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Gus Outline

was a disease brought into the new world by the Spanish during the
Columbian exchange. Smallpox raged through the New World and was
probably the most deadly of the diseases brought into the Americas. It
was one of the main reasons for the fast decline of the Indian

An encomienda
was a temporary grant of land and indigenous labor given to a colonist.
The colonist is then responsible for the welfare of the Indians and for
keeping a priest on the land. Although it was not meant to be a bad
system it was really hideous slavery. The population of Hispaniola
dwindled from several million to 29,000 within two decades.

The Requirement
was a document written up by Dr. Juan Lopez de Palacios Rubios.
Comquistadors were “obligated” to read it to the natives before
making war on them. This document called on the natives to
acknowledge the supremacy of the church and the Spanish monarch.
The conquistador was not allowed to start war unless the natives
rejected this. Most conquistadors did not follow these regulations and
waged war anyways.

The Council of the Indies

was originally a standing committee of the Council of Castille. The
council stood at the head of the Spanish imperial administration almost
till the end of the colonial period. Court favorites were appointed to the
council which consisted of mostly lawyers. It was the supreme
legislative, judicial and executive institution of the government.

are town councils in which the members consisted of rich land owners,
mine owners, and merchants. They "ran the council as an exclusive
club". They generealy had no salaries, but used their positions to
award themselves lands and native labor. They usually only served the
interests of their class. They were essentially an oligarchy.

Francisco de Toledo= He was the viceroy of the Peru region. He

established Spanish royal authority in Peru. He instituted the system
of mita, which forced the natives to work in the mines. Toledo imposed
a form of local government with two levels of authority, which include
an alcalde or mayor. He reduced the encomienda to obey the Spanish
A hacienda was a large landed estate that developed from the Spanish
Encomienda. By the end of the seventeenth century, the Spanish-
owned hacienda was responsible for the bulk of agricultural
commercial production.

The Chiriguanos

The Chiriguanos exploited efforts to best suit their needs. Jesuits

unable to settle them. Franciscans converted them with numerous

concessions. Shows that everybody wanted to help them, manipulated

colonial system

Capsicum Peppers
These peppers are a new world crop. This pepper is the ancestor of all
the peppers today. (that is pretty much it for this if he asks this it
would be a douche move)

Bartolome de las Casas

o 1484-1566
o Dominican priest
o Former encomendero
o Turned against the institution
o Advises everyone to give up their native slaves
o Prompts "new laws"
• Laws to prevent native slavery
• Compulsory service
• Regulated tribute
• Encomienda's would lapse upon death of owner
o Ends up supporting African enslavement
o "Defender of the Indians"


repartimiento is a basically a labor system that was imposed by the

spanish and what it basically forced the indians to work on their
plantations for low wages and sometimes for no wages. This can be
compared to mita, which was an imposed tax for a certain period of
time. This is what repartimiento was an imposed tax to work out on the

Viceroy Francisco Toledo

He was the viceroy of the Peru region. He established Spanish royal

authority in Peru. He instituted the system of mita, which forced the
natives to work in the mines. Toledo imposed a form of local
government with two levels of authority, which include an alcalde or
mayor. He reduced the encomienda to obey the Spanish crown.

Maroon communities
• Everywhere
• Palenques in cuba/columbia
• Cumbes in venezuela
• Quilombos in Brazil
• Palmares→ largest
• Signed treaties w/ colonists for freedom in some

Colonial Time and Space

Have no idea what he means by this so nobody wrote anything…


Creoles are the native-born descendants of early French, Spanish, and

Portuguese settlers in Latin America, the West Indies, and the southern
United States. The term came into use in the 16th century to
distinguish persons born in the New World colonies of European
parents from New World residents of European birth. Later, the term
designated persons of European descent, whether white or of mixed
blood, as distinguished from those of African or aboriginal American


Sugar was an important crop. It was grown in the Carribean, especially

in Espaniola. It was one of the many crops that required slaves and
many indigenous people were exploited for its production.


Spanish city in the mountains of North Peru containing one of the

premier silver mines in the New World, providing an extraordinary
stimulus to the European economy. Discovered in 1545, it was run with
exploitation of the enslaved natives that worked the mine in
conditions considered "a thing of horror". Used the new technology
using mercury to separate the ore, due to the lack of fuel in the
mountains. Involved in a scandal involving fake silver and bronze
coins that cost the royal treasury 20,000 ducats and immediate
inflation. When the Crown slowed funding, production severely
slowed in 1650.


congregacion is the same thing as an audenica, basically it was a

group of men. otherwise known as a tribune, and they served to give
judgement on decisions made by the spanish government, along with
the colonists


the visita were inspections of an indigenous town which yielded

information concerning its resources or capacity to pay, which was
needed to determine its per capita quota. the visita was an
investigation of official conduct, usually made unannounced by a
visitador specially appointed by the crown, or by the viceroy in
consultance with the audiencia.


