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ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.

1-2004 COMPLIANCE
2005 hvacdesignsolutions.com
62.1-2010 Compliance Manual
Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality
Calculation Programs and "Optimization" Procedures
for Compliance with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard
62.1-2010 : "Ventilation Rate Procedure"
Copyright 2011 HVAC Design Solutions
1845 Via Quinto, Suite 100
Oceanside, CA 92056
www.hvacdesignsolutions.com
2010 ASHRAE, Inc. (portions of
contents "Used by permission")
www.ashrae.org
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
USER MANUAL - CONTENTS
VENTILATION FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY - COMPLIANCE
SECTION PAGE
1 General Description of Software Package --------------------------------- 3
2 Brief Description of ASHRAE 62.1-2010 Ventilation Standards ----- 5
3 Calculation Procedures (Including "Startup") ----------------------------- 7
a Basic Project Information -------------------------------------------------- 11
b Calculations Take-off Form ----------------------------------------------- 13
c Single Zone Systems ------------------------------------------------------- 17
d 100% Outdoor Air Systems ----------------------------------------------- 20
e Multiple Zone Systems Without Zone Level Recirculation -------- 24
f Multiple Zone Systems With Zone Level Recirculation ------------ 29
4 Calculation and Design Assumptions -------------------------------------- 35
5 Determining Occupancy (Zone Population) ------------------------------ 37
6 Air Distribution Configuration (Table & Diagrams) ---------------------- 40
7 Input Forms, Tables & Diagrams -------------------------------------------- 42
8 System Ventilation Efficiency ------------------------------------------------- 54
9 "Optimizing" Outdoor Air Requirements ----------------------------------- 56
10 Compliance Documentation -------------------------------------------------- 61
11 Definitions ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 62
NOTE:
Portions of the included information, descriptions, procedures, and forms are
excerpts from ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 ( 2010 American Society of
Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org)
Used by permission), to assure that the purposes of the Standard have been
conveyed and that the procedures have been accurately incorporated into these
Calculation Programs and Compliance Documents.
IN NO EVENT WILL ASHRAE (or American Society of Heating, Refrigeration
and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.) BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES
ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAMS OR
ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTATION, HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY.
Copyright 2011 HVAC Design Solutions
1845 Via Quinto, Suite 100
Oceanside, CA 92056
www.hvacdesignsolutions.com
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GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF SOFTWARE PACKAGE
General Description
This Software Package provides calculation procedures to document compliance
with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air
Quality. Proprietary "Optimization" procedures are included, to assure that the
required Outdoor Air Volume is established, while avoiding the potentially
excessive Outdoor Air Volume that could be dictated by standard calculations.
Input Forms, Tables, Charts, Diagrams, and Calculation Programs are provided
to assist in compliance with ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 requirements for all
indoor or enclosed spaces that people may occupy.
Compliance Forms can be printed after completing the calculations and can be
submitted as a Compliance Record to the appropriate Building Department or
Authority, along with the Construction Documents.
This Software Package is for compliance with the "Ventilation Rate Procedure".
It does not perform calculations or assist with the "IAQ Design Procedure".
All procedures, formulas, charts, and tables as prescribed by the Ventilation Rate
Procedure have been included and have been used to establish the "Optimized"
Outdoor Intake Flow Rate requirements.
The proprietary "Optimization" of the required outdoor air rates is an important
part of this program. With "Optimization", the calculations assure that the
prescribed outdoor air quantities are being met while also assuring that the
outdoor air rates are not grossly excessive. "Optimization" can save significant
Energy and Operating Costs over the life of a facility.
The Calculation Programs include the following prescribed tabulated values,
procedures, and formulas:
1. Table 6-1: "Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone"
2. Table 6-2: "Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness"
3. Table 6-3: "System Ventilation Efficiency"
4. Table 6-4: "Minimum Exhaust Rates"
5. Occupant-density-related Ventilation requirements
6. Area-related Ventilation requirements
7. Primary Outdoor Air Fraction
8. System Ventilation Efficiency
9. Uncorrected Outdoor Air Intake
10. Design for Varying Operating Conditions
11. Equations for Multiple Zone Systems Without Zone Level Secondary
Recirculation
12. Equations for Multiple Zone Systems With Zone Level Recirculation
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Portions of the included information, descriptions, procedures, and forms are
excerpts from ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010, to assure that the purposes of
the Standard have been conveyed and that the procedures have been accurately
incorporated into these Calculation Programs and Compliance Documents.
Those portions of the included information that are taken directly from the
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 include copyright protection by ASHRAE "
2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers,
Inc. (www.ashrae.org) Used by permission."
IN NO EVENT WILL ASHRAE (or American Society of Heating, Refrigeration
and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.) BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES
ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAMS OR
ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTATION, HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY.
Input Forms, Tables, and Diagrams
Before beginning input and calculations, it is recommended that the following
Input Forms, Tables, and Diagrams be printed out, to assist with data assembly:
1. Calculations Take-off Form (Multiple copies for air handling systems with
more than 12 zones)
2. Table 6-1, Minimum Ventilation Rates In Breathing Zone
3. Typical Zone Occupancy Takeoff table and diagram
4. Table 6-2, Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness
5. Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness diagrams
6. Ventilation System Schematic
7. Copy of "Calculation and Design Assumptions
Output Compliance Forms
Compliance Forms can be printed after completing the calculations and can be
submitted as a Compliance Record to the appropriate Building Department or
Code Authority. It is recommended that the following Output Pages,
Assumptions, and Diagrams be printed out, to assist with Building Department
review:
1. Printout of Air Handling Unit calculation results for each air handling system
(Note: number of printout pages for each air handling system will depend on
the number of zones)
2. Copy of "Calculation and Design Assumptions"
3. Table 6-1, Minimum Ventilation Rates In Breathing Zone
4. Table 6-2, Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness
5. Ventilation System Schematic
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BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010
Brief Description
(The following information includes excerpts from ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-
2010: 2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org) Used by permission.)
The purpose of this standard is to specify minimum ventilation rates and indoor
air quality that will be acceptable to human occupants and are intended to
minimize the potential for adverse health effects.
This standard applies to all indoor or enclosed spaces that people may occupy,
except where other applicable standards and requirements dictate larger
amounts of ventilation than this standard. Release of moisture in residential
kitchens and bathrooms, locker rooms, and swimming pools is included in the
scope of this standard.
Acceptable indoor air quality may not be achieved in all buildings meeting the
requirements of this standard for one or more of the following reasons:
(a) because of the diversity of sources and contaminants in indoor air;
(b) because of the many other factors that may affect occupant perception
and acceptance of indoor air quality, such as air temperature, humidity,
noise, lighting, and psychological stress;
(c) because of the range of susceptibility in the population; and
(d) because outdoor air brought into the building may be unacceptable or
may not be adequately cleaned.
Either the Ventilation Rate Procedure or the IAQ Procedure shall be used to
design each ventilation system in a building, subject to the following
considerations and restrictions:
(a) Ventilation Rate Procedure. This is a prescriptive procedure in which
outdoor air intake rates are determined based on space
type/application, occupancy level, and floor area. Note: The Ventilation
Rate Procedure minimum rates are based on contaminant sources and
source strengths that are typical for the listed space types.
(b) IAQ Procedure. This is a design procedure in which outdoor air intake
rates and other system design parameters are based on an analysis of
contaminant sources, contaminant concentration targets, and
perceived acceptability targets. The IAQ Procedure allows credit to be
taken for controls that remove contaminants (for example, air cleaning
devices) or for other design techniques (for example, selection of
materials with lower source strengths) that can be reliably
demonstrated to result in indoor contaminant concentrations equal to
or lower than those achieved using the Ventilation Rate Procedure.
The IAQ Procedure may also be used where the design is intended to
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ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
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attain specific target contaminant concentrations or levels of
acceptability of perceived indoor air quality.
This Software Package is for compliance with only the "Ventilation Rate
Procedure". It does not perform calculations or assist with the "IAQ Design
Procedure". All procedures, formulas, charts, and tables as prescribed by the
"Ventilation Rate Procedure" have been included and have been used to
establish the "Optimized" Outdoor Intake Flow Rate requirements. The
proprietary "Optimization" of the required outdoor air rates is an important part of
this program. With "Optimization", the calculations assure that the prescribed
outdoor air quantities are being met while also assuring that the outdoor air rates
are not grossly excessive. "Optimization" can save significant Energy and
Operating Costs over the life of a facility.
ANSI/ASHRAE 62.1-2010 Ventilation Rate Procedure addresses essentially four
types of air handling systems for the purpose of determining required outdoor air
(OA) ventilation:
(a) Single-Zone Systems: When one air handler supplies a mixture of
outdoor air and recirculated air to only one zone.
(b) 100% Outdoor Air Systems: When one air handler supplies only
outdoor air to one or more zones.
(c) Multiple-Zone, "Single Supply" Recirculating Systems: When one air
handler or central system supplies a mixture of outdoor air and
recirculated return air to more than one zone from a single location, for
example, Reheat, Single-Duct VAV, Single-Fan Dual-Duct, and
Multizone.
(d) Multiple-Zone, "Primary Supply plus Secondary Local Recirculating"
Systems: When one air handler or central system supplies a mixture of
outdoor air and recirculated return air to more than one zone and also
provides part of the ventilation by recirculating air from other zones
without directly mixing it with outdoor air, for example, Dual-Fan Dual-
Duct, Fan-Powered Mixing Box, and Transfer Fans for conference
rooms.
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 prescribes the required outdoor air quantity,
based on the efficiency of the air handling system to deliver the outdoor air to the
"Breathing Zone". The "Breathing Zone" ventilation rate includes both an area-
related component and an occupant-density-related component, which are added
together to determine the required outdoor air ventilation for the space.
IN NO EVENT WILL ASHRAE (or American Society of Heating, Refrigeration
and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.) BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES
ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAMS OR
ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTATION, HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY.
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SETTING UP PROJECT DESIGN PROGRAMS - 62.1 COMPLY
The files within the HVAC Design Solutions 62.1 ComplyVAV-2010 software
programs are in the form of Read Only files and should be left as Read Only.
This will assure that the original programs are kept intact and wont be
accidentally written over by Project data input. After each calculation file or
program is used for a Project, it should be copied by using Save As into a
Project specific file location.
As stated in the License Agreement, each HVAC Design Solutions software
package can be used on only One Computer. If Project specific files are stored
on a local network file server, it is acceptable to store the Project Data files
generated with the HVAC Design Solutions programs on this remote computer or
file server. However, files that are transferred or copied to the remote computer
or file server can not be used for generating new calculations on other
computers.
Navigation within the ASHRAE 62.1VAV-2010 Compliance programs can be
accomplished through standard File Management programs on typical computer
operating systems. However, the ASHRAE 62.1VAV-2010 Compliance files
have been set up with more efficient Hyperlink connections and "Page Tabs"
from program to program, and the use of these hyperlinks is recommended.
The first step in performing Compliance Calculations is to fill out (pencil-in
values) the "Calculations Take-off Form" for each Air Handling System. See the
Calculations Take-off Form "Help" file for directions and recommendations. Each
Air Handling System should have a completed Take-off Form before beginning
Compliance Input and Calculations.
DESIGN OA TEMP.: -10
600
ESTIMATED PORTION OF SECONDARY
RECIRC. AIR FROM COMMON RETURN
(EG. CEIL. PLENUM) (CFM) (Vcz)
400
SECONDARY RECIRC. AIRFLOW TO
ZONE, IF APPLICABLE (FAN POWERED,
INDUCTION, ETC.) (CFM) (Vlz)
500 750
2000
MINIMUM PRIMARY AIRFLOW TO ZONE
(MIN. VAV PRIMARY OA & RA)
(CFM) (Vpzm)
750 180 1200
DESIGN PRIMARY AIRFLOW TO ZONE
(INCL. PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM) (Vpz)
1800 600 3300 6250
1
AIR DISTRIB. CONFIG. NUMBER
(SEE TABLE 6-2)
1 2 1
IF SPACE IS INTERMITTENT USAGE
(EG. CONFERENCE ROOM)
(SPACE HEIGHT - FT.)
8 8 8
48
PEAK OCCUPANCY - IF KNOWN
(EG. MEETING IN AN OFFICE)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
20 40
NORMAL OCCUPANCY - IF KNOWN
(EG. ONE PER OFFICE)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
8 2 25 36
5200
ZONE FLOOR AREA (SQ. FT.)
(Az)
1500 500 3000
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY NUMBER
(SEE TABLE 6-1)
27 28 29 29
1-4 ZONE NUMBER (EG: 1-1, 1-2) 1-1 1-2 1-3
AIR HANDLING UNIT TAG NUMBER
(AHU-1, ETC.)
AHU-1
PROJECT NUMBER: 141-05
DATE: 9/29/2010
CALCULATIONS TAKE-OFF FORM
PROJECT NAME: TEST PROJECT 1
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To perform Compliance Calculations using the ASHRAE 62.1-2010
Compliance software programs:
1. Select the "62.1COMPLY-VAV" icon on your desktop. This will open the
62.1COMPLY-VAV "INDEX" page and will provide Hyperlinks and "Page
Tabs" to all other programs within the Compliance Calculations package.
2. If you prefer to use a standard File Manager, select the 62.1 Comply-VAV
INDEX located at C:\ASHRAE62-1vav-2010\62-1complyVAV2010.xls
(depending on the specific computer setup). This program includes
"Hyperlinks" and "Page Tabs" to all other programs.
3. Select Project Info" sheet by clicking on the appropriate "Page Tab" or
"Hyperlink" on the INDEX page: (62.1complyvav-2010\PROJ.INFO!D2)
4. When opening some of the files, a message may appear regarding
Macros. Select Enable Macros to provide full functionality of the
Program.
5. If the appearance of the Basic Project Information Sheet is not correct for
this computer, change the Zoom Percentage by click-and-drag of one row
of cells to the desired page width. See the following picture. After
selecting the appropriate viewing width, click the drop-down arrow for
Zoom Percentage. Move down the options and click on Selection which
will change the selected page width to fill the screen.
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6. Fill out the Basic Project Information Sheet for the specific Project.
Typically, the Input cells for User input are white, surrounded by a blue
background, and the cells are not protected. For guidance in filling out
the form, click on the yellow HELP cell at the upper right corner of the
sheet. The HELP file can be printed if desired.
7. If a hard copy of the Basic Project Info. Sheet is desired, select Print to
activate the Print Preview and then Print the Project Information Sheet.
8. Keep the Basic Project Info Sheet open while performing calculations with
the desired programs and forms, so the basic design data will be
automatically transferred, and you won't have to re-input the information.
After all of the Project calculation programs or information forms have been
completed, printed, and saved into the desired Project Folder (steps 9
through 19, below), save the completed Basic Project Info. Sheet by
selecting File Save As from the Menu Bar at the top of the screen.
