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Research report: Dispersion modelling

and calculations in support of


EI Model code of safe practice Part 15: Area
classication code for installations handling
ammable uids
2nd edition
RESEARCH REPORT: DISPERSION MODELLING AND CALCULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF
EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE PART 15: AREA CLASSIFICATION CODE FOR
INSTALLATIONS HANDLING FLAMMABLE FLUIDS
Second edition
March 2008
Published by
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RESEARCH REPORT: DISPERSION MODELLING AND CALCULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE PART 15
iii
CONTENTS
Page
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Objective and scope of work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3 Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.1 Investigation of research topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3.1.1 Sensitivity effects of input parameters on dispersion characteristics . . . . . . . . . 3
3.1.2 Area classification for liquid pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.3 Application of area classification methodology to LNG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4 Validation of previous work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.1 Release flow rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.2 Dispersion results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5 Investigation of sensitivity of results to variation of parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1 Variation with weather category (windspeed and stability) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1.1 R
1
distances to LFL (releases at 5 m height above ground) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
5.1.2 R
2
distances to LFL (releases at 1 m height above ground) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.1.3 Distance to 0.5 LFL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2 Variation with ambient temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.3 Variation with relative humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.4 Variation with surface roughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
6 Investigation of area classification for liquid pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.1 Spill volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.2 Hazard distances: base case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.3 Hazard distances: sensitivities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
6.3.1 Variation with ambient temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
6.3.2 Variation with surface roughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7 Investigation of application of EI15 methodology to LNG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.1 Liquid rain-out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.2 Base case and variation with weather category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.3 Variation with ambient temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
7.4 Variation with relative humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
7.5 Variation with surface roughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
7.6 Variation with surface type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
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Contents Cont... Page
8 Conclusions and recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
8.1 Sensitivity to parameter variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
8.1.1 Fluid category A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
8.1.2 Other fluid categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
8.2 Liquid pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
8.2.1 Base case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
8.2.2 Sensitivity to parameter variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
8.3 LNG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Annex A Sensitivity analysis on release angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Annex B Glossary of terms and abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
B.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
B.2 Glossary of terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
B.3 Glossary of abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Annex C References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Addendum 1: EI Calculations in support of IP 15: The area classification code for
petroleum installations (first edition) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Tables:
Table 3.1: Parameter values used for dispersion values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Table 3.2: Pool dimensions modelled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Table 3.3: Example LNG compositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Table 4.1: Release flow rates from EI15 and DNV Phast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Table 4.2: Comparison of dispersion results (distances to LFL, m) from EI15 and DNV Phast:
Hazard distance R
1
; release height 5 m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Table 4.3: Comparison of dispersion results (distances to LFL, m) from EI15 and DNV Phast:
Hazard distance R
2
; release height 1 m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Table 4.4: Summary of sensitivity of hazard distance to release angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Table 4.5: Comparison of dispersion results (distances to LFL) from EI15 and DNV Phast:
Hazard distance R
2
; release height 1 m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Table 5.1: Ratios of R
1
hazard distance to 0.5 LFL/LFL (5 m elevation release) . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Table 6.1: Spill volumes modelled (m
3
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Table 6.2: Distances from edge of pool to LFL and 0.5 LFL for base case, concrete . . . . . . . . 31
Table 6.3: Distances from edge of pool to LFL and 0.5 LFL for base case, dry soil . . . . . . . . . 32
Table 7.1: Percentage rain-out of LNG (maximum from all weather categories) . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Table 7.2: Summary of base case hazard radii R
1
to LFL and 0.5 LFL for LNG releases at
5 m height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Table 7.3: Comparison of distances to LFL (m) for fluid category G(i) and LNG . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Table 7.4: Summary of base case hazard radii R
1
to LFL and 0.5 LFL for LNG releases at
1 m and 0.1 m height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Table 7.5: Distances to LFL for releases at 5 m height at different ambient temperatures . . . 42
