entiie fiuit, which becomes uaik anu shiiveleu. Bepenuing on the causal oiganisms, flesh
may be wateiy anu soft, oi initially uiy anu coiky, becoming wateiy latei as seconuaiy
oiganisms colonize tissue.
&6::8237 62 348 .<78178
Becay at the stem enu of fiuit is causeu by the seveial species of bacteiia anu fungi. Causes
incluue the fungus D3.'"0'/#"0'3 %)$"?&"+3$ anu othei fungi uiscusseu in ANTBRACN0SE
anu B0TBI0RELLA FR0IT R0T, as well as 2#%$&73&'3 anu 5)"+"/.'. spp. These stem enu
iotting species aie sapiophytes (uecay oiganisms) oi weak pathogens, which aie piesent
in soil anu most any ueau oi uying avocauo tissue, incluuing senescing floweis anu injuieu
baik, fiuit, anu leaves. Spoies spieau in winu anu splashing watei.
Stem enu iot infection typically occuis in the giove uuiing haivest, but uoes not uevelop
into uisease until aftei fiuit is shippeu to the packinghouse. Baivesting injuies fiuit aiounu
the button, anu bacteiia anu fungi can entei the fieshly cut stem, causing uecay as fiuit
0se goou sanitation anu optimal cultuial piactices to minimize fiuit iots. Piune out ueau
limbs anu twigs. Bispose of ueau woou anu olu fiuit away fiom tiees. Piune anu haivest
only uuiing uiy conuitions. Coiiect enviionmental anu nutiitional stiesses. Ninimize othei
uiseases anu uisoiueis that injuie baik, fiuit, oi leaves. Pioviue sufficient iiiigation with
appiopiiate placement of high quality watei. Naintain a thick layei of mulch unuei
canopies to hasten uecomposition of pathogen piopagules. Bo not haivest uuiing oi soon
aftei iain; allow tiees anu fiuit to uiy befoie haivesting. Ninimize the inteival fiom haivest
until fiuit is placeu into colu stoiage at the packing house; piompt colu stoiage ieuuces
uisease inciuence. Follow the same posthaivest hanuling instiuctions uiscusseu in

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 78
Pathogen: Avocauo Sunblotch viioiu (ASBvB)