9. From the "Proj. Info" page or from the INDEX page, select any calculation
program by clicking on the appropriate Tab at the bottom of the sheet or
one of the hyperlinks.
10. When opening the file, a message may appear regarding Macros. Select
Enable Macros to provide full program functionality.
11. Next a message may appear regarding Links to Other Data Sources.
Select Update to provide automatic transfer of Basic Project Input to the
selected calculation program.
12. If the appearance of the selected calculation program or form is not correct
for this computer, change the Zoom Percentage by click-and-drag of one
row of cells to the desired page width.
13. When using a program for the first time, click on the yellow HELP cell at
the upper right corner of the sheet. The HELP file can be printed, if
desired.
14. After completing input and calculations, save the selected program using
File - Save As.
15. If any Input cells contain information, many of the programs include a
RESET/CLEAR button to reset the numbers to zero or blank. Click on
the RESET/CLEAR button before beginning input. See the following
picture.
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16. Complete the input and calculations for the selected program, and for each
Air Handling System, as described in the applicable "Help" file
documentation. Complete the "Optimization" procedures, where
appropriate, to assure "Optimized Compliance" with the ASHRAE Standard
62.1-2010 requirements.
17. After completing the Optimization procedures, go to the VAV(1)
REHEAT tab (fourth from the end of the tabs) and perform VAV-Reheat
calcs as described in the associated HELP file: vavrehet.doc (click on
hyperlink to jump to file).
17. After completing the input, calculations, and "Optimization" on each Air
Handling Unit, print out "Compliance Documents" as described in the
Section entitled "Compliance Documentation".
18. Note: If a record of each Air Handling System is desired, the current file
should be saved under the AHU Tag number, in the Project File location.
19. After printing out the Compliance Documents, and saving the file (if
desired) into the specific project location, close that file and repeat Steps 3
through 18 for each Air Handling System.
The preceding information includes excerpts from ANSI/ASHRAE 62.1-2010:
2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers,
Inc. (www.ashrae.org) Used by permission.
IN NO EVENT WILL ASHRAE (or American Society of Heating, Refrigeration
and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.) BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES
ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAMS OR
ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTATION, HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY.
HELP
VENTILATION FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY
MULTIPLE ZONE SYSTEMS ( WITHOUT ZONE LEVEL RECIRCULATION)
PROJECT NUMBER:
DATE:
DESIGN OA TEMP.:
AIR HANDLING UNIT TAG NUMBER
(AHU-1, ETC.)
PROJECT NAME:
0
ASHRAE STD. 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
PRINT RESET/CLEAR
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BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION FORM
(HELP FILE)
(Return to Calculations)
The Basic Project Information Form should be the first Form to be completed
for every project. Project Information that is inserted in the Form is automatically
transferred to other programs for use in calculations and for documenting the
project data. Also included are names of people responsible for the project, such
as the Client, Client Contact person, Project Manager, and Project Engineer.
This provides a contact list for the primary people involved in the project.
It is recommended that Outdoor Design Conditions be based on ASHRAE
Climatic Design Information, unless specific Office Design Policy indicates
otherwise. The ASHRAE Climatic Information is based on hourly observation
records from the National Climatic Data Center.
After completing the Basic Project Information Form and after completing the
calculations, the file could be saved in a project specific directory, along with the
other forms and calculation programs that are used in the design of the project.
Many of the programs are linked with each other and share the input and data
during calculations and print-outs.
To complete the Basic Project Information Form:
1. Insert Your Company Name in the first input cell (to replace the Your
Company Name text). This can also be a company logo, if it is
compatible with the current version of Microsoft Excel .
HELP
CLIENT CONTACT NAME:
BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION
"YOUR COMPANY NAME"
OFFICE
-10
TEST PROJECT 1
141-10
9/29/2010
PROJECT NAME :
PROJECT NUMBER :
DATE :
TYPE OF BUILDING :
DESIGN OA TEMP. (DEG. F) :
PROJECT MANAGER :
PROJECT ENGINEER :
CLIENT :
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2. Input the Project Name, Project Number, Date, and Type of
Building in the appropriate cells.
3. Consult the most recent edition of ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook,
Climatic Design Information for the Heating Design Conditions at the
Project Location (or as close as possible to the actual location).
4. Input the Winter Design Dry Bulb (DB) Temperature (Deg. F) from the
ASHRAE 99.6% DB column under Heating DB for the Station nearest
the Project Location.
5. Input the Project Manager, Project Engineer, Client, and Client
Contact Name as appropriate.
6. After completing all ventilation calculations that require transfer of this
"Basic Project" information, the file can be saved using Save As
under the specific Project File location.
7. If a hard copy of the Basic Project Information sheet is desired, click on
the Print button at the bottom of the form.
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CALCULATIONS TAKE-OFF FORM
(HELP FILE)
(Return to Calculations)
The Calculations Take-off Form can be printed and used for take-off of the necessary
input information. Multiple blank copies can be printed as required for the number of air
handling systems in the project. The form can also be used on the computer screen,
where the data can be filled in and can then be transferred (by copy and paste) into the
appropriate locations in the programs. The following picture shows the elements of the
Calculations Take-off Form, with a description of the input procedures on the following
pages.
The "Project Data" information is automatically transferred from the "Project Info" form,
including "Your Company Name", "Project Name", "Project Number", and "Date".
To complete the Calculations Take-off Form, a copy of "Table 6-1", "Table 6-2",
"Occupancy Take-off Diagram", and "Air Distribution Diagrams" should printed for
reference. Associated "Help" files for these Tables and Diagrams should also be
available.
The Calculations Take-off Form includes all of the input data that is necessary for
ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 Compliance. The form also includes two input rows for
systems that have "Secondary Recirculation" at the Zone level (such as Fan Powered
HELP
ASHRAE STD. 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
CALCULATIONS TAKE-OFF FORM
IF SPACE IS INTERMITTENT USAGE
(EG. CONFERENCE ROOM)
(SPACE HEIGHT - FT.)
NORMAL OCCUPANCY - IF KNOWN
(EG. ONE PER OFFICE)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY NUMBER
(SEE TABLE 6-1)
PEAK OCCUPANCY - IF KNOWN
(EG. MEETING IN AN OFFICE)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
ZONE FLOOR AREA (SQ. FT.)
(Az)
"Your Company Name"
AIR HANDLING UNIT TAG NUMBER
(AHU-1, ETC.)
PROJECT
VENTILATION FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY
ZONE NUMBER (EG: 1-1, 1-2)
0
PROJECT NAME:
DATE:
DESIGN OA TEMP.:
PRINT RESET/CLEAR
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VAV, Induction systems, or Dual-Fan Dual Duct systems. If the system does not have
Secondary Recirculation, the last two rows will be left blank.
To complete the Calculation Take-off Form:
1. If any input cells contain numbers from a previous calculation, click on the
Reset/Clear button before beginning input for the new project.
2. Input the "Air Handling Unit Tag Number (AHU-1, etc.)". A separate Take-off
Form should be completed for every air handling system, including Single Zone
Systems, 100% Outdoor Air Systems, Multiple Zone Systems, and Central
Station Systems. This applies to any system that provides outdoor air
ventilation for people.
3. Input the appropriate "Zone Numbers", related to the Air Handling Unit. Note:
Zones for ventilation requirements can be, but are not necessarily, the same as
the thermal Zones used for Load Calculations. Ventilation-related Zones can
be one occupied space or several occupied spaces with similar "Occupancy
Category" (See Table 6-1), similar "Occupant Density", similar "Zone Air
Distribution Effectiveness", and similar "Zone Primary Airflow per Unit Area".
4. For each "Ventilation Zone", input the appropriate "Occupancy Category
Number" from Table 6-1. If the Occupancy Category for a proposed space is
not listed, the Occupancy Category that is most similar in terms of Occupant
Density, Activities, and Building Construction shall be used.
5. Input the "Zone Floor Area" for each zone, which includes the occupiable
space defined by the inside surface of its walls, but excluding shafts, column
enclosures, and other permanently enclosed, inaccessible and unoccupiable
areas.
6. Input the "Normal Occupancy" of each zone, if it is known (for example, one
person per office). This number should be the normal anticipated number of
occupants in the zone during normal usage. It would not include, for example,
a filled conference room, if the "normal occupancy" would be empty. In that
case, input "0" for "Normal Occupancy" and input the total people under "Peak
Occupancy".
7. If a space or zone has the potential of an increased number of occupants, such
as a conference room, or an extended meeting in an office, input the
anticipated number in the row for "Peak Occupancy".
8. If the "Peak Occupancy" is expected to be of relatively short duration (for
example, two or three hours out of an eight hour day), also input the "Space
Height" so the "Average Occupancy" Over A Time Period can be calculated.
Note: If the air handling system has a "Ceiling Plenum" type return system, the
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height of the ceiling space should also be included in the "Space Height". (See
the "Typical Zone Occupancy Take-off" Table and Diagram for additional
clarification).
9. Enter the "Air Distribution Configuration Number" from Table 6-2 "Zone Air
Distribution Effectiveness" and from the associated "Zone Air Distribution
Effectiveness Diagrams". As noted in the description of the "Air Distribution
Configuration" Table, the selection of the "Configuration Number" should be
based on the expected "Worst-case", as applicable to the subject zone. For
example, if a zone could have a supply air temperature "More than 15 degrees
F (8 deg. C) above the room temperature, under some conditions, then
"Configuration Number 3" should be selected. This has a smaller
"Effectiveness Number" (0.8), which will require a larger quantity of outdoor air
than if "Config. Number 1" (Ceiling Supply of Cool Air) had been selected. This
is also true if the supply air temperature is less than 15 degrees F (8 deg. C)
above room temperature (but still above room temperature) and the diffuser
pattern does not assure that the supply air jet reaching to within 4.5 feet (1.4
m) of the floor level is more than 150 ft. per min. (0.8 m/s) velocity. When
making this determination, it should also be considered that the supply air
volume could be significantly reduced before heating is initiated (as in VAV
systems). Therefore, the diffuser performance should also be analyzed at the
minimum flow conditions, before establishing the appropriate "Configuration
Number".
10. Input the "Design Primary Airflow to the Zone". This is the primary airflow
supplied to the zone from the air handling unit at which the outdoor air intake is
located, in CFM (L/s). It includes outdoor intake air and recirculated air from
that air handling system, but does not include air transferred or air recirculated
to the zone by other means (such as locally recirculated airflow).
11. Input the "Minimum Primary Airflow to the Zone". With VAV systems, this is
the minimum expected primary airflow when the variable volume device is at
minimum design flow rate. Note: this "Minimum Primary Airflow" number may
AIR DISTRIB. CONFIG. NUMBER
(SEE TABLE 6-2)
DESIGN PRIMARY AIRFLOW TO ZONE
(INCL. PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM) (Vpz)
MINIMUM PRIMARY AIRFLOW TO ZONE
(MIN. VAV PRIMARY OA & RA)
(CFM) (Vpzm)
SECONDARY RECIRC. AIRFLOW TO
ZONE, IF APPLICABLE (FAN POWERED,
INDUCTION, ETC.) (CFM) (Vlz)
ESTIMATED PORTION OF SECONDARY
RECIRC. AIR FROM COMMON RETURN
(EG. CEIL. PLENUM) (CFM) (Vcz)
15
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
be increased during "Outdoor Air Optimization". See the discussion on
"Optimizing Outdoor Air Requirements" for detailed information.
12. If the air handling system includes secondary recirculation at the zone level,
such as with fan powered VAV terminals, it is necessary to perform additional
calculations to determine the outdoor air requirements. The quantity (CFM or
L/s) of "Secondary Recirculation Airflow to Zone" should be determined by the
airflow volume of the secondary system fan or blower. See the "Ventilation
System Schematic" for a diagram describing the Secondary Recirculation"
system. This provision is for systems that provide part of their ventilation by
recirculating air from other zones without directly mixing it with outdoor air (eg.
Dual-fan dual-duct, fan powered mixing box, fan powered VAV box, and
transfer fans for conference rooms).
13. Input the "Estimated Portion of Secondary Recirculation Air From the Common
Return". This number will be a portion of the previously input quantity of
"Secondary Recirculation Airflow to Zone". This number should be based on
engineering judgement and depends on whether the air handling return system
is ducted or is a "Ceiling Plenum" type of return system. There also could be a
situation where all of the "Secondary Recirculation" air is from within the
subject zone. In that case, the "Estimated Portion of Secondary Recirc. Air
From Common Return" could be zero. If that is the case, there will be no credit
taken for "Outdoor Air Fraction" from other zones to the subject zone.
14. After completing the form, these values can be transferred (by "copy and
paste") to the appropriate calculation program, if the form input was on the
screen, or can be input into the calculation programs individually.
16
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
SINGLE ZONE SYSTEM
(HELP FILE)
(Return to Calculations)
When one air handler supplies a mixture of outdoor air and recirculated air to
only one zone, this program should be used to determine the "Required Outdoor
Air Intake Quantity". (See copy of Input Form, below).
If a "Calculations Take-off Form" has been completed for this system, the
necessary values can be taken from the form. If the "Calc. Take-off Form" was
not used, the values can be established while performing the input and
calculations. See the descriptions for filling out the "Calculations Take-off Form"
for help with specific input requirements.
"YOUR COMPANY NAME"
HELP
ASHRAE STD. 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
CORRECTED OCCUPANCY FOR INTERMITTENT
USAGE SPACES
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
20
PEAK OCCUPANCY - IF KNOWN
(EG. MEETING IN AN OFFICE)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
24
IF SPACE IS INTERMITTENT USAGE
(EG. CONFERENCE ROOM)
(SPACE HEIGHT - FT.)
9
PROJECT NAME:
PROJECT NUMBER:
DATE:
TEST PROJECT 1
141-10
9/29/2010
AIR HANDLING UNIT TAG NUMBER
(AHU-1, ETC.)
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY NUMBER
(SEE TABLE 6-1)
ZONE FLOOR AREA (SQ. FT.) (Az)
NORMAL OCCUPANCY - IF KNOWN
(EG. ONE PER OFFICE)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
AREA OUTDOOR AIR RATE
(CFM/SQ. FT.) (Ra)
18
14
10.0
0.12
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY Media center
AHU-1
1000
VENTILATION FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY
SINGLE ZONE SYSTEMS
SINGLE ZONE SYSTEMS
PEOPLE OUTDOOR AIR RATE
(CFM/PERSON) (Rp)
PRINT
RESET/CLEAR
17
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
To complete the Single Zone Systems Input Form:
1. If any of the "Input Cells" (White or Green color cells) contain numbers
from a previous calculation, click on the Reset/Clear button before
beginning input for the new project. Note that several cells, such as
Project Name, Project Number, and Date have been automatically
filled by information from the Basic Project Information form.
2. Input the "Air Handling Unit Tag Number", as used with the construction
documents. A separate Input Form should be completed for every
Single Zone air handling system. This applies to any system that
provides outdoor air ventilation for people.