Table 7.6: Variation in distances to LFL for releases at 5 m height for different relative
humidities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Table 7.7: Distances to LFL for selected releases at 5 m height onto concrete and water . . . . 44
RESEARCH REPORT: DISPERSION MODELLING AND CALCULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE PART 15
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Contents Cont... Page
Table 7.8: Distances to LFL for releases at 0.1 m height onto concrete and water . . . . . . . . . 44
Table A.1: Hole diameter 1 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Table A.2: Hole diameter 2 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Table A.3: Hole diameter 5 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Table A.4: Hole diameter 10 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Figures:
Figure 3.1: Definitions of hazard radii R
1
and R
2
for releases at height H (reproduced
from EI15) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Figure 5.1: Example comparisons of R
1
hazard distances to LFL for different weather
categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Figure 5.2: Example comparisons of R
2
hazard distances to LFL for different weather
categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Figure 5.3: Example side views of plumes for releases at 1 m height, showing LFL contour
for each weather category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Figure 5.4: Example comparisons of hazard distances R
1
to 0.5 LFL for different weather
categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Figure 5.5: Example comparisons of R
1
hazard distances to LFL between different ambient
temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Figure 5.6: Example comparisons of R
1
hazard distances between different relative
humidities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Figure 5.7: Example comparisons of R
1
hazard distances between different surface
roughnesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Figure 6.1: Example comparisons of R
1
hazard distances between different ambient
temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Figure 6.2: Example comparisons of R
1
hazard distances to LFL between different surface
roughnesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Figure 7.1: Example side views of plume dispersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Figure 7.2: Variation of distances to LFL with weather category (release height 5 m) . . . . . . . 41
Figure 7.3: Variation of distances to LFL with surface roughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
RESEARCH REPORT: DISPERSION MODELLING AND CALCULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE PART 15
vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The technical development project that forms the basis of the second edition of this report was
undertaken by Philip Nalpanis (DNV Energy)
1
, and assisted by colleagues Dr Phil Crossthwaite, Stavros
Yiannoukas and Jeff Daycock. It was directed by the Energy Institutes Area Classification Working
Group, which comprised during the project:
Howard Crowther Consultant (Chairperson)
Jon Ellis ConocoPhillips
Tony Ennis Haztech Consultants
Geoff Fulcher F.E.S. (Ex)
Kieran Glynn BP International
Martin Hassett M W Kellogg
Peter Murdoch SIRA Certification
Sonia Quintanilla Energy Institute (Secretary)
Dr Mark Scanlon Energy Institute
Dr Sam Summerfield Health and Safety Executive
Edmund Terry Sauf Consulting
Mick Wansborough Consultant
Dirk Wong M W Kellogg
The Institute wishes to record its appreciation to the technical direction provided by them.
The Institute also wishes to record its appreciation to the assistance provided by Peter Roberts (Shell
Global Solutions) regarding technical issues in the first edition of this report.
Project management and technical editing were carried out by Dr Mark Scanlon (Energy Institute).
Affiliations refer to the time of participation.
1
Philip Nalpanis, Principal Specialist, Det Norske Veritas (DNV) Ltd., Palace House, 3 Cathedral Street, LONDON,
SE1 9DE.
RESEARCH REPORT: DISPERSION MODELLING AND CALCULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE PART 15
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FOREWORD
The third edition of EI Area classification code for installations handling flammable fluids ('EI15') was
published in July 2005 and incorporated both technical clarifications and editorial amendments.
EI15 is widely used in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the petroleum industry, as well
as in other industry sectors that handle flammable fluids. In addition, it is regarded as a key
methodology for addressing the area classification requirements of the Dangerous Substances and
Explosive Atmospheres Regulations (DSEAR).
In developing the second edition of EI15, some research studies were commissioned to strengthen
its evidence base; this included the research published as the first edition of EI Calculations in support
of IP15: The area classification code for petroleum installations.
Following publication of the third edition of EI15, this research was commissioned to further extend
the dispersion analysis and calculation basis of EI15: the findings are described here in the second
edition of EI Research report: Dispersion analysis and calculations in support of EI15: The area
classification code for installations handling flammable fluids.
The research described here focused on the following technical issues:
Sensitivity analysis of ambient temperature, relative humidity, weather and surface roughness
on dispersion characteristics from point sources for various fluid categories.
Sensitivity analysis of the nature and ambient temperature of the underlying surface (e.g.
concrete, dry soil), weather, and surface roughness on dispersion characteristics from pools of
various diameters and depths, for various fluid categories.
Determination of whether any existing IP15 fluid categories apply to liquefied natural gas (LNG),
or if it requires specific modelling and sensitivity analysis of parameters (hole diameter, release
pressure, temperature, relative humidity, weather, surface roughness, surface type) to determine
dispersion characteristics.
Publication of the new research augments the following technical issues in the first edition:
Work item 2: Shape factors and hazard radii for pressurised releases see Section 3 of EI
Calculations in support of IP 15: The area classification code for petroleum installations (see
Addendum 1).
Work item 4: Liquid pools due to spillage see Section 5 of EI Calculations in support of IP 15:
The area classification code for petroleum installations (see Addendum 1).