The Jesuits came in the second wave of clergy. They were willing to
make compromises with native people. They were learning and
teaching in native languages. The Jesuits were more likely to study and
understand native religion and culture then other groups. The Jesuits
established more than thirty missions; these formed the principal field
of Jesuit activity in America. Strict discipline, centralized organization,
and absolute control over the labor of thousands of docile Gurani
producing large surpluses enabled the Jesuits to turn their missions
into a highly profitable business enterprise. A royal decree expelled the
order from the colonies in 1767."

#20 – Mulattos
Mulattos were the people living in the colonies that had a Spanish
(white) parent and an African (black) parent. Usually, mulattos were
born into a low socio-economic tier in the hierarchy. However, if they
had enough money or prestige they could change their birth
certificates and make themselves “legally” white.

is the use and exploitation of a man or group of people in the form of
harsh, unfair, mandatory, and inescapable labor without pay. As the
New World began being conquered by Old World countries during the
sixteenth century, the need for slave labor was deemed necessary and
extremely profitable. At first, native peoples of the area were being
exploited and used as slaves. As time passed, and laws such as The
New Laws of the Indies were passed, which restricted Native American
encomiendas, a new form of slavery was needed. This led to
repartamientos and later hacienda labor. As it began getting more
difficult for Native Americans to be used as slaves, Africans were being
brought it and sold. About 70% of all African slaves ended up working
on sugar mills.


1. Explain the Columbian Exchange? What were its impacts on the

New World? What were its impacts on the Old World? Be
specific and provide clear examples of what was exchanged
between the New World and various regions of the Old World.
What were the consequences of these exchanges?

The exchange of disease, ideas, food crops, populations, and

cultures between the new world and the old world after the
discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492.
Negative aspects
-Bad culture
- Spanish culture in an effort to wipe out native culture
-Crop famine
-Old world to New
Small pox
-Old world to new
Top 12 diseases
Now treated with penicillin
STD→ European men with native American
European soldiers sleep with prostitutes,
and it spreads with prostitutes
-Good aspects
-Crop trading
-New world to old
Cassava, manioc
Sweet potatoes
Golden Apples, Originally yellow
Capsicum Pepper
Spicy, relative to Jalapeno, an d chili peppers
Cacao and Vanilla
Luxury items
Vanilla means "Ordinary, plain"
One of the most significant
Smoked, normally for rituals
Cash crop
Coca plant
Leaves used in tea
Not yet used for cocaine, that started in
-Old world to New world Crops
-How many people in Americas?
A 1939 estimate stated that there were only 8 million
By 1966, number revised to 110 million
80-90% Death rate means that anywhere from 88 to 99.5
million people died from disease

2. Describe the social and political institutions of colonial Latin

America. What did these institutions mean for the various groups that
we have discussed? Provide specific examples as you discuss the
realities that faced native people, Africans, and different groups of
Spanish settlers. Consider how different groups of Spanish interacted
with one another as well as how they interacted with non-Spanish

Political classes from greatest to least:

King-Absolute power
Council of the Indies

Racial/Social Classes, not necessarily from greatest to least

Spanish settlers-Conquistadors, royal officials, artisans, poor whites
Mestizos-Status depended on money
Native people-money divisions within native society, urban divide
Mulattos-Status also depended on wealth
Africans-free and enslaved

3. How did the Spanish clergy carry out their project of Christianization
during the colonial era? Did the clergy’s strategies undermine their
stated goals in any way? What obstacles stood in their way? Provide
specific examples from both class notes and your textbook.

• Christianization important part of Spains colonial enterprise

o Justification for ruling the Americas
o 1 or more clergy on each ship
o The clergy were often forced to make concessions
o 2 waves of clergy
 1st wave of clergy
• Elite group
• missionary zeal and social conscience
• bartolome de las casas→ well know
o Did have some success in prompting
legal change
 2nd wave
• Willing to make compromises with native
• Learning and teaching in native languages
• More likely to study/understand native religion
and culture
o Religious orders
 Little christianizing to do in the carribiean
 Franciscans
• 1st to arrive in mexico (1524)
 Jesuits
• Last to arrive in mexico (1572)
• Forced to leave because they get too powerful
 The chiriguano exploited conversion efforts to best
suit their needs
 The jesuits cant settle them
 Franciscans have better luck
• They make numerous concessions
o No communal labor
o Supply them with tools, seeds, and gifts
o No punishment or violence
o They tolerate old beliefs as not to annoy
o Obstacles
 Resistance, old beliefs
• Our lady of Guadalupe
o Seen for the first time in 1531 by Juan
o Possibly Christian incarnation of native
goddess Tonantzin
 Crown Restrictions
 Language

• there was no real way to record how many natives were

o Does sprinkling water on 1500 people count as a
o Priests would lie about how many they actually
converted because of pride