3. Input the appropriate "Occupancy Category Number" from Table 6-1. If
the Occupancy Category for a proposed space is not listed, the
Occupancy Category that is most similar in terms of Occupant Density,
Activities, and Building Construction shall be used.
4. Input the "Zone Floor Area", which includes the occupiable space
defined by the inside surface of its walls, but excluding shafts, column
enclosures, and other permanently enclosed, inaccessible and
unoccupiable areas.
5. Input the "Normal Occupancy", if it is known (for example, one person
per office). This number should be the normal anticipated number of
occupants in the area during normal usage. It would not include, for
example, a filled conference room, if the "normal occupancy" would be
empty. In that case, input "0" for "Normal Occupancy" and input the
total people under "Peak Occupancy".
6. If a space has the potential of an increased number of occupants, such
as a conference room, or an extended meeting in an office, input the
anticipated number in the row for "Peak Occupancy".
7. If the "Peak Occupancy" is expected to be of relatively short duration
(for example, two or three hours out of an eight hour day), also input the
"Space Height" so the "Average Occupancy" Over A Time Period can be
calculated. Note: If the air handling system has a "Ceiling Plenum" type
return system, the height of the ceiling space should also be included in
the "Space Height". (See the "Typical Zone Occupancy Take-off" Table
and Diagram for additional clarification).
8. Enter the "Air Distribution Configuration Number" from Table 6-2 "Zone
Air Distribution Effectiveness" (see partial view, below) and from the
associated "Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness Diagrams". As noted in
the description of the "Air Distribution Configuration" Table, the selection
of the "Configuration Number" should be based on the expected "Worst-
18
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
case", as applicable to the subject zone. For example, if a zone could
have a supply air temperature "More than 15 degrees F (8 deg. C)
above the room temperature, under some conditions, then
"Configuration Number 3" should be selected. This has a smaller
"Effectiveness Number" (0.8), which will require a larger quantity of
outdoor air than if "Config. Number 1" (Ceiling Supply of Cool Air) had
been selected. This is also true if the supply air temperature is less than
15 degrees F (8 deg. C) above room temperature (but still above room
temperature) and the diffuser pattern does not assure that the supply air
jet reaching to within 4.5 feet (1.4 m) of the floor level is more than 150
ft. per min. (0.8 m/s) velocity. When making this determination, it should
also be considered that the supply air volume could be significantly
reduced before heating is initiated (as in VAV systems). Therefore, the
diffuser performance should also be analyzed at the minimum flow
conditions, before establishing the appropriate "Configuration Number".
9. After completing the input, return to the top of the sheet and press
"Print". Review the "Print Preview" and, if correct, continue with "Print".
1.0
320
REQUIRED OUTDOOR AIR INTAKE FLOW -
SINGLE ZONE (CFM) (Vot) = (Voz)
320
1
320
ZONE AIR DISTRIBUTION EFFECTIVENESS
(Ez)
ZONE OUTDOOR AIRFLOW
(CFM) (Voz)
BREATHING ZONE OUTDOOR AIRFLOW
(CFM) (Vbz)
AIR DISTRIB. CONFIG. NUMBER
(SEE TABLE 6-2)
1 Ceiling supply of cool air 1.0
2 Ceiling supply of warm air and floor return 1.0
4
Ceiling supply of warm air less than 15F (8C) above space temperature
and ceiling return, provided that the 150 fpm (0.8 m/s) supply air jet
reaches to within 4.5 ft (1.4 m) of floor level.
1.0
5
Ceiling supply of warm air less than 15F (8C) above space temperature
and ceiling return, with the supply air jet reaching to within 4.5 ft (1.4 m) of
floor level of less than 150 fpm (0.8 m/s) velocity.
0.8
3
Ceiling supply of warm air 15F (8C) or more above space temperature and
ceiling return.
0.8
TABLE 6-2 Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness
Configuration
Number
Air Distribution Configuration
Effectiveness
Ez
19
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
100% OUTDOOR AIR SYSTEM
(HELP FILE)
(Return to Calculations)
When one air handler supplies only Outdoor Air to one or more zones, this
program should be used to determine the Required Outdoor Air Intake Quantity.
If a "Calculations Take-off Form" has been completed for this system, the
necessary values can be taken from the form. If the "Calc. Take-off Form" was
not used, the values can be established while performing the input and
calculations. See the descriptions for filling out the "Calculations Take-off Form"
for help with specific input requirements.
To complete the Basic Project Information Form:
HELP
ASHRAE STD. 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
0 0
PROJECT TEST PROJECT 1
PROJECT 141-05
AIR HANDLING UNIT TAG NUMBER
(AHU-1, ETC.)
AHU-2 DATE: 9/29/2010
"YOUR COMPANY NAME"
1
0
2-1
5 6 7 8
5.0
27
3000
Office
space
94
40
23
9
2 3
2-3
5.0
29
Telepho
ne/data
entry
2-2
5.0
28
Receptio
n areas
1500
45
400
8
5000
0
RECORD NUMBER > > > >
ZONE NUMBER (EG: 1-1, 1-2)
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY NUMBER
(SEE TABLE 6-1)
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY
PEOPLE OUTDOOR AIR RATE
(CFM/PERSON) (Rp)
NORMAL OCCUPANCY - IF KNOWN
(EG. ONE PER OFFICE)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
ZONE FLOOR AREA (SQ. FT.)
(Az)
PEAK OCCUPANCY - IF KNOWN
(EG. MEETING IN AN OFFICE)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
IF SPACE IS INTERMITTENT USAGE
(EG. CONFERENCE ROOM)
(SPACE HEIGHT - FT.)
CORRECTED OCCUPANCY FOR
INTERMITTENT USAGE SPACES
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
Wood/m
etal shop
0
10.0
0 0
0.0
0
4
12
0.0
0
0.00
0 0
0.0 0.0
500
AREA OUTDOOR AIR RATE
(CFM/SQ. FT.) (Ra)
0.06 0.06 0.06 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00
100% OUTDOOR AIR SYSTEMS
VENTILATION FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY
PRINT
RESET/CLEAR
20
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
To complete the 100% Outdoor Air Systems Input Form:
1. If any of the "Input Cells" (White or Green color cells) contain numbers
from a previous calculation, click on the Reset/Clear button before
beginning input for the new project. Note that several cells, such as
Project Name, Project Number, and Date have been automatically
filled by information from the Basic Project Information form.
2. Input the "Air Handling Unit Tag Number", as used with the construction
documents. A separate Input Form should be completed for every 100%
Outdoor Air air handling system. This applies to any system that
provides outdoor air ventilation for people.
3. Input the appropriate "Zone Numbers", related to the Air Handling Unit.
Note: Zones for ventilation requirements can be, but are not necessarily,
the same as the thermal Zones used for Load Calculations. Ventilation-
related Zones can be one occupied space or several occupied spaces
with similar "Occupancy Category" (See Table 6-1), similar "Occupant
Density", similar "Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness", and similar "Zone
Primary Airflow per Unit Area".
4. Input the appropriate "Occupancy Category Number" from Table 6-1. If
the Occupancy Category for a proposed space is not listed, the
Occupancy Category that is most similar in terms of Occupant Density,
Activities, and Building Construction shall be used.
5. Input the "Zone Floor Area" for each zone, which includes the
occupiable space defined by the inside surface of its walls, but excluding
shafts, column enclosures, and other permanently enclosed,
inaccessible and unoccupiable areas.
6. Input the "Normal Occupancy" of each zone, if it is known (for example,
one person per office). This number should be the normal anticipated
number of occupants in the zone during normal usage. It would not
include, for example, a filled conference room, if the "normal occupancy"
would be empty. In that case, input "0" for "Normal Occupancy" and
input the total people under "Peak Occupancy".
7. If a space or zone has the potential of an increased number of
occupants, such as a conference room, or an extended meeting in an
office, input the anticipated number in the row for "Peak Occupancy".
8. If the "Peak Occupancy" is expected to be of relatively short duration
(for example, two or three hours out of an eight hour day), also input the
"Space Height" so the "Average Occupancy" Over A Time Period can be
calculated. Note: If the air handling system has a "Ceiling Plenum" type
return system, the height of the ceiling space should also be included in
21
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
the "Space Height". (See the "Typical Zone Occupancy Take-off" Table
and Diagram for additional clarification).
9. Enter the "Air Distribution Configuration Number" for each zone, from
Table 6-2 (see partial view: 2010 ASHRAE, Inc. (www.ashrae.org),
Used by permission) and from the associated "Zone Air Distribution
Effectiveness Diagrams". As noted in the description of the Table 6-2,
the selection of the "Configuration Number" should be based on the
expected "Worst-case", as applicable to the subject zone. For example,
if a zone could have a supply air temperature "More than 15 degrees F
(8 deg. C) above the room temperature, under some conditions, then
"Configuration Number 3" should be selected. This has a smaller
"Effectiveness Number" (0.8), which will require a larger quantity of
outdoor air than if "Config. Number 1" (Ceiling Supply of Cool Air) had
been selected. This is also true if the supply air temperature is less than
15 degrees F (8 deg. C) above room temperature (but still above room
temperature) and the diffuser pattern does not assure that the supply air
22
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
jet reaching to within 4.5 feet (1.4 m) of the floor level is more than 150
ft. per min. (0.8 m/s) velocity. When making this determination, it should
also be considered that the supply air volume could be significantly
reduced before heating is initiated (as in VAV systems). Therefore, the
diffuser performance should also be analyzed at the minimum flow
conditions, before establishing the appropriate "Configuration Number".
10. After completing the input, scroll to the top of the sheet and click the "Print"
button (above the "Project Name"). In the "Print Preview", scroll down as
required to verify how many pages are needed to include all of the
associated zones. Click on "Print" button at the top of the "Print Preview"
page. Under "Print Range" on the "Print" dialog box, select "Pages" and
list the "From" and "To" as appropriate. Click "OK".
1 Ceiling supply of cool air 1.0
2 Ceiling supply of warm air and floor return 1.0
4
Ceiling supply of warm air less than 15F (8C) above space temperature
and ceiling return, provided that the 150 fpm (0.8 m/s) supply air jet
reaches to within 4.5 ft (1.4 m) of floor level.
1.0
5
Ceiling supply of warm air less than 15F (8C) above space temperature
and ceiling return, with the supply air jet reaching to within 4.5 ft (1.4 m) of
floor level of less than 150 fpm (0.8 m/s) velocity.
0.8
3
Ceiling supply of warm air 15F (8C) or more above space temperature and
ceiling return.
0.8
TABLE 6-2 Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness
Configuration
Number
Air Distribution Configuration
Effectiveness
Ez
0 0
0.0
0
0
0.0 0.0
0
1800 190 0
6
190
AIR DISTRIB. CONFIG. NUMBER
(SEE TABLE 6-2)
ZONE AIR DISTRIBUTION EFFECTIVENESS
(Ez)
4
ZONE OUTDOOR AIRFLOW (CFM) (Voz)
1.0 1.0 0.8 1.0
210 813 1800 0 0
0.0
REQUIRED OUTDOOR AIR INTAKE FLOW =
SUM OF ALL ZONES (CFM) (Vot)
1 5
3013
650
PEOPLE OUTDOOR AIR (CFM)
(Rp x Pz)
AREA OUTDOOR AIR (CFM)
(Ra x Az)
120
90
BREATHING ZONE OUTDOOR AIRFLOW
(CFM) (Vbz)
210
470 1500 100 0 0 0 0
180 300 90 0 0 0 0
23
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
MULTIPLE ZONE SYSTEM WITHOUT LOCAL RECIRCULATION
(HELP FILE)
(Return to Calculations)
When one air handler supplies a mixture of outdoor air and recirculated return air to
more than one zone, and the system does not include recirculating air at the zone level
(eg. Reheat, Single-duct VAV, Single-Fan Dual-Duct, or Multizone), this program should
be used to determine the Required Outdoor Air Intake Quantity.
If a "Calculations Take-off Form" has been completed for this system, the necessary
values can be taken from the form. If the "Calc. Take-off Form" was not used, the
values can be established while performing the input and calculations. See the
descriptions for filling out the "Calculations Take-off Form" for help with specific input
requirements.
HELP
ASHRAE STD. 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
PROJECT NAME: TEST PROJECT 1
CORRECTED OCCUPANCY FOR
INTERMITTENT USAGE SPACES
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
7 14 0 0 0 0 0
8 8
PEAK OCCUPANCY - IF KNOWN
(EG. MEETING IN AN OFFICE)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
IF SPACE IS INTERMITTENT USAGE
(EG. CONFERENCE ROOM) (SPACE
HEIGHT - FT.)
9 15
AIR HANDLING UNIT TAG NUMBER
(AHU-1, ETC.)
ZONE NUMBER (EG: 1-1, 1-2) 3-1 3-2 3-3
"YOUR COMPANY NAME"
AHU-3
VENTILATION FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY
MULTIPLE ZONE SYSTEMS ( WITHOUT ZONE LEVEL RECIRCULATION)
PROJECT NUMBER: 141-05
DATE: 9/29/2010
DESIGN OA TEMP.: -10
RECORD NUMBER > > > > 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY NUMBER
(SEE TABLE 6-1)
27 28 29
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY
Office
space
Receptio
n areas
Telepho
ne/data
entry
0 0 0 0
PEOPLE OUTDOOR AIR RATE
(CFM/PERSON) (Rp)
5.0 5.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
AREA OUTDOOR AIR RATE
(CFM/SQ. FT.) (Ra)
0.06 0.06 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
ZONE FLOOR AREA (SQ. FT.)
(Az)
300 500 2000
NORMAL OCCUPANCY - IF KNOWN
(EG. ONE PER OFFICE)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
5 12
PRINT RESET/CLEAR
24
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
To complete the Multiple Zone Systems (Without Zone Level Recirculation)" Input
Form:
1. If any of the "Input Cells" (White or Green color cells) contain numbers from a
previous calculation, click on the Reset/Clear button before beginning input
for the new project. Note that several cells, such as Project Name, Project
Number, Date, and "Design OA Temp" have been automatically filled by
information from the Basic Project Information form.
2. Input the "Air Handling Unit Tag Number", as used with the construction
documents. A separate Input Form should be completed for every Multiple
Zone Without Zone Level Recirculation air handling system. This applies to
any system that provides outdoor air ventilation for people.
3. Input the appropriate "Zone Numbers", related to the Air Handling Unit. Note:
Zones for ventilation requirements can be, but are not necessarily, the same as
the thermal Zones used for Load Calculations. Ventilation-related Zones can
be one occupied space or several occupied spaces with similar "Occupancy
Category" (See Table 6-1), similar "Occupant Density", similar "Zone Air
Distribution Effectiveness", and similar "Zone Primary Airflow per Unit Area".
4. Input the appropriate "Occupancy Category Number" from Table 6-1. If the
Occupancy Category for a proposed space is not listed, the Occupancy
Category that is most similar in terms of Occupant Density, Activities, and
Building Construction shall be used.