79;36:7 12. 7<=27
Sunblotch causes a wiue vaiiety of symptoms oi may exhibit no symptoms in some hosts.
Symptoms of sunblotch incluue neciotic, ieu, yellow, oi white uiscoloiations on fiuit, often
in uepiessions oi scais in the fiuit suiface. Twigs can uevelop naiiow, neciotic, ieu oi
yellow stieaks on theii suiface oi in shallow lengthwise inuentations along the twig. Leaves
may have white oi yellowish vaiiegateu aieas anu be uefoimeu, but leaf symptoms aie
uncommon. Rectangulai ciacking anu checking of the baik, calleu "alligatoi baik," often
occuis on the tiunk anu laigei bianches. Infecteu tiees may be stunteu anu have a
uispiopoitionate amount of hoiizontal giowth oi spiawling lateial low limbs. Tiees with
visible sunblotch symptoms often have ieuuceu yielus. Infecteu tiees can also be
symptomless, although laige ieuuctions in yielu of pieviously vigoious tiees may inuicate
the piesence of the viioiu in otheiwise symptomless caiiieis.
&6::8237 62 348 .<78178
Sunblotch is causeu by uozens of vaiiants of submicioscopic paiticles of genetic mateiial
(viioius) that altei uevelopment anu giowth of infecteu plants. Sunblotch viioiu can move
systemically within avocauo, anu it peisists in host tissues. Tiees that uo not show
symptoms even though the viioiu is piesent aie known as "symptomless caiiieis." Neaily
all cuttings anu seeu fiom symptomless caiiieis will be infecteu with viioiu. Bowevei,
seeulings fiom symptomless caiiieis uo not show symptoms of sunblotch when they aie
useu as iootstocks, but the uisease often appeais on scions giafteu to them. Conveisely,
most seeu fiom tiees with symptoms aie not infecteu, anu buuwoou anu shoot cuttings
fiom symptomatic tiees often uo not contain viioiu. The viioiu tiansmits in pollen, but
pollen only infects the fiuit anu seeu piouuceu fiom it. 0nless a tiee is infecteu by giafting
oi some way othei than thiough pollen, theie will be no viioiu in buuwoou, ioot giafts, anu
shoot cuttings fiom that tiee.
Tiansmission of the viioiu most often occuis uuiing giafting by using infecteu buuwoou oi
iootstock seeulings fiom infecteu tiees with oi without symptoms. Natuial ioot-to-ioot
giafts aie impoitant in tiansmitting sunblotch in gioves. Nechanical tiansmission thiough
wounus causeu by contaminateu haivest clippeis, piuning tools, anu injection equipment
can also be impoitant if infecteu tiees aie in the giove. Spieau via pollen fiom an infecteu
tiee to the flowei ovule of a noninfecteu avocauo, iesulting in infecteu seeu, can cause fiuit
to be culleu, but uoes not fuithei spieau the uisease unless seeu is piopagateu. Theie is no
eviuence of insect tiansmission.
Caieful piopagation of nuiseiy stock to eliminate viioiu has gieatly ieuuceu sunblotch to a
ielatively minoi uisease. Bowevei, ongoing monitoiing anu management is iequiieu in
nuiseiies anu establisheu gioves. Sunblotch can be easily oveilookeu, anu theie aie many
ways that tiees can become infecteu. Look foi uiseases anu uisease-piomoting conuitions
iegulaily thioughout the giove by N0NIT0RINu BISEASES ANB BISEASE-PR0N0TINu
Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 79
In the nuiseiy, caiefully select uisease-fiee scions anu seeu souices. 0se stiingent
sanitation anu fiequent uisinfection to avoiu spieauing pathogens. Peiiouically confiim
that piopagation souices aie uisease-fiee (inuexing) by giafting piopagative souice
mateiial to young Nexican seeulings anu obseiving leaves anu twigs foi sunblotch
symptoms, oi by peifoiming a genetic test.
Plant only inuexeu nuiseiy stock that is iegisteieu as uisease-fiee. Piomptly iemove
symptomatic tiees fiom the giove anu chemically kill the stumps. Bo not ietain infecteu,
symptomless tiees just because yielu uoes not seem to be affecteu; symptomless caiiieis
aie a highly infective souice that can uiamatically ieuuce yielu on othei tiees. If only fiuit
anu seeu aie infecteu (fiom infecteu pollen), it may not be necessaiy to iemove that tiee if
inuexing inuicates the iest of the tiee is not infecteu. Bowevei, tiees with only fiuit anu
seeu infection inuicate that othei infecteu (possibly symptomless) tiees neaiby neeu to be
inuexeu oi iemoveu.
The uangei of spieauing viioiu incieases in establisheu oichaius wheie matuie tiees aie
piuneu to ieuuce tiee size anu iestimulate oi maintain fiuit piouuction. Seveie piuning of
symptomless caiiieis, anu peihaps othei seveie causes of tiee stiess, aie suspecteu of
causing viioiu to become active in the new giowth, inuucing pieviously symptomless tiees
to exhibit symptoms. Bisinfect piuning tools, haivest clippeis, anu injection equipment
befoie beginning woik on a new tiee. Sciubbing tools clean anu then soaking them in a
1.S% souium hypochloiite solution is effective. uioweis must use a iegisteieu uisinfectant
anu follow label uiiections.

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 8u

79:;36:7 12. 7<=27
Baik, fiuit, anu leaves exposeu to uiiect sunlight can be injuieu by heating anu uiying of
tissue. Bamage typically is most seveie on the south anu southwest siues of tiees. Sunbuin
initially causes a pale yellowish aiea on the exposeu siue of fiuit. The centei of
uiscoloiation may tuin black, biown, oi ieu, then neciotic oi witheieu. Sunbuineu leaves
uevelop chloiotic then neciotic blotches, which initially foim between veins. Sunbuineu
twigs become ciackeu, uiscoloieu, puiplish, oi iougheneu on theii exposeu (usually uppei)
siue. When seveie, sunbuineu tiunk anu limb baik anu the cambium unueineath can
uiscoloi anu uie, causing cankeis that can giiule anu possibly kill limbs.
&6::8237 62 348 .<78178
Sunbuin, sometimes calleu sunscalu, typically occuis when tiees uefoliate, exposing fiuit oi
pieviously shaueu baik. Newly planteu tiees that giew with baik shaueu in the nuiseiy,
anu tiees that aie unable to take up enough watei because of unhealthy ioots oi
inappiopiiate iiiigation, aie highly susceptible to sunbuin.
Pievent sunbuin by pioviuing tiees with goou giowing conuitions anu piopei cultuial
caie, especially appiopiiate amount anu fiequency of iiiigation. Wheie feasible, pievent
conuitions that cause foliage to uiop piematuiely, incluuing Phytophthoia ioot iot anu
high peisea mite populations. If tiees uefoliate, uo not iiiigate until soil in the ioot zone
appioaches uiyness. Befoliation ieuuces tiee use of watei, so soil will iemain wet longei
than with unaffecteu tiees. Examine soil caiefully anu fiequently anu mouify iiiigation to
pievent excess moistuie in the ioot zone.
Whitewash young tiees ioutinely at planting. Whitewash the tiunk anu majoi limbs of
oluei tiees if they uevelop spaise canopies oi aie seveiely piuneu, such as when cut back
to tiunks anu giafteu with new scion (stumpeu). Special whitewash piouucts aie available,
oi white inteiioi latex paint uiluteu Su% with watei can be applieu. An inexpensive
whitewash foimula is Su lbs hyuiateu lime anu 4 lbs zinc sulfate to each 1uu gallons of
watei. Ceitain white film kaolin clay paiticle piouucts can be spiayeu onto foliage to
ieuuce sunbuin anu tiee heat stiess, appaiently without inteifeiing with leaf

