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EL0002- M - 2- 0.3 - TYPES OF BOILER.

Types of Boiler
Boilers are classified based on the fuel use, handling. The fuels used are coal (utility boiler), natural
gas and oil.

Based on Application and The various heat transfer sections of a boiler can be grouped as follows:
A. Utility: Furnace, Superheater, Reheater, Economiser, Air Heater
B. Industrial: Furnace