5. Input the "Zone Floor Area" for each zone, which includes the occupiable
space defined by the inside surface of its walls, but excluding shafts, column
enclosures, and other permanently enclosed, inaccessible and unoccupiable
areas.
6. Input the "Normal Occupancy" of each zone, if it is known (for example, one
person per office). This number should be the normal anticipated number of
occupants in the zone during normal usage. It would not include, for example,
a filled conference room, if the "normal occupancy" would be empty. In that
case, input "0" for "Normal Occupancy" and input the total people under "Peak
Occupancy".
7. If a space or zone has the potential of an increased number of occupants, such
as a conference room, or an extended meeting in an office, input the
anticipated number in the row for "Peak Occupancy".
8. If the "Peak Occupancy" is expected to be of relatively short duration (for
example, two or three hours out of an eight hour day), also input the "Space
Height" so the "Average Occupancy" Over A Time Period can be calculated.
Note: If the air handling system has a "Ceiling Plenum" type return system, the
25
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
height of the ceiling space should also be included in the "Space Height". (See
the "Typical Zone Occupancy Take-off" Table and Diagram for additional
clarification).
9. Enter the "Air Distribution Configuration Number" for each zone, from Table 6-2
"Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness" (see partial view, below) and from the
associated "Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness Diagrams". As noted in the
description of the "Air Distribution Configuration" Table, the selection of the
"Configuration Number" should be based on the expected "Worst-case", as
applicable to the subject zone. For example, if a zone could have a supply air
temperature "More than 15 degrees F (8 deg. C) above the room temperature,
under some conditions, then "Configuration Number 3" should be selected.
This has a smaller "Effectiveness Number" (0.8), which will require a larger
quantity of outdoor air than if "Config. Number 1" (Ceiling Supply of Cool Air)
had been selected. This is also true if the supply air temperature is less than
15 degrees F (8 deg. C) above room temperature (but still above room
temperature) and the diffuser pattern does not assure that the supply air jet
26
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
reaching to within 4.5 feet (1.4 m) of the floor level is more than 150 ft. per min.
(0.8 m/s) velocity. When making this determination, it should also be
considered that the supply air volume could be significantly reduced before
heating is initiated (as in VAV systems). Therefore, the diffuser performance
should also be analyzed at the minimum flow conditions, before establishing
the appropriate "Configuration Number".
10. Input the "Design Primary Airflow to the Zone". This is the primary airflow
supplied to the zone from the air handling unit at which the outdoor air intake is
located, in CFM (L/s). It includes outdoor intake air and recirculated air from
that air handling system, but does not include air transferred or air recirculated
to the zone by other means (such as locally recirculated airflow).
1 Ceiling supply of cool air 1.0
2 Ceiling supply of warm air and floor return 1.0
4
Ceiling supply of warm air less than 15F (8C) above space temperature
and ceiling return, provided that the 150 fpm (0.8 m/s) supply air jet
reaches to within 4.5 ft (1.4 m) of floor level.
1.0
5
Ceiling supply of warm air less than 15F (8C) above space temperature
and ceiling return, with the supply air jet reaching to within 4.5 ft (1.4 m) of
floor level of less than 150 fpm (0.8 m/s) velocity.
0.8
3
Ceiling supply of warm air 15F (8C) or more above space temperature and
ceiling return.
0.8
TABLE 6-2 Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness
Configuration
Number
Air Distribution Configuration
Effectiveness
Ez
0 0
AREA OUTDOOR AIR (CFM)
(Ra x Az)
18 30 120 24 0 0
PEOPLE OUTDOOR AIR (CFM)
(Rp x Pz)
35 70 600 30 0 0 0 0
ZONE AIR DISTRIBUTION
EFFECTIVENESS (Ez)
1.0 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
AIR DISTRIB. CONFIG. NUMBER
(SEE TABLE 6-2)
1 2 3 1
BREATHING ZONE OUTDOOR AIRFLOW
(CFM) (Vbz)
53 100 720 54 0 0 0 0
0.0
27
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
11. Input the "Minimum Primary Airflow to the Zone". With VAV systems, this is
the minimum expected primary airflow when the variable volume device is at
minimum design flow rate. Note: this "Minimum Primary Airflow" number may
be increased during "Outdoor Air Optimization".
12. After all zone data has been input for each, scroll down to "Minimum VAV
Airflow to Zone (Incl. Primary OA & RA)".
13. The zone cells in the row for "Minimum VAV Airflow to Zone" will have one of
four possible colors: "Red" = farthest from optimum air quantity, "Orange" =
next farthest from optimum air quantity, "Yellow" = close to optimum, or
possibly optimum air quantity for that zone, or "White" = optimum, or possibly
above optimum quantity for that zone.
14. Below the "Minimum VAV Airflow To Zone" is "Zone Primary Outdoor Air
Fraction (Zp)". These zone cells will have one zone highlighted with "Yellow"
(see picture above). This is the "Key" zone, or "Ventilation-critical" zone, and
indicates the starting point for Optimization.
15. See the discussion on "Optimizing Outdoor Air Requirements" for detailed
information and instructions on how to Optimize the Required Outdoor Air
Quantities.
16. After completing the "Optimization", scroll to the top of the sheet and click the
"Print" button (above the "Air Handling Unit Tag Number"). In the "Print
Preview", scroll down as required to verify how many pages are needed to
include all of the associated zones. Click on "Print" button at the top of the
"Print Preview" page. Under "Print Range" on the "Print" dialog box, select
"Pages" and list the "From" and "To" as appropriate. Click "OK".
0 0
NORMAL ZONE OCCUPANCY
(EITHER KNOWN OR DEFAULT)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
5 12 120 6 0 0
ZONE OUTDOOR AIRFLOW
(CFM) (Voz)
53 100 900 54
DESIGN PRIMARY AIRFLOW TO ZONE
(INCL. PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM) (Vpz)
ZONE PRIMARY OUTDOOR AIR
FRACTION (Zp)
400 700 4000
MINIMUM VAV AIRFLOW TO ZONE (INCL.
PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM) (Vdz)
121 475 2800
0.44
600
132
0.21 0.32 0.41 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
28
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
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MULTIPLE ZONE SYSTEM WITH LOCAL RECIRCULATION
(HELP FILE)
(Return to Calculations)
When one air handler supplies a mixture of outdoor air and recirculated return air to
more than one zone, and the system includes recirculating air at the zone level (eg.
Dual-Fan Dual-Duct, Fan-powered Mixing Box, and Transfer Fans for Conference
Rooms), this program should be used to determine the Required Outdoor Air Intake
Quantity.
If a "Calculations Take-off Form" has been completed for this system, the necessary
values can be taken from the form. If the "Calc. Take-off Form" was not used, the
values can be established while performing the input and calculations. See the
descriptions for filling out the "Calculations Take-off Form" for help with specific input
requirements.
HELP
CORRECTED OCCUPANCY FOR
INTERMITTENT USAGE SPACES
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
14 0 68 0 0 0 0
IF SPACE IS INTERMITTENT USAGE
(EG. CONFERENCE ROOM)
(SPACE HEIGHT - FT.)
8 8
PEAK OCCUPANCY - IF KNOWN
(EG. MEETING IN AN OFFICE)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
20 75 120
NORMAL OCCUPANCY - IF KNOWN
(EG. ONE PER OFFICE)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
10 0 50
ZONE FLOOR AREA (SQ. FT.)
(Az)
500 1500 1800
AREA OUTDOOR AIR RATE
(CFM/SQ. FT.) (Ra)
0.06 0.06 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
PEOPLE OUTDOOR AIR RATE
(CFM/PERSON) (Rp)
5.0 5.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
OCCUPANCY
C GO
Receptio
n areas
Telepho
ne/data
entry
Telepho
ne/data
entry
0 0 0 0
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY NUMBER
(SEE TABLE 6-1)
28 29 29
ASHRAE STD. 62.1-2010
CO C
RECORD NUMBER > > > > 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
VENTILATION FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY
MULTIPLE ZONE SYSTEMS ( WITH ZONE LEVEL RECIRCULATION)
PROJECT NUMBER: 141-05
PROJECT NAME: TEST PROJECT 1
9/29/2010
-10
AIR HANDLING UNIT TAG NUMBER
(AHU-1, ETC.)
ZONE NUMBER (EG: 1-1, 1-2) 4-1 4-2 4-3
DESIGN OA TEMP.: AHU-4
DATE:
"YOUR COMPANY
PRINT
RESET/CLEAR
29
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
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To complete the Multiple Zone Systems (With Zone Level Recirculation)" Input Form:
1. If any of the "Input Cells" (White or Green color cells) contain numbers from a
previous calculation, click on the Reset/Clear button before beginning input
for the new project. Note that several cells, such as Project Name, Project
Number, Date, and "Design OA Temp" have been automatically filled by
information from the Basic Project Information form.
2. Input the "Air Handling Unit Tag Number", as used with the construction
documents. A separate Input Form should be completed for every Multiple
Zone With Zone Level Recirculation air handling system. This applies to any
system that provides outdoor air ventilation for people.
3. Input the appropriate "Zone Numbers", related to the Air Handling Unit. Note:
Zones for ventilation requirements can be, but are not necessarily, the same as
the thermal Zones used for Load Calculations. Ventilation-related Zones can
be one occupied space or several occupied spaces with similar "Occupancy
Category" (See Table 6-1), similar "Occupant Density", similar "Zone Air
Distribution Effectiveness", and similar "Zone Primary Airflow per Unit Area".
4. Input the appropriate "Occupancy Category Number" from Table 6-1. If the
Occupancy Category for a proposed space is not listed, the Occupancy
Category that is most similar in terms of Occupant Density, Activities, and
Building Construction shall be used.
5. Input the "Zone Floor Area" for each zone, which includes the occupiable
space defined by the inside surface of its walls, but excluding shafts, column
enclosures, and other permanently enclosed, inaccessible and unoccupiable
areas.
6. Input the "Normal Occupancy" of each zone, if it is known (for example, one
person per office). This number should be the normal anticipated number of
occupants in the zone during normal usage. It would not include, for example,
a filled conference room, if the "normal occupancy" would be empty. In that
case, input "0" for "Normal Occupancy" and input the total people under "Peak
Occupancy".
7. If a space or zone has the potential of an increased number of occupants, such
as a conference room, or an extended meeting in an office, input the
anticipated number in the row for "Peak Occupancy".
8. If the "Peak Occupancy" is expected to be of relatively short duration (for
example, two or three hours out of an eight hour day), also input the "Space
Height" so the "Average Occupancy" Over A Time Period can be calculated.
Note: If the air handling system has a "Ceiling Plenum" type return system, the
30
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
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height of the ceiling space should also be included in the "Space Height". (See
the "Typical Zone Occupancy Take-off" Table and Diagram for additional
clarification).
9. Enter the "Air Distribution Configuration Number" for each zone, from Table 6-2
"Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness" (see partial view, below) and from the
associated "Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness Diagrams". As noted in the
description of the "Air Distribution Configuration" Table, the selection of the
"Configuration Number" should be based on the expected "Worst-case", as
applicable to the subject zone. For example, if a zone could have a supply air
temperature "More than 15 degrees F (8 deg. C) above the room temperature,
under some conditions, then "Configuration Number 3" should be selected.
This has a smaller "Effectiveness Number" (0.8), which will require a larger
quantity of outdoor air than if "Config. Number 1" (Ceiling Supply of Cool Air)
had been selected. This is also true if the supply air temperature is less than
15 degrees F (8 deg. C) above room temperature (but still above room
temperature) and the diffuser pattern does not assure that the supply air jet
31
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
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reaching to within 4.5 feet (1.4 m) of the floor level is more than 150 ft. per min.
(0.8 m/s) velocity. When making this determination, it should also be
considered that the supply air volume could be significantly reduced before
heating is initiated (as in VAV systems). Therefore, the diffuser performance
should also be analyzed at the minimum flow conditions, before establishing
the appropriate "Configuration Number".
10. Input the "Design Primary Airflow to the Zone". This is the primary airflow
supplied to the zone from the air handling unit at which the outdoor air intake is
located, in CFM (L/s). It includes outdoor intake air and recirculated air from
that air handling system, but does not include air transferred or air recirculated
to the zone by other means (such as locally recirculated airflow).
1 Ceiling supply of cool air 1.0
2 Ceiling supply of warm air and floor return 1.0
4
Ceiling supply of warm air less than 15F (8C) above space temperature
and ceiling return, provided that the 150 fpm (0.8 m/s) supply air jet
reaches to within 4.5 ft (1.4 m) of floor level.
1.0
5
Ceiling supply of warm air less than 15F (8C) above space temperature
and ceiling return, with the supply air jet reaching to within 4.5 ft (1.4 m) of
floor level of less than 150 fpm (0.8 m/s) velocity.
0.8
3
Ceiling supply of warm air 15F (8C) or more above space temperature and
ceiling return.
0.8
TABLE 6-2 Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness
Configuration
Number
Air Distribution Configuration
Effectiveness
Ez
0 0
AREA OUTDOOR AIR (CFM)
(Ra x Az)
18 30 120 24 0 0
PEOPLE OUTDOOR AIR (CFM)
(Rp x Pz)
35 70 600 30 0 0 0 0
ZONE AIR DISTRIBUTION
EFFECTIVENESS (Ez)
1.0 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
AIR DISTRIB. CONFIG. NUMBER
(SEE TABLE 6-2)
1 2 3 1
BREATHING ZONE OUTDOOR AIRFLOW
(CFM) (Vbz)
53 100 720 54 0 0 0 0
0.0
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ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
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11. Input the "Minimum Primary Airflow to the Zone". With VAV systems, this is
the minimum expected primary airflow when the variable volume device is at
minimum design flow rate. Note: this "Minimum Primary Airflow" number may
be increased during "Outdoor Air Optimization".
12. If the air handling system includes secondary recirculation at the zone level,
such as with fan powered VAV terminals, it is necessary to perform additional
calculations to determine the outdoor air requirements. The quantity (CFM or
L/s) of "Secondary Recirculation Airflow to Zone" should be determined by the
airflow volume of the secondary system fan or blower. See the "Ventilation
System Schematic" for a diagram describing the Secondary Recirculation"
system. This provision is for systems that provide part of their ventilation by
recirculating air from other zones without directly mixing it with outdoor air (eg.
Dual-fan dual-duct, fan powered mixing box, fan powered VAV box, and
transfer fans for conference rooms).
13. Input the "Estimated Portion of Secondary Recirculation Air From the Common
Return". This number will be a portion of the previously input quantity of
"Secondary Recirculation Airflow to Zone". This number should be based on
engineering judgement and depends on whether the air handling return system
is ducted or is a "Ceiling Plenum" type of return system. There also could be a
situation where all of the "Secondary Recirculation" air is from within the
subject zone. In that case, the "Estimated Portion of Secondary Recirc. Air
From Common Return" could be zero. If that is the case, there will be no credit
taken for "Outdoor Air Fraction" from other zones to the subject zone.