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 81
M853<&<JJ<R: W<J3
Pathogen: E$&%'('##'*+ 03)#'3$

79:;36:7 12. 7<=27
The entiie tiee oi only one oi seveial bianches wilt suuuenly when infecteu with
E$&%'('##'*+4 Leaves tuin biown anu uie, but the ueau leaves usually iemain on the tiee foi
seveial months. Biown to giay-biown stieaks aie visible in the xylem of the bianches oi
ioots when the baik is iemoveu. Tiees with veiticillium wilt often senu out new, vigoious
shoots within a few months aftei the initial wilting. If well caieu foi, affecteu tiees often
iecovei completely with no ieoccuiience of the uisease. Bowevei, not all tiees suivive an
infection anu uisease symptoms sometimes ieoccui aftei an appaient iecoveiy.
&6::8237 62 348 .<78178
E$&%'('##'*+ 03)#'3$ fungus infects many hosts, incluuing vaiious beiiy anu flowei ciops,
cotton, eggplant, olive, peppei, stone fiuit tiees, stiawbeiiy, anu tomato. veiticillium wilt is
piesent thioughout the state but is less common in avocauo than ioot iot anu cankei
uiseases. E$&%'('##'*+ 03)#'3$ peisists foi yeais as micioscleiotia in soil. Nicioscleiotia
spieau in infesteu oiganic mattei anu soil that is moveu. The fungus infects thiough feeuei
ioots, anu then moves up in the watei-conuucting xylem system, ietaiuing oi pieventing
watei movement to foliage fiom the ioots.
No known methous aie effective in cuiing infecteu tiees. Tiees often iecovei completely
anu uisplay no fuithei symptoms, even though they aie still infecteu. Aftei uieback ceases
anu new giowth begins, piune off ueau bianches. Pioviue optimal iiiigation anu mouest
feitilization to piomote new giowth. If a tiee uies fiom E$&%'('##'*+8 iemove it.
In aieas wheie E4 03)#'3$ is known to occui, plant Nexican iootstocks insteau of the moie
E$&%'('##'*+F susceptible uuatemalan iootstocks. Bo not plant avocauo on lanu wheie ciops
susceptible to veiticillium wilt have pieviously giown. Bo not inteiplant avocauo with
othei hosts of E$&%'('##'*+8 which aie listeu in publications such as 5#37%. <$.'.%37% "&
G*.($/%'?#$ %" E$&%'('##'*+ H'#% (0C ANR Publication 27uS). Even if they have iecoveieu, uo
not use tiees that have been affecteu with veiticillium wilt as a souice of buuwoou oi seeu.

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 82
;58&1R3<627 K65 R7<2= ;873<&<.87

Pesticiues aie poisonous anu must be useu with caution. 581. 348 J1!8J !8K658
6;82<2= 1 ;873<&<.8 &6231<285. Follow all label piecautions anu uiiections, incluuing
iequiiements foi piotective equipment. Apply pesticiues only on the ciops oi in the
situations listeu on the label. Apply pesticiues at the iates specifieu on the label oi at lowei
iates if suggesteu in this publication. In Califoinia, all agiicultuial uses of pesticiues must
be iepoiteu. Contact youi county agiicultuial commissionei foi fuithei uetails. Laws,
iegulations, anu infoimation conceining pesticiues change fiequently. This publication
ieflects legal iestiictions cuiient on the uate next to each pest's name.

J+L(@ 5+0)"A0/Q/@/*ID The usei is legally iesponsible foi any uamage uue to misuse of
pesticiues. Responsibility extenus to effects causeu by uiift, iunoff, oi iesiuues.

3,(A0)",*(*/"A. Bo not ship oi caiiy pesticiues togethei with foou oi feeu in a way that
allows contamination of the euible items. Nevei tianspoit pesticiues in a closeu passengei
vehicle oi in a closeu cab.

7*",(L+. Keep pesticiues in oiiginal containeis until useu. Stoie them in a lockeu cabinet,
builuing, oi fenceu aiea wheie they aie not accessible to chiluien, unauthoiizeu peisons,
pets, oi livestock. B0 N0T stoie pesticiues with foous, feeu, feitilizeis, oi othei mateiials
that may become contaminateu by the pesticiues.