In practice, information on these issues in the earlier report is not invalidated, but rather is
augmented in the second edition. Consequently, and because no further technical work has been
carried out on other work items in the earlier report, the first edition is entirely replicated as
Addendum 1.
RESEARCH REPORT: DISPERSION MODELLING AND CALCULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE PART 15
viii
The research reported here should be considered independent of the Energy Institutes Area
Classification Working Group, although commissioned and reviewed by them; going forward, they
intend to consider how the findings of the new research affects the continuing technical integrity of
pertinent aspects of the third edition of EI15.
The information in this publication should assist process safety engineers, safety advisors, designers,
or others with responsibility for hazardous area classification to better determine the extent of
hazardous areas in a consistent manner for specific fluid and process, weather and environment
dependent values. The information is internationally applicable provided it is read, interpreted and
applied in conjunction with relevant national and local requirements.
For further information on the suite of EI publications on hazardous area classification see
http://www.energyinst.org.uk/ei15.
The information contained in this publication is provided as guidance only and while every reasonable
care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of its contents, the Energy Institute and the technical
representatives listed in the Acknowledgements, cannot accept any responsibility for any action
taken, or not taken, on the basis of this information. The Energy Institute shall not be liable to any
person for any loss or damage which may arise from the use of any of the information contained in
any of its publications.
This publication may be further reviewed from time to time. It would be of considerable assistance
in any future revision if users would send comments or suggestions for improvement to:
The Technical Department
Energy Institute
61 New Cavendish Street
LONDON, W1G 7AR
e: technical@energyinst.org.uk
RESEARCH REPORT: DISPERSION MODELLING AND CALCULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE PART 15
Page 1
1 INTRODUCTION
The third edition of EI Area classification code for installations handling flammable fluids
('EI15') was published in July 2005 and incorporated both technical clarifications and
editorial amendments. EI15 is widely used in both the upstream and downstream sectors of
the petroleum industry, as well as in other industry sectors that handle flammable fluids. In
addition, it is regarded as a key methodology for addressing the area classification
requirements of The Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations
(DSEAR).
In developing the second edition of EI15, some research studies were commissioned
to strengthen its evidence base; this included the research published as the first edition of
EI Calculations in support of IP15: The area classification code for petroleum installations (see
Addendum 1).
Following publication of the third edition of EI15, this research was commissioned
to further extend the dispersion analysis and calculation basis of EI15: the findings are
described here in the second edition of EI Research report: Dispersion analysis and
calculations in support of EI15: The area classification code for installations handling
flammable fluids. This research report sets out project findings: the results obtained from
DNVs analysis and the conclusions that can be drawn in respect of EI15 in the areas
researched.
RESEARCH REPORT: DISPERSION MODELLING AND CALCULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF EI MODEL CODE OF SAFE PRACTICE PART 15
Page 2
2 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE OF WORK
The project has aimed to strengthen the evidence base of EI15 by researching the following
technical issues, as requested by the EI Area Classification Working Group:
1. Sensitivity effects of parameters on dispersion characteristics. EI15 Annex C
sets out atmospheric dispersion results for a range of fluid compositions, modelled
for a single set of atmospheric conditions and other release parameters. The
dispersion modelling included in EI15 Annex C will be repeated as a calibration of
the models to be used. The new research will extend the parameter ranges of
atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, reference height, stability,
reservoir temperature and surface roughness. In addition, modelling would be
carried out for both the existing EI15 hazard radius lower flammable limit (LFL)
boundary and a 0.5 LFL boundary.
2. Area classification arising from pools formed as a result of instantaneous
releases. EI15 currently only addresses continuous releases (leaks) for particular
mass flow rates/hole sizes, continuing over a period of time. Additional research is
required to investigate the factors that affect vapour dispersion from gasoline spills
resulting from an instantaneous release that would be subject to area classification.
These factors potentially include pool size, pool depth, confinement by kerbs or
bunds, the nature and temperature of the underlying surface (e.g. concrete, water),
wind speed, and topography.
3. Application of the EI15 methodology to liquefied natural gas (LNG). EI15
does not specifically address LNG, a rapidly growing market and a material that
recent work has shown presents particular challenges in modelling dispersion. The
research for EI15 will determine whether it aligns with any of the existing and well
established fluid categories or warrants separate treatment. In the latter case hazard
radii would be modelled equivalent to those for materials already addressed. The
intent of each of these technical issues was further discussed with the EI Area
Classification Working Group, which led to the agreed approach described in
Section 3. This research report delivering the project findings aims, so far as is
practicable, to align with EI15, to enable the findings to be integrated into any
future edition.

Related Interests