14. After all zone data has been input for each zone, scroll up to "Minimum Primary
Airflow to Zone (Min. VAV Primary OA & RA)".
ESTIMATED PORTION OF SECONDARY
RECIRC. AIR FROM COMMON RETURN
(EG. CEIL. PLENUM) (CFM) (Vcz)
350 900
SECONDARY RECIRC. AIRFLOW TO
ZONE (FAN POWERED, INDUCTION,
ETC.) (CFM) (Vlz)
400 1000
FRACTION OF LOCALLY RECIRC. AIR
FROM COMMON RETURN RATHER THAN
RECIRC. FROM ZONE (Er) = (Vcz/Vlz)
0.88 0.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00
ZONE PRIMARY OUTDOOR AIR
FRACTION (Zp)
0.30 0.29 0.28
MINIMUM PRIMARY AIRFLOW TO ZONE
(MIN. VAV PRIMARY OA & RA)
(CFM) (Vpzm)
484 1848 2000
DESIGN PRIMARY AIRFLOW TO ZONE
(INCL. PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM) (Vpz)
750 2500 3200
0.00 0.00
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ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
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15. The zone cells in the row for "Minimum Primary Airflow to Zone" will have one
of four possible colors: "Red" = farthest from optimum air quantity, "Orange" =
next farthest from optimum air quantity, "Yellow" = close to optimum, or
possibly optimum air quantity for that zone, or "White" = optimum, or possibly
above optimum quantity for that zone.
16. Below the "Minimum Primary Airflow To Zone" is "Zone Primary Outdoor Air
Fraction (Zp)". These zone cells will have one zone highlighted with "Yellow"
(see picture above). This is the "Key" zone, or "Ventilation-critical" zone, and
indicates the starting point for Optimization.
17. See the discussion on "Optimizing Outdoor Air Requirements" for detailed
information and instructions on how to Optimize the Required Outdoor Air
Quantities.
18. After completing the "Optimization", scroll to the top of the sheet and click the
"Print" button (above the "Air Handling Unit Tag Number"). In the "Print
Preview", scroll down as required to verify how many pages are needed to
include all of the associated zones. Click on "Print" button at the top of the
"Print Preview" page. Under "Print Range" on the "Print" dialog box, select
"Pages" and list the "From" and "To" as appropriate. Click "OK".
34
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
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CALCULATION AND DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS
Assumptions
For the purpose of determining the Minimum Outdoor Air Quantity requirements,
based on ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010, the following Assumptions have been
made:
1. Outdoor Air Quality is acceptable as defined by Standards such as US
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) "National Ambient Air Quality
Standards" or the outdoor air is treated by air cleaning devices to meet these
acceptable air quality standards.
2. Additional outdoor air requirements for laboratory, industrial, and other similar
spaces may be dictated by workplace or other standards, as well as by the
processes occurring within the spaces, and this requirement may supercede
the ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 requirements.
3. Thermal comfort requirements are not considered in calculating the ventilation
air quantities.
4. Outdoor air ventilation rates apply only to no-smoking spaces.
5. Mechanical ventilation systems shall be designed to maintain the minimum
outdoor airflow under any load condition.
6. Outdoor air intakes shall be located to assure that no contaminants will be
introduced into the system.
7. Occupied space relative humidity shall be controlled to acceptable levels by
mechanical air conditioning equipment, at all outside air conditions.
8. For a building, the design minimum outdoor air intake airflow shall be greater
than the design maximum exhaust airflow, to maintain overall positive
pressurization of the building.
9. Air handling equipment shall be sized with adequate capacity to deliver the
designated primary air and outdoor air quantities under all operating
conditions.
10. Air Balancing testing and adjustments shall be performed to assure the
outdoor air ventilation requirements are being met.
11. Recirculation or transfer of air from one space to another shall be designed
such that air classified as Class 2 Air, Class 3 Air, or Class 4 Air shall not be
recirculated or transferred to Class 1 spaces. Air classified as Class 3 Air or
Class 4 Air shall not be recirculated or transferred to Class 2 spaces.
12. If the Occupancy Category for a proposed space or zone is not listed in Table
6-1, "Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone", the requirements for the
listed occupancy category that is most similar in terms of occupant density,
activities, and building construction shall be used.
13. When using Table 6-1, "Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone", the
accompanying Footnotes to the Table are also used.
14. If it is known that the peak occupancy of a zone will be of short duration, the
design may be based on the average conditions over a calculated time
period.
35
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
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15. Occupant diversity may be used to account for variations in occupancy within
the zones served by the referenced air handling system.
16. The system may be designed to reset the design outdoor air intake flow (Vot)
and/or space or zone airflow as operating conditions change. These
conditions include but are not limited to:
a Variations in occupancy or ventilation airflow in one or more individual
zones for which ventilation airflow requirements will be reset. Note:
Examples of measures for estimating such variations include: occupancy
scheduled by time-of-day, a direct count of occupants, or an estimate of
occupancy or ventilation rate per person using occupancy sensors such
as those based on indoor CO2 concentrations.
b Variations in the efficiency with which outdoor air is distributed to the
occupants under different ventilation system airflows and temperatures.
c A higher fraction of outdoor air in the air supply due to intake of
additional outdoor air for free cooling or exhaust air makeup.
17 Exhaust Airflow shall be provided in accordance with the requirements in
Table 6-4, "Minimum Exhaust Rates". Exhaust makeup air may be any
combination of outdoor air, recirculated air, and transfer air.
18 Construction and System Start-up shall comply with the applicable
requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010.
19 The ventilation system shall be operated and maintained, at a minimum, in
accordance with the applicable provisions of ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010.
20 The designer may increase the zone supply flows during the design process,
particularly to the critical zones requiring the highest fraction of outdoor air,
and thereby reduce the system outdoor air intake requirement determined in
the calculations, sometimes dramatically. (Note: This is part of the basis for
the "Outdoor Air Optimization" Procedures.)
The preceding information includes excerpts from ANSI/ASHRAE 62.1-2010:
2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers,
Inc. (www.ashrae.org) Used by permission.
IN NO EVENT WILL ASHRAE (or American Society of Heating, Refrigeration
and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.) BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES
ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAMS OR
ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTATION, HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY.
36
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
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DETERMINING OCCUPANCY (ZONE POPULATION)
(HELP FILE)
(Return to Calculations)
A primary element in establishing the Required Outdoor Air Quantity is the number of
people in the areas served by the system. ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 includes an
estimated "Default" value based on the zone floor area and the Occupant Density for
the Occupancy Category. See Table 6-1, Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone
(partial copy below: 2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-
Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org) Used by permission.).
If the number of people expected to occupy the zone during typical usage cannot be
accurately predicted, the program uses these default values to calculate the required
outdoor air quantities.
If the number of people can be determined, for example by counting the number of
chairs or desks in a zone, the actual number should be used in the calculations.
The Program includes three input cells for occupancy in each zone. If the occupancy
cannot be predicted, the three cells should be left blank and the default values will be
used, as noted above.
If the occupancy can be determined, there are essentially two input values that need to
be considered: "Normal" Occupancy, and "Peak" Occupancy.
If the occupancy is expected to remain essentially constant, such as in single-person
offices, the count of chairs or desks, etc., would be input into the "Normal" Occupancy
cell.
HELP
1 Cell 5 2.5 0.12 0.6 25 10 4.9 2
2 Day room 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 30 7 3.5 1
3 Guard stations 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 15 9 4.5 1
4 Booking/waiting 7.5 3.8 0.06 0.3 50 9 4.4 2
5 Daycare (through age 4) 10 5 0.18 0.9 25 17 8.6 2
6 Classrooms (ages 5- 10 5 0.12 0.6 25 15 7.4 1
7 Classrooms (age 9 10 5 0.12 0.6 35 13 6.7 1
8 Lecture classroom 7.5 3.8 0.06 0.3 65 8 4.3 1
9 Lecture hall (fixed 7.5 3.8 0.06 0.3 150 8 4.0 1
10 Art classroom 10 5 0.18 0.9 20 19 9.5 2
11 University/Sci. 10 5 0.18 0.9 25 17 8.6 ---
12 Wood/metal shop 10 5 0.18 0.9 20 19 9.5 2
13 Computer lab 10 5 0.12 0.6 25 15 7.4 1
14 Media center 10 5 0.12 0.6 A 25 15 7.4 1
Correctional
Educational
(This table is not valid in isolation; it must be used in conjunction with the accompanying
Notes
Default Values
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010
TABLE 6-1 MINIMUM VENTILATION RATES IN BREATHING ZONE
Occ.
Category
Number
Occupancy
People Outdoor Air Rate
Rp
Area Outdoor Air Rate
Ra
L/sperson
Occupant
Density
(see Note 4)
Combined Outdoor Air Rate
(see Note 5)
#/1000 ft
2
or
#/100m
2
cfm/person L/sperson cfm/person
Air
Class
cfm/sq. ft. L/sm
2
37
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
If the occupancy is expected to increase at times, such as for extended meetings in an
office, in conference rooms, or other areas within the zone, the anticipated "Peak"
Occupancy for the zone should be input in the appropriate cell.
Note: If there is a value for "Normal" Occupancy and also for "Peak" Occupancy, and if
the "Peak" Occupancy is expected to be of "Short Duration", such as in conference
rooms or meetings in an office, ASHRAE 62.1-2010 allows for averaging the people
over a period of time. The "Averaging Time Period" is dependent on the volume of the
space and the required "Breathing Zone Outdoor Airflow". Therefore, if there is a listed
"Normal" Occupancy and a "Peak" Occupancy, the "Height of the Space" is also
needed. (This includes the height of the room plus the height of the ceiling space if the
system includes a ceiling plenum return, otherwise the height to the ceiling is input.)
The program then uses the zone floor area and the height to calculate the "Average"
Occupancy.
See the "Typical Zone Occupancy Takeoff" diagram and table for an example of the
above discussion. (Partial copy, below)
38
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
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Engineering judgement is needed to establish the anticipated number of people as
accurately as possible.
An additional part of the calculations includes comparison of "System Population"
versus the "Sum of the Zone Populations". This comparison helps to account for
instances such as people leaving one or more zones and moving to another zone, for
example, people attending a meeting in a conference room. The "System" still sees
essentially the same number of people, even though the individual zones may be
experiencing temporary "Peak" Occupancies. This comparison establishes "Occupant
Diversity" which is factored into the system "Required Outdoor Air Intake Quantity",
within the program calculations.
IN NO EVENT WILL ASHRAE (or American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-
Conditioning Engineers, Inc.) BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE
USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAMS OR ACCOMPANYING
DOCUMENTATION, HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY.
39
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
AIR DISTRIBUTION CONFIGURATION
(ZONE AIR DISTRIBUTION EFFECTIVENESS)
(HELP FILE)
(Return to Calculations)
The configuration of air distribution devices (diffusers, registers, and grilles) has
an impact on the "effectiveness" of delivering outdoor air to the "Breathing Zone".
Table 6-2, "Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness", lists the approximately eleven
different configurations of supply, return, and/or exhaust. The table also includes
a factor to be used to increase or decrease the required outdoor air quantity,
based on the distribution effectiveness. (See following partial copy of Table 6-2)
2010 ASHRAE, Inc. (www.ashrae.org), Used by permission.
Generally, if the thermal properties of the supply air are such that the air does not
have a chance to adequately mix in the "Breathing Zone", the associated factor is
smaller. This results in the requirement for a larger outdoor air quantity at the air
handling unit, since the required OA quantity for the subject zone is divided by
this "effectiveness factor".
These calculations are included in the compliance program. All that is required is
to input the appropriate "Configuration Number" from Table 6-2.
Important Note: To find the correct "Required Outdoor Air Quantity", it is
necessary to select the "Worst-case" Air Distribution Configuration, as applicable
to the subject zone or system. For example, if the supply air system
configuration consists of ceiling supply diffusers and ceiling return registers, the
designer should determine whether a zone could have a warm supply air
temperature, more than 15 degrees F (8 deg. C) above the room temperature.
This is often the case for perimeter zones in colder climates. If the zone does
have this potential condition, then "Configuration Number 3" should be selected
1 Ceiling supply of cool air 1.0
2 Ceiling supply of warm air and floor 1.0
Ceiling supply of warm air less than 15F (8C) above space
and ceiling return, provided that the 150 fpm (0.8 m/s) supply air
reaches to within 4.5 ft (1.4 m) of floor level.
1.0
5
Ceiling supply of warm air less than 15F (8C) above space
and ceiling return, with the supply air jet reaching to within 4.5 ft (1.4 m)
floor level of less than 150 fpm (0.8 m/s)
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010
COMP IANCE
3
Ceiling supply of warm air 15F (8C) or more above space temperature
ceiling return.
0.8
TABLE 6-2 Zone Air Distribution
Eff ti
Configuration
Number
Air Distribution
C fi i
Effectiveness
Ez
4
0.8
40
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
and input into the program. This will result in a larger Outdoor Air Requirement
(because the required OA is divided by 0.8, rather than 1.0), than would have
been calculated if "Configuration Number 1" was chosen. This is also true of
other Configurations, such as Configurations 5, 9, 10, and 11.
Selection of the "Worst-case" configuration is the correct procedure, and is the
intent of ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010.
See the "Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness" diagrams for additional clarification
on this subject. (Partial copy follows)
41
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
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INPUT FORMS, TABLES, AND DIAGRAMS
Input Forms, Tables, and Diagrams
Before beginning input and calculations, it is recommended that the following
Input Forms, Tables, and Diagrams be printed out, to assist with data assembly:
1. Calculations Take-off Form (Multiple copies for air handling systems with
more than 12 zones)
2. Table 6-1, Minimum Ventilation Rates In Breathing Zone
3. Typical Zone Occupancy Takeoff table and diagram
4. Table 6-2, Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness
5. Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness diagrams
6. Ventilation System Schematic
7. Copy of "Calculation and Design Assumptions
Print the previous eleven (11) pages for each Project, as required.
42
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
ASHRAE STD. 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
VENTILATION FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY
DESIGN OA TEMP.:
ESTIMATED PORTION OF SECONDARY
RECIRC. AIR FROM COMMON RETURN
(EG. CEIL. PLENUM) (CFM) (Vcz)
SECONDARY RECIRC. AIRFLOW TO
ZONE, IF APPLICABLE (FAN POWERED,
INDUCTION, ETC.) (CFM) (Vlz)
MINIMUM PRIMARY AIRFLOW TO ZONE
(MIN. VAV PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM)
(Vpzm)
DESIGN PRIMARY AIRFLOW TO ZONE
(INCL. PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM) (Vpz)
AIR DISTRIB. CONFIG. NUMBER
(SEE TABLE 6-2)
IF SPACE IS INTERMITTENT USAGE
(EG. CONFERENCE ROOM) (SPACE
HEIGHT - FT.)