&"A*(/A+, ./0)"0(@. Bispose of empty containeis caiefully. Nevei ieuse them. Nake suie
empty containeis aie not accessible to chiluien oi animals. Nevei uispose of containeis
wheie they may contaminate watei supplies oi natuial wateiways. Consult youi county
agiicultuial commissionei foi coiiect pioceuuies foi hanuling anu uisposal of laige
quantities of empty containeis.

;,"*+?*/"A "P 2"A)+0* 1A/>(@0 (AG ;@(A*0D Nany pesticiues aie toxic to useful oi
uesiiable animals, incluuing honey bees, natuial enemies, fish, uomestic animals, anu biius.
Ciops anu othei plants may also be uamageu by misapplieu pesticiues. Take piecautions to
piotect nonpest species fiom uiiect exposuie to pesticiues anu fiom contamination uue to
uiift, iunoff, oi iesiuues. Ceitain iouenticiues may pose a special hazaiu to animals that eat
poisoneu iouents.

;"0*/AL 3,+(*+G K/+@G0. Foi some mateiials, iestiicteu entiy inteivals aie establisheu to
piotect fielu woikeis. Keep woikeis out of the fielu foi the iequiieu time aftei application
anu, when iequiieu by iegulations, post the tieateu aieas with signs inuicating the safe ie-
entiy uate. Check with youi county agiicultuial commissionei foi latest iestiicteu entiy

;,+'(,O+0* <A*+,O(@0D Some mateiials oi iates cannot be useu in ceitain ciops within a
specifieu time befoie haivest. Follow pesticiue label instiuctions anu allow the iequiieu
time between application anu haivest.
Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 8S

;+,>/* 5+VB/,+>+A*0. Nany pesticiues iequiie a peimit fiom the county agiicultuial
commissionei befoie possession oi use. When such mateiials aie iecommenueu, they aie
maikeu with an asteiisk (*) in the tieatment tables oi chemical sections of this publication.

;,"?+00+G &,")0D Some piocessois will not accept a ciop tieateu with ceitain chemicals. If
youi ciop is going to a piocessoi, be suie to check with the piocessoi befoie applying a

&,") <AXB,ID Ceitain chemicals may cause injuiy to ciops (phytotoxicity) unuei ceitain
conuitions. Always consult the label foi limitations. Befoie applying any pesticiue, take into
account the stage of plant uevelopment, the soil type anu conuition, the tempeiatuie,
moistuie, anu winu. Injuiy may also iesult fiom the use of incompatible mateiials.

;+,0"A(@ 7(P+*I. Follow label uiiections caiefully. Avoiu splashing, spilling, leaks, spiay
uiift, anu contamination of clothing. NEvER eat, smoke, uiink, oi chew while using
pesticiues. Pioviue foi emeigency meuical caie IN ABvANCE as iequiieu by iegulation.

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 84

./0+(0+0 <

Fig. 2 Clusters of Armillaria mushrooms

Fig. 1 Avocado fruit with black specks or
lesions of anthracnose, caused by
Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

Fig. 3 Trunk canker and
discoloration, symptoms of
avocado black streak disease.

Fig. 4 Avocado with dead twigs, leafless
branches, and sparse foliage from
Phytophthora root rot, caused by
Phytophthora cinnamomi.
Fig. 5 A close-up of a bacterial canker
Fig. 6 White patches of
Dematophora root rot
Fig. 7 White exudate and dark bark on an
avocado trunk with Dothiorella canker,
caused by Dothiorella gregaria.
Fig. 8 Avocado decayed by Dothiorella fruit rot, caused
by Dothiorella gregaria. Note fungal spores visible as a
brown discoloration on the fruit.
Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 8S

Diseases II

Fig. 9 Browning of leaf margins and tips on
an avocado branch with Dothiorella canker,
caused by Dothiorella gregaria.

Fig. 12 Citricola scale-infested leaves
showing sooty mold growth.

Fig. 15 Avocado fruit with a black and yellow
lesion from wildland fire (left) and fruit with
black, red, and yellow discoloration from
sunburn (right)

Fig. 10 Tree trunk with symptoms
of Phytophthora citricola

Fig. 14 Avocado fruit deformed
and streaked from avocado
sunblotch viroid

Fig. 11 Phytophthora fruit rot: black circular
area on an avocado fruit caused by
Phytophthora cinnamomi, identical to
symptoms commonly caused by P. citricola

Fig. 13 Avocado fruit showing dark decay
with a well-defined margin, damage from
stem end rot, caused by Dothiorella
gregaria and Alternaria spp.

Fig. 16 Verticillium wilt symptoms.

Biseases Book 2 Chaptei S - 86

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