PEAK OCCUPANCY - IF KNOWN
(EG. MEETING IN AN OFFICE)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
NORMAL OCCUPANCY - IF KNOWN
(EG. ONE PER OFFICE)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
ZONE FLOOR AREA (SQ. FT.)
(Az)
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY NUMBER
(SEE TABLE 6-1)
ZONE NUMBER (EG: 1-1, 1-2)
AIR HANDLING UNIT TAG NUMBER
(AHU-1, ETC.)
PROJECT NUMBER:
DATE:
CALCULATIONS TAKE-OFF FORM
PROJECT NAME:
43
HELP
1 Cell 5 2.5 0.12 0.6 25 10 4.9 2
2 Day room 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 30 7 3.5 1
3 Guard stations 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 15 9 4.5 1
4 Booking/waiting 7.5 3.8 0.06 0.3 50 9 4.4 2
5 Daycare (through age 4) 10 5 0.18 0.9 25 17 8.6 2
6 Daycare sickroom 10 5 0.18 0.9 25 17 8.6 3
7 Classrooms (ages 5-8) 10 5 0.12 0.6 25 15 7.4 1
8 Classrooms (age 9 plus) 10 5 0.12 0.6 35 13 6.7 1
9 Lecture classroom 7.5 3.8 0.06 0.3 65 8 4.3 1
10 Lecture hall (fixed seats) 7.5 3.8 0.06 0.3 150 8 4.0 1
11 Art classroom 10 5 0.18 0.9 20 19 9.5 2
12 Science laboratories 10 5 0.18 0.9 25 17 8.6 2
13 University laboratories 10 5 0.18 0.9 25 17 8.6 2
14 Wood/metal shop 10 5 0.18 0.9 20 19 9.5 2
15 Computer lab 10 5 0.12 0.6 25 15 7.4 1
16 Media center 10 5 0.12 0.6 A 25 15 7.4 1
17 Music/theater/dance 10 5 0.06 0.3 35 12 5.9 1
18 Multi-use assembly 7.5 3.8 0.06 0.3 100 8 4.1 1
19 Restaurant dining rooms 7.5 3.8 0.18 0.9 70 10 5.1 2
20 Cafeteria/fast food dining 7.5 3.8 0.18 0.9 100 9 4.7 2
21 Bars, cocktail lounges 7.5 3.8 0.18 0.9 100 9 4.7 2
22 Kitchen (cooking) 7.5 3.8 0.12 0.6 20 14 7.0 2
23 Break Rooms 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 25 10 5.1 1
24 Coffee Stations 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 20 11 5.5 1
25 Conference/meeting 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 50 6 3.1 1
26 Corridors 0 0 0.06 0.3 0 0 0 1
27
Occupiable storage rooms
for liquids or gels
7.5 2.5 0.12 0.6 B 2 65 32.5 2
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
TABLE 6-1 MINIMUM VENTILATION RATES IN BREATHING ZONE
Food and Beverage Service
General
cfm/person L/sperson
Correctional Facilities
Educational Facilities
Occ.
Category
Number
Occupancy Category
People Outdoor Air Rate
Rp
Area Outdoor Air Rate
Ra
cfm/person L/sperson cfm/sq. ft. L/sm
2
Notes
(This table is not valid in isolation; it must be used in conjunction with the accompanying notes.)
Default Values
Air
Class
Occupant
Density
(see Note 4)
Combined Outdoor Air Rate
(see Note 5)
#/1000 ft
2
or
#/100m
2
44
28 Bedroom/living Room 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 10 11 5.5 1
29 Barracks sleeping areas 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 20 8 4.0 1
30 Laundry Rooms, central 5 2.5 0.12 0.6 10 17 8.5 2
31
Laundry Rooms, within
dwelling units
5 2.5 0.12 0.6 10 17 8.5 1
32 Lobbies/prefunction 7.5 3.8 0.06 0.3 30 10 4.8 1
33 Multi-purpose assembly 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 120 6 2.8 1
34 Breakrooms 5 2.5 0.12 0.6 50 7 3.5 1
35 Main entry lobbies 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 10 11 5.5 1
36
Occupiable storage rooms
for dry materials
5 2.5 0.06 0.3 2 35 17.5 1
37 Office space 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 5 17 8.5 1
38 Reception areas 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 30 7 3.5 1
39 Telephone/data entry 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 60 6 3.0 1
40 Bank vaults/safe deposit 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 5 17 8.5 2
41 Banks or bank lobbies 7.5 3.8 0.06 0.3 15 12 6.0 1
42 Computer (not printing) 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 4 20 10.0 1
43
General manufacturing
(excludes heavy industrial
and processes using
chemicals)
10 5.0 0.18 0.9 7 36 18.0 3
44 Pharmacy (prep. area) 5 2.5 0.18 0.9 10 23 11.5 2
45 Photo studios 5 2.5 0.12 0.6 10 17 8.5 1
46 Shipping/receiving 10 5 0.12 0.6 B 2 70 35 2
47
Sorting, packing, light
assembly
7.5 3.8 0.12 0.6 7 25 12.5 2
48 Telephone closets 0 0 0.00 0.0 0 0 0 1
49 Transportation waiting 7.5 3.8 0.06 0.3 100 8 4.1 1
50 Warehouses 10 5 0.06 0.3 B 0 0 0 2
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
Miscellaneous Spaces
People Outdoor Air Rate
Rp
TABLE 6-1 MINIMUM VENTILATION RATES IN BREATHING ZONE
(This table is not valid in isolation; it must be used in conjunction with the accompanying notes.)
Area Outdoor Air Rate
Ra
Notes
Default Values
Air
Class
Occupant
Density
(see Note 4)
Combined Outdoor Air Rate
(see Note 5)
#/1000 ft
2
or
#/100m
2
cfm/person L/sperson cfm/person L/sperson cfm/sq. ft. L/sm
2
Hotels, Motels, Resorts, Dormitories
Office Buildings
Occ.
Category
Number
Occupancy Category
45
51 Auditorium seating area 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 150 5 2.7 1
52 Places of religious worship 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 120 6 2.8 1
53 Courtrooms 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 70 6 2.9 1
54 Legislative chambers 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 50 6 3.1 1
55 Libraries 5 2.5 0.12 0.6 10 17 8.5 1
56 Lobbies 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 150 5 2.7 1
57 Museums (childrens) 7.5 3.8 0.12 0.6 40 11 5.3 1
58 Museums/galleries 7.5 3.8 0.06 0.3 40 9 4.6 1
59 Dwelling unit 5 2.5 0.06 0.3 F,G F 0 0.0 1
60 Common corridors 0.0 0.0 0.06 0.3 0 0 0.0 1
61 Sales (except as below) 7.5 3.8 0.12 0.6 15 16 7.8 2
62 Mall common areas 7.5 3.8 0.06 0.3 40 9 4.6 1
63 Barber shop 7.5 3.8 0.06 0.3 25 10 5.0 2
64 Beauty and nail salons 20 10 0.12 0.6 25 25 12.4 2
65 Pet shops (animal areas) 7.5 3.8 0.18 0.9 10 26 12.8 2
66 Supermarket 7.5 3.8 0.06 0.3 8 15 7.6 1
67 Coin-operated laundries 7.5 3.8 0.12 0.6 20 14 7.0 2
68 Sports arena (play area) 0 0 0.30 1.5 E 0 0 0 1
69 Gym, stadium (play area) 0 0 0.30 1.5 30 0 0 2
70 Spectator areas 7.5 3.8 0.06 0.3 150 8 4.0 1
71 Swimming (pool & deck) 0 0 0.48 2.4 C 0 0 0 2
72 Disco/dance floors 20 10 0.06 0.3 100 21 10.3 2
73 Health club/aerobics room 20 10 0.06 0.3 40 22 10.8 2
74 Health club/weight rooms 20 10 0.06 0.3 10 26 13.0 2
75 Bowling alley (seating) 10 5 0.12 0.6 40 13 6.5 1
76 Gambling casinos 7.5 3.8 0.18 0.9 120 9 4.6 1
77 Game arcades 7.5 3.8 0.18 0.9 20 17 8.3 1
78 Stages, studios 10 5 0.06 0.3 D 70 11 5.4 1
#/1000 ft
2
or
#/100m
2
cfm/person L/sperson
Occupant
Density
(see Note 4)
Combined Outdoor Air Rate
(see Note 5)
Sports and Entertainment
Notes
Default Values
Air
Class
Public Assembly Spaces
Retail
cfm/person L/sperson cfm/sq. ft. L/sm
2
Occ.
Category
Number
Occupancy Category
People Outdoor Air Rate
Rp
Area Outdoor Air Rate
Ra
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
TABLE 6-1 MINIMUM VENTILATION RATES IN BREATHING ZONE
(This table is not valid in isolation; it must be used in conjunction with the accompanying notes.)
Residential
46
IN NO EVENT WILL ASHRAE (or American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.) BE
LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAMS OR
ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTATION, HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY.
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
ITEM-SPECIFIC NOTES FOR TABLE 6-1
G Air from one residential dwelling shall not be recirculated or transferred to any other space outside of that dwelling.
The preceding information includes excerpts from ANSI/ASHRAE 62.1-2010: 2010 American Society of Heating,
Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org) Used by permission.
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
6 Unlisted Occupancies: If the occupancy category for a proposed space or zone is not listed, the requirements for the listed occupancy category that is most
similar in terms of occupant density, activities and building construction shall be used.
1 Related Requirements: The rates in this table are based on all other applicable requirements of this standard being met.
E When combustion equipment is intended to be used on the playing surface, additional dilution ventilation and/or source control shall be provided.
A For high school and college libraries, use values shown for Public Spaces Libraries.
B Rate may not be sufficient when stored materials include those having potentially harmful emissions.
C Rate does not allow for humidity control. Additional ventilation or dehumidification may be required to remove moisture. "Deck area" refers to the area
surrounding the pool that would be expected to be wetted during normal pool use, i.e., when the pool is occupied. Deck area that is not expected to be wetted
shall be designated as a space type (for example, "spectator area").
D Rate does not include special exhaust for stage effects, e.g., dry ice vapors, smoke.
2 Environmental Tobacco Smoke: This table applies to ETS-free areas. Refer to Section 5.17 for requirements for buildings containing ETS areas and ETS-
free areas.
3 Air Density: Volumetric airflow rates are based on an air density of 0.075 lbda/ft3 (1.2 kgda/m3), which corresponds to dry air at a barometric pressure of 1 atm
(101.3 kPa) and an air temperature of 70F (21C). Rates may be adjusted for actual density but such adjustment is not required for compliance with this standard.
(This table is not valid in isolation; it must be used in conjunction with the accompanying notes.)
5 Default Combined Outdoor Air Rate (per person): This rate is based on the default occupant density.
GENERAL NOTES FOR TABLE 6-1
4 Default Occupant Density: The default occupant density shall be used when actual occupant density is not known.
TABLE 6-1 MINIMUM VENTILATION RATES IN BREATHING ZONE
F Default occupancy for dwelling units shall be two persons for studio and one-bedroom units, with one additional person for each additional bedroom.
47
PROJECT NAME:
PROJECT NUMBER:
DATE:
TYPICAL ZONE OCCUPANCY TAKEOFF
ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 2011 HVAC Design Solutions
NORMAL OCCUPANCY - IF KNOWN (EG.
ONE PER OFFICE) (NUMBER OF
PEOPLE)
1 4 1 2 2
7 8 3 4 5 6
0 2
"YOUR COMPANY NAME"
AIR HANDLING UNIT TAG NUMBER
(AHU-1, ETC.)
AHU-1
ZONE NUMBER (EG: 1-1, 1-2) 1 2
OCCUPANCY TAKE-OFF
4
1
PEAK OCCUPANCY - IF KNOWN (EG.
MEETING IN AN OFFICE)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
5 12 3
ASHRAE STD. 62.1-2010
VENTILATION FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY
TEST PROJECT 1
141-10
9/29/2010
10
8 8
IF SPACE IS INTERMITTENT USAGE (EG.
CONFERENCE ROOM) (SPACE HEIGHT -
FT.)
8 8 8
48
1 Ceiling supply of cool air 1.0
2 Ceiling supply of warm air and floor return 1.0
8 Floor supply of warm air and floor return 1.0
9 Floor supply of warm air and ceiling return 0.7
11 Makeup supply drawn in near to the exhaust and/or return location 0.5
GENERAL NOTES FOR TABLE 6-2
1. Cool air is air cooler than space temperature.
2. Warm air is air warmer than space temperature.
3. Ceiling includes any point above the breathing zone.
4. Floor includes any point below the breathing zone.
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
TABLE 6-2 Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness
Configuration
Number
Air Distribution Configuration
Effectiveness
Ez
3
Ceiling supply of warm air 15F (8C) or more above space temperature and
ceiling return.
0.8
4
Ceiling supply of warm air less than 15F (8C) above space temperature
and ceiling return, provided that the 150 fpm (0.8 m/s) supply air jet reaches
to within 4.5 ft (1.4 m) of floor level.
1.0
5
Ceiling supply of warm air less than 15F (8C) above space temperature
and ceiling return, with the supply air jet reaching to within 4.5 ft (1.4 m) of
floor level of less than 150 fpm (0.8 m/s) velocity.
0.8
6
Floor supply of cool air and ceiling return provided that the 150 fpm (0.8 m/s)
supply jet reaches 4.5 ft (1.4 m) or more above the floor. Note: Most
underfloor air distribution systems comply with this proviso.
1.0
7
Floor supply of cool air and ceiling return, provided low velocity displacement
ventilation achieves unidirectional flow and thermal stratification.
1.2
10
Makeup supply drawn in on the opposite side of the room from the exhaust
and/or return.
0.8
2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org)
Used by permission.
IN NO EVENT WILL ASHRAE (or American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers,
Inc.) BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE
PROGRAMS OR ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTATION, HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
LIABILITY.
The preceding information includes excerpts from ANSI/ASHRAE 62.1-2010:
5. As an alternative to using the above values, Ez may be regarded as equal
to air change effectiveness determined in accordance with ANSI/ASHRAE
Standard 129 for all air distribution configurations except unidirectional flow.
49
50
51
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
CALCULATION AND DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS
Assumptions
For the purpose of determining the Minimum Outdoor Air Quantity requirements,
based on ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010, the following Assumptions have been
made:
1. Outdoor Air Quality is acceptable as defined by Standards such as US
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) "National Ambient Air Quality
Standards" or the outdoor air is treated by air cleaning devices to meet these
acceptable air quality standards.
2. Additional outdoor air requirements for laboratory, industrial, and other similar
spaces may be dictated by workplace or other standards, as well as by the
processes occurring within the spaces, and this requirement may supercede
the ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 requirements.
3. Thermal comfort requirements are not considered in calculating the ventilation
air quantities.
4. Outdoor air ventilation rates apply only to no-smoking spaces.
5. Mechanical ventilation systems shall be designed to maintain the minimum
outdoor airflow under any load condition.
6. Outdoor air intakes shall be located to assure that no contaminants will be
introduced into the system.
7. Occupied space relative humidity shall be controlled to acceptable levels by
mechanical air conditioning equipment, at all outside air conditions.
8. For a building, the design minimum outdoor air intake airflow shall be greater
than the design maximum exhaust airflow, to maintain overall positive
pressurization of the building.
9. Air handling equipment shall be sized with adequate capacity to deliver the
designated primary air and outdoor air quantities under all operating
conditions.
10. Air Balancing testing and adjustments shall be performed to assure the
outdoor air ventilation requirements are being met.
11. Recirculation or transfer of air from one space to another shall be designed
such that air classified as Class 2 Air, Class 3 Air, or Class 4 Air shall not be
recirculated or transferred to Class 1 spaces. Air classified as Class 3 Air or
Class 4 Air shall not be recirculated or transferred to Class 2 spaces.
12. If the Occupancy Category for a proposed space or zone is not listed in Table
6-1, "Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone", the requirements for the
listed occupancy category that is most similar in terms of occupant density,
activities, and building construction shall be used.
13. When using Table 6-1, "Minimum Ventilation Rates in Breathing Zone", the
accompanying Footnotes to the Table are also used.
14. If it is known that the peak occupancy of a zone will be of short duration, the
design may be based on the average conditions over a calculated time
period.
52
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
15. Occupant diversity may be used to account for variations in occupancy within
the zones served by the referenced air handling system.
16. The system may be designed to reset the design outdoor air intake flow (Vot)
and/or space or zone airflow as operating conditions change. These
conditions include but are not limited to:
a Variations in occupancy or ventilation airflow in one or more individual
zones for which ventilation airflow requirements will be reset. Note:
Examples of measures for estimating such variations include: occupancy
scheduled by time-of-day, a direct count of occupants, or an estimate of
occupancy or ventilation rate per person using occupancy sensors such
as those based on indoor CO2 concentrations.
b Variations in the efficiency with which outdoor air is distributed to the
occupants under different ventilation system airflows and temperatures.
c A higher fraction of outdoor air in the air supply due to intake of
additional outdoor air for free cooling or exhaust air makeup.
17 Exhaust Airflow shall be provided in accordance with the requirements in
Table 6-4, "Minimum Exhaust Rates". Exhaust makeup air may be any
combination of outdoor air, recirculated air, and transfer air.
18 Construction and System Start-up shall comply with the applicable
requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010.
19 The ventilation system shall be operated and maintained, at a minimum, in
accordance with the applicable provisions of ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010.
20 The designer may increase the zone supply flows during the design process,
particularly to the critical zones requiring the highest fraction of outdoor air,
and thereby reduce the system outdoor air intake requirement determined in
the calculations, sometimes dramatically. (Note: This is part of the basis for
the "Outdoor Air Optimization" Procedures.)
The preceding information includes excerpts from ANSI/ASHRAE 62.1-2010:
2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers,
Inc. (www.ashrae.org) Used by permission.
IN NO EVENT WILL ASHRAE (or American Society of Heating, Refrigeration
and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.) BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES
ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAMS OR
ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTATION, HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY.
53
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
SYSTEM VENTILATION EFFICIENCY
(HELP FILE)
(Return to Calculations)
System Ventilation Efficiency can be determined by using the "Default" value
from Table 6-3, based on the maximum "Zone Primary Outdoor Air Fraction
(Zp)", or more accurately, by using complex formulas based on the air handling
system configuration. This program uses the formulas to determine System
Ventilation Efficiency. This program also uses "Outdoor Air Optimization" to
assure that OA Requirements are not larger than necessary.
To calculate the Outdoor Air Delivery Efficiency or System Ventilation Efficiency,
several factors must be analyzed:
(a) Outdoor airflow rate required Per Person, based on the Occupancy
Category.
(b) Outdoor airflow rate required Per Unit Area, based on the Occupancy
Category.
(c) Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness, based on the Air Distribution
Configuration.
(d) Primary Outdoor Air Fraction, which is the ratio of the Required Zone
Outdoor Airflow, to the Primary Airflow to the Zone from the air
handler, including outdoor air and recirculated air. For VAV systems,
the Primary Airflow to the Zone is the Minimum VAV airflow for the
zone.
(e) If the air handling system includes local recirculating air at the zone
level, in addition to primary air (such as with fan powered mixing
boxes, induction terminal units, dual-fan dual-duct systems, etc.), (See
schematic diagram, below) it is also necessary to evaluate:
(1) Primary air to the zone
(2) Secondary recirculating air at the zone level
(3) Percent of secondary recirculating air from the zone versus
secondary recirculating air from a common return system
(4) Fraction of outdoor air to the zone from sources outside the zone
After these factors have been analyzed, the System Ventilation Efficiency is
established. It is the efficiency with which the air handling system distributes air
from the outdoor air intake to the "Breathing Zone" in the "Ventilation-critical"
zone. The "Ventilation-critical" zone is the zone that requires the largest fraction
of outdoor air in the primary airstream. In other words, it is determined by the
zone with the "lowest" calculated zone ventilation efficiency.
In some cases, the "Ventilation-critical" zone can be grossly "inefficient", which
can result in significantly excessive outdoor air requirements. This can happen,
for example, when a variable air volume (VAV) system has the minimum airflow
set too low. When this happens, the airflow to the zone or space is significantly
reduced as the zone temperature is satisfied. Since the primary air quantity is
greatly reduced, the delivery of outdoor air to the zone is also greatly reduced.
54
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
To assure that the desired outdoor air quantity is still being delivered to the
"Ventilation-critical" space, ASHRAE 62.1-2010 calculations require a
significantly larger outdoor air intake quantity at the primary air handling unit.
This excessive OA intake can add dramatically to the Energy and Operating
Costs.
Because of this potential for grossly excessive OA Requirements, this software
package includes "Outdoor Air Quantity Optimization". See the separate section
describing the "Optimization" Procedures.
The preceding information includes excerpts from ANSI/ASHRAE 62.1-2010:
2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers,
Inc. (www.ashrae.org) Used by permission.
55
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
OPTIMIZING OUTDOOR AIR REQUIREMENTS
(HELP FILE)
(Return to Calculations)
ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 prescribes the outdoor air quantity that is required to
assure that "breathing zone" air quality will be acceptable to human occupants and to
minimize the potential for adverse health effects.
The Standard accounts for "Air Distribution Effectiveness", "Primary Outdoor Air
Fraction", "Occupant Diversity", and "System Ventilation Efficiency" to determine the
amount of outdoor air required at the primary air handling unit.
When Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are utilized, one of the major factors in
determining adequate outdoor air delivery to the occupants in the zone is the minimum
VAV air quantity. If the minimum VAV air quantity is too small, a larger amount of
outdoor air has to be introduced at the air handling unit to increase the percentage of
outdoor air being delivered to the zone. Typically during design, the VAV minimum is
set by factors such as minimum controllable operating point of the VAV box, by office
standards that may dictate a minimum air change rate, by minimum air quantity per unit
area, or by volumes required for building heating, depending on the type of system. In
some instances, the minimum for one zone might be significantly smaller, proportionally,
than minimums for other zones. This can create an unnecessarily large Outdoor Air
Requirement at the air handling unit.
To "Optimize" the required outdoor air quantity, the minimum VAV air quantity can be
increased for the zone with the highest "Primary Outdoor Air Fraction". The zone that
has the largest "Zone Primary Outdoor Air Fraction" is the zone that has the largest ratio
of "Required Zone Outdoor Airflow" to "Minimum VAV Airflow to the Zone". This is the
"Key" zone or "Ventilation Critical" zone that determines the outdoor air requirement for
the air handling unit. If the minimum air quantity to this zone is increased, there will be
more primary air, and therefore more outdoor air delivered to this zone.
This program includes several features that help with "Optimization" of the outdoor air
requirements. By applying these features within the program, it is possible to reduce
the outdoor air quantity from the original quantity, while still assuring that the
requirements of ASHRAE 62.1-2010 are being met.
"Optimization" of the Outdoor Air Requirements for the air handling system can mean a
significant saving in energy and operating costs over the life of a system.
To perform "Outdoor Air Optimization" for each air handling system:
1. Input the Project Information in the "Basic Project Information Form" (Proj. Info tab).
An important part of the Outdoor Air Optimization process is the "Design OA Temp"
for the project location. It is suggested that the latest ASHRAE Heating Design
Conditions, lowest "Heating DB Temperature" for the project location be used.
Other data such as NOAA, local weather bureau data, or other office standard
56
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
weather data can also be used. Input as a whole number, with a minus (-) sign if
appropriate. This data is used when performing the various iterations for comparing
the energy used at the "Key" zone level, versus the energy used at the associated
air handling unit.
2. Input all data for each zone in the "Mult. Zone Type A" program or the "Mult. Zone
Type B" program, as applicable.
3. After all zone data has been input for each zone (See "Calculations Take-off Form"
descriptions), scroll down to "Minimum VAV Airflow to Zone (Incl. Primary OA & RA)"
as shown below.
4. Below the "Minimum VAV Airflow To Zone" is "Zone Primary Outdoor Air Fraction
(Zp)". These zone cells will have one zone highlighted with "Yellow" (see picture
above). This is the "Key" zone, or "Ventilation-critical" zone, and indicates the
starting point for Optimization.
5. Below the "Zone Primary Outdoor Air Fraction" row, adjacent to the "Zone
Population" row is a Table highlighted in "Yellow" (see picture above). The table
includes a row for "For Optimization, Add to Key "Minimum VAV Airflow to Zone:"",
and an adjacent number under the column "Calc.", a row for "OA Quantity is
Optimized When Req'd. OA Intake Change is Less Than:", and an adjacent number
under "Calc.", and a row for "Required OA Intake Flow (Vot)", and an adjacent
number under "Calc.".
FOR OPTIMIZATION, ADD TO
KEY "MINIMUM VAV
AIRFLOW TO ZONE" (CFM):
OA QUANTITY IS OPTIMIZED
WHEN REQ'D. OA INTAKE
CHANGE IS LESS THAN:
188
0.82
OCCUPANT DIVERSITY
(SYSTEM POPULATION / SUM OF
DESIGN POPULATION) (D)
89.1
UNCORRECTED OUTDOOR AIR INTAKE
(CFM) (Vou)
REQUIRED OA INTAKE FLOW
(CFM) (Vot)
SYSTEM POPULATION
(SUM OF NORMAL OCCUPANCIES) (Ps)
CALC. ORIGINAL
0.00 0.00 0.00
CHANGE
1
3046 3046
89.1
0.22 0.76 0.38 0.40 0.22
500 850 600
250 350
MINIMUM VAV AIRFLOW TO ZONE (INCL.
PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM) (Vdz)
250 250 1400
1276
0.26
DESIGN PRIMARY AIRFLOW TO ZONE
(INCL. PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM) (Vpz)
ZONE PRIMARY OUTDOOR AIR
FRACTION (Zp)
500 800 4000
300
NORMAL ZONE OCCUPANCY
(EITHER KNOWN OR DEFAULT)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
4 2 140 25 12 5 0 0 0
ZONE POPULATION
(LARGEST TYPICAL OCCUPANCY)
(SUM (Pz))
229 490 490
57
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
6. To perform Optimization of the zone air quantity versus required outdoor air
requirements for the air handling unit, several iterations of calculations may be
required.
7. On the Table, under the column entitled "Original", manually input the initial values
for "For Optimization, Add to Key "Minimum VAV Airflow to Zone:"", "OA Quantity is
Optimized When Req'd. OA Intake Change is Less Than:", and "Required OA Intake
Flow (Vot)", from the initial numbers under the "Calc." Column. (See picture below:
"490", "89.1", and "3046").
If you wish to "Automatically Calculate" the Optimum Air Quantities:
1. To "Automatically Optimize" the required OA air quantities and associated VAV
minimum air quantities, simply click the "AUTO-OPTIMIZE" button, located below
the table. (See picture below).
2. After the Auto-Optimize routines have completed, you will see a new "Required OA
Intake Flow (CFM) (Vot)" in this table, as well as at the end of the calculations. This
is the value to be used as the Minimum Outdoor Air Quantity for the associated Air
Handling Unit. Also, during the Optimization process, the individual "Minimum VAV
Airflow To Zone" will be changed for the "Ventilation Critical" zones. These values
should be used for VAV Terminal Unit Schedules as the minimum air quantities for
each zone (subject to changes for reheat coil selections, as applicable). These
revised air quantities will also be printed out with the Compliance Documentation.
3. Scroll up to the row entitled "Design Primary Airflow to Zone (Vpz)", if necessary,
and inspect the cells for "Red" highlighted zones. (See picture below). It is possible
that the "Minimum VAV Airflow" for a Zone could have been increased to a quantity
larger than the "Design Primary Airflow to Zone (Vpz)". If any zones do indicate this
condition, it will be necessary to increase the "Design Primary Airflow" to that zone,
to equal or exceed the adjusted "Minimum VAV Airflow" quantity. (See the following
example).
FOR OPTIMIZATION, ADD TO
KEY "MINIMUM VAV
AIRFLOW TO ZONE" (CFM):
OA QUANTITY IS OPTIMIZED
WHEN REQ'D. OA INTAKE
CHANGE IS LESS THAN:
89.1
REQUIRED OA INTAKE FLOW
(CFM) (Vot)
CALC. ORIGINAL
CHANGE
1
CHANGE
2
CHANGE
3
CHANGE
4
3046
3046
89.1
490
490
AUTO-OPTIMIZE
58
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
4. After completing Optimization, it will be necessary to make the appropriate
changes to the design documents, including changes to the Air Handling Units,
Zone level air quantities, VAV Minimums, etc.
5. Scroll to the top of the Input sheet and click the "Print" button (above the "Air
Handling Unit Number"). In the "Print Preview", scroll down as required to verify
how many pages are needed to include all of the associated zones. Click on
"Print" button at the top of the "Print Preview" page. Under "Print Range" on the
"Print" dialog box, select "Pages" and list the "From" and "To" as appropriate.
Click "OK".
6. Print-out of the ASHRAE 62.1-2010 Compliance documents will reflect the
"Optimized" Outdoor Air quantities.
If you wish to "Manually Calculate" the Optimum Air Quantities, rather than
allowing the program to "Automatically Optimize":
1. In the row above entitled "Zone Primary Outdoor Air Fraction (Zp)", look for the
highlighted ("Yellow") zone. This is the initial "Key" zone for Optimization.
2. In the cell above the initial "Key" zone, identify the "Minimum VAV Airflow To Zone
(Vdz)" for that zone.
3. Increase the "Minimum VAV Airflow" for this zone by the quantity listed in the Table
as "For Optimization, Add to Key "Minimum Airflow To Zone" (In this example, 490
CFM).
4. After adding this air quantity to the Initial "Key" zone, the highlighted zone for the
"Zone Primary OA Fraction" may move to another zone. This now becomes the
"Key" zone. In this example, the Key zone did not change.
5. Manually input the new values in the column for "Change 1" from the new values in
the "Calc." Column. (567, 103.1, and 2074 in this example - see below). (Note: with
experience, the added air quantity can be rounded off [eg. 575 or 600 CFM]).
0.00 0.00 0.40 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00
MINIMUM VAV AIRFLOW TO ZONE (INCL.
PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM) (Vdz)
100 250 3200
0.53
DESIGN PRIMARY AIRFLOW TO ZONE
(INCL. PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM) (Vpz)
ZONE PRIMARY OUTDOOR AIR
FRACTION (Zp)
500 600 3000
59
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
6. If the new "Required OA Intake Flow" is reduced from the "Original", "Required OA
Intake Flow" by more than the value listed in the Table adjacent to "OA Quantity is
Optimized When Req'd OA Intake Change is Less Than:", continue with the
Optimization process.
7. Repeat Steps 1 thru 6, increasing the "Minimum VAV Airflow" to the "Key" Zone and
manually adding to the "Change 2", "Change 3", "Change 4", etc. columns, until the
Change to the "Required OA Intake Flow (Vot)" is less than indicated in the
appropriate cell in the Table. (See example below).
Note that for this small example, the "Required OA Intake Flow (Vot)" has been
reduced from the initial 3046 CFM to less than 1603 CFM. And, the program assures
that the Ventilation Requirements of ASHRAE 62.1-2010 are still being met. This can
mean a very significant saving in Energy and Operating Costs, for a relatively small
amount of time performing the "Outdoor Air Optimization".
FOR OPTIMIZATION, ADD TO
KEY "MINIMUM VAV
AIRFLOW TO ZONE" (CFM):
OA QUANTITY IS OPTIMIZED
WHEN REQ'D. OA INTAKE
CHANGE IS LESS THAN:
188
0.82
OCCUPANT DIVERSITY
(SYSTEM POPULATION / SUM OF
DESIGN POPULATION) (D)
103.1
2074
UNCORRECTED OUTDOOR AIR INTAKE
(CFM) (Vou)
REQUIRED OA INTAKE FLOW
(CFM) (Vot)
SYSTEM POPULATION
(SUM OF NORMAL OCCUPANCIES) (Ps)
CALC. ORIGINAL
0.00 0.00 0.00
CHANGE
1
103.1
2074
3046
89.1
0.22 0.56 0.38 0.40 0.22
500 850 600
250 350
MINIMUM VAV AIRFLOW TO ZONE (INCL.
PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM) (Vdz)
250 250 1890
1276
0.26
DESIGN PRIMARY AIRFLOW TO ZONE
(INCL. PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM) (Vpz)
ZONE PRIMARY OUTDOOR AIR
FRACTION (Zp)
500 800 4000
300
NORMAL ZONE OCCUPANCY
(EITHER KNOWN OR DEFAULT)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
4 2 140 25 12 5 0 0 0
ZONE POPULATION
(LARGEST TYPICAL OCCUPANCY)
(SUM (Pz))
229 567 490 567
FOR OPTIMIZATION, ADD TO
KEY "MINIMUM VAV
AIRFLOW TO ZONE" (CFM):
OA QUANTITY IS OPTIMIZED
WHEN REQ'D. OA INTAKE
CHANGE IS LESS THAN:
188
0.82 9.1
OCCUPANT DIVERSITY
(SYSTEM POPULATION / SUM OF
DESIGN POPULATION) (D)
9.1 12.7
1638 1603 2074
UNCORRECTED OUTDOOR AIR INTAKE
(CFM) (Vou)
REQUIRED OA INTAKE FLOW
(CFM) (Vot)
1697
SYSTEM POPULATION
(SUM OF NORMAL OCCUPANCIES) (Ps)
CALC. ORIGINAL
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0 0
CHANGE
1
CHANGE
2
CHANGE
3
CHANGE
4
103.1 90.9
1603 3046
89.1
0.22 0.35 0.38 0.33 0.22
500 850 600
250 420
MINIMUM VAV AIRFLOW TO ZONE (INCL.
PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM) (Vdz)
250 250 3000
1276
0.26
DESIGN PRIMARY AIRFLOW TO ZONE
(INCL. PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM) (Vpz)
ZONE PRIMARY OUTDOOR AIR
FRACTION (Zp)
500 800 4000
300
NORMAL ZONE OCCUPANCY
(EITHER KNOWN OR DEFAULT)
(NUMBER OF PEOPLE)
4 2 140 25 12 5 0 0 0 0
ZONE POPULATION
(LARGEST TYPICAL OCCUPANCY)
(SUM (Pz))
229 50 490 567 500 70 50
60
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
8. Scroll up to the row entitled "Design Primary Airflow to Zone (Vpz)", if necessary,
and inspect the cells for "Red" highlighted zones. (See picture below). It is
possible that the "Minimum VAV Airflow" for a Zone could have been increased to
a quantity larger than the "Design Primary Airflow to Zone (Vpz)". If any zones do
indicate this condition, it will be necessary to increase the "Design Primary
Airflow" to that zone, to equal or exceed the adjusted "Minimum VAV Airflow"
quantity. See the following example.
9. After completing Optimization, it will be necessary to make the appropriate
changes to the design documents, including changes to the Air Handling Units,
Zone level air quantities, VAV Minimums, etc.
10. Scroll to the top of the sheet and click the "Print" button (above the "Air Handling
Unit Number"). In the "Print Preview", scroll down as required to verify how many
pages are needed to include all of the associated zones. Click on "Print" button at
the top of the "Print Preview" page. Under "Print Range" on the "Print" dialog box,
select "Pages" and list the "From" and "To" as appropriate. Click "OK".
11. Print-out of the ASHRAE 62.1-2010 Compliance documents will reflect the
"Optimized" Outdoor Air quantities.
Note: It is possible that increasing the "Minimum VAV Airflow" to Optimize the OA
requirements could cause some over-cooling of the zones that were increased above
the original minimum design quantities. It may be necessary to add some local
heating to the affected zones, to at least neutralize the supply air temperature. This
additional heating requirement at the zone level has been accounted for in the trade-
off calculations during the Optimization process. Verify that adequate local zone
heating is actually available in the design of these zones.
0.00 0.00 0.40 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00
MINIMUM VAV AIRFLOW TO ZONE (INCL.
PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM) (Vdz)
100 250 3200
0.53
DESIGN PRIMARY AIRFLOW TO ZONE
(INCL. PRIMARY OA & RA) (CFM) (Vpz)
ZONE PRIMARY OUTDOOR AIR
FRACTION (Zp)
500 600 3000
61
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010 COMPLIANCE
2011 hvacdesignsolutions.com
COMPLIANCE DOCUMENTATION
Output Compliance Documents
Compliance Documents can be printed after completing the calculations and can
be submitted as a Compliance Record to the appropriate Building Department or
Code Authority. It is recommended that the following Output Pages,
Assumptions, and Diagrams be printed out, to assist with Building Department
review:
1. Printout of Air Handling Unit calculation results for each air handling system
(Note: number of printout pages for each air handling system will depend on
the number of zones)
2. Copy of "Calculation and Design Assumptions"
3. Table 6-1, Minimum Ventilation Rates In Breathing Zone
4. Table 6-2, Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness
5. Ventilation System Schematic
The preceding information includes excerpts from ANSI/ASHRAE 62.1-2010:
2010 American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers,
Inc. (www.ashrae.org) Used by permission.
IN NO EVENT WILL ASHRAE (or American Society of Heating, Refrigeration
and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.) BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES
ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAMS OR
ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTATION, HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY.
62
Acceptable Indoor Air Quality: Air in which there are no known contaminants at harmful concentrations as determined by
cognizant authorities and with which a substantial majority (80% or more) of the people exposed do not express dissatisfaction.
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010
VENTILATION FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY
DEFINITIONS
Fb
Ez
Supply Air Fraction: Fraction of supply air to the ventilation zone from sources of air from outside the zone: Fa =
Ep + (1 Ep)*Er.
Mixed Air Fraction: Fraction of supply air to the ventilation zone from fully mixed primary air: Fb = Ep.
Ep
Ev
Fa
Fc
Outdoor Air Fraction: Fraction of outdoor air to the ventilation zone that includes sourcesof air from outside the
zone: Fc = 1 (1 Ez)*(1 Er)*(1 Ep).
Az
System Ventilation Efficiency: the efficiency with which the system distributes air from the outdoor air intake to
the breathing zone in the ventilation-critical zone, which requires the largest fraction of outdoor air in the primary
air stream. Ev is determined from Table 6-3 or Equation A-3 (Appendix A).
Zone Ventilation Efficiency: the efficiency with which the system distributes air from the outdoor air intake to the
breathing zone in a particular ventilation zone. Evz is determined from Equations A-1 or A-2.
Evz
Er
Zone Floor Area: the net occupiable floor area of the ventilation zone ft
2
, (m
2
).
D
Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness : a measure of how effectively the zone air distribution uses its supply air to
maintain acceptable air quality in the breathing zone. Ez is determined from Table 6-2.
Air, Ventilation: that portion of supply air that is outdoor air plus any recirculated air that has been treated for the purpose of
maintaining acceptable indoor air quality.
Volume, Space: the total volume of an occupiable space enclosed by the building envelope, plus that of any spaces
permanently open to the occupiable space, such as a ceiling attic used as a ceiling return plenum.
Zone: one occupied space or several occupied spaces with similar occupancy category (see Table 6-1), occupant density,
zone air distribution effectiveness (see Table 6-2), and zone primary airflow per unit area. Note: A ventilation zone is not
necessarily an independent thermal control zone; however, spaces that can be combined for load calculations can often be
combined into a single zone for ventilation calculations.
SYMBOL DEFINITION
Occupant Diversity: the ratio of the system population to the sum of the zone populations: D = Ps/(SUM)Pz.
Primary Air Fraction: The fraction of primary air in discharge air to the ventilation zone. Ep = Vpz/Vdz
Secondary Recirculation Fraction: In systems with secondary recirculation of return air, the fraction of
secondary recirculated air to the zone that is representative of average system return air rather than air directly
recirculated from the zone. Note: For plenum return systems with local secondary recirculation (e.g., fanpowered
VAV with plenum return), Er 1.0. For ducted return systems with local secondary recirculation (e.g., fanpowered
VAV with ducted return), typically Er = 0.0.
The following information includes excerpts from ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010: 2010 American Society of
Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org) Used by permission.
Air Conditioning: the process of treating air to meet the requirements of a conditioned space by controlling its temperature,
humidity, cleanliness, and distribution.
Air-cleaning System: a device or combination of devices applied to reduce the concentration of airborne contaminants, such
as microorganisms, dusts, fumes, respirable particles, other particulate matter, gases, and/or vapors in air.
Breathing Zone: the region within an occupied space between planes 3 and 72 in. (75 and 1800 mm) above the floor and
more than 2 ft (600 mm) from the walls or fixed air-conditioning equipment.
Ventilation: the process of supplying air to or removing air from a space for the purpose of controlling air contaminant levels,
humidity, or temperature within the space.
Air, Ambient: the air surrounding a building; the source of outdoor air brought into a building.
Net Occupiable Space: the floor area of an occupiable space defined by the inside surfaces of its walls but excluding shafts,
column enclosures, and other permanently enclosed, inaccessible, and unoccupiable areas. Obstructions in the space such as
furnishings, display or storage racks, and other obstructions, whether temporary or permanent, may not be deducted from the
space area.
63
Zone Primary Airflow: The primary airflow supplied to the zone from the air-handling unit at which the outdoor air
intake is located, CFM (L/s). It includes outdoor intake air and recirculated air from that air-handling unit but does
not include air transferred or air recirculated to the zone by other means.
Average Outdoor Air Fraction: At the primary air handler, the fraction of outdoor air intake flow in the system
primary airflow, Xs = Vou/Vps.
Primary Outdoor Air Fraction: The outdoor air fraction required in the primary air supplied to the ventilation
zone, prior to the introduction of any secondary recirculation air. Zpz = Voz/Vpz. Note: For VAV systems, Vpz is
the minimum expected discharge airflow for design purposes.
Vps
Xs
Vpz
Zpz
Vot
Voz
Vcz
Vlz
Zone Outdoor Airflow: the design outdoor airflow required in the ventilation zone, i.e., Voz = Vbz/Ez.
System Population: the simultaneous number of occupants in the area served by the ventilation system. Where
population fluctuates, it may be averaged as described in Section 6.2.6.2.
Zone Population: the largest (peak) number of people expected to occupy the ventilation zone during typical
usage. If Pz is not known, it is determined from the default occupant densities listed in Table 6-1. Where
population fluctuates, it may be averaged as described in Section 6.2.6.2.
Uncorrected Outdoor Air Intake: The outdoor air intake flow required if the system ventilation efficiency Ev were
1.0. Vou = D*(SUM all zones)Rp*Pz + (SUM all zones)Ra*Az.
People Outdoor Air Rate: the outdoor airflow rate per person to be provided in the breathing zone to dilute
contaminants that are emitted at a rate that is related more to population than to floor area. The value of Rp for a
zone is determined from Table 6-1.
Breathing Zone Outdoor Airflow: the outdoor airflow required in the breathing zone of an occupiable space, Vbz
= Rp*Pz + Ra*Az.
Outdoor Air Intake Flow: the design outdoor airflow required at the ventilation system outdoor air intake.
Vou
Zone Common Return Airflow: The portion of secondary recirculation air that comes from "common" return
sources, such as from ceiling plenum or common return duct, CFM (L/s).
System Primary Airflow: The total primary airflow supplied to all zones served by the system from the air
handling unit at which the outdoor air intake is located, Vps= (SUM all zones) Vpz, in CFM (L/s).
Ps
Pz
Vbz
Vdz
Ra
Rp
Zone Discharge Airflow: The expected discharge (supply) airflow to the zone that includes primary airflow and
secondary recirculated airflow, CFM (L/s).
Zone Local Return Airflow: The portion of secondary recirculation air that comes from "local" return from the
zone that is employing secondary recirc., such as from the ceiling return register, CFM (L/s).
Area Outdoor Air Rate: the outdoor airflow rate per unit area to be provided in the breathing zone to dilute
contaminants that are emitted at a rate that is related more to floor area than to population. The value of Ra for a
zone is determined from Table 6-1.
DEFINITIONS
(The following information includes excerpts from ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010)
SYMBOL DEFINITION
VENTILATION FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY
IN NO EVENT WILL ASHRAE (or American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.) BE LIABLE
FOR ANY DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAMS OR ACCOMPANYING
DOCUMENTATION, HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY.
ANSI/ASHRAE STANDARD 62.1-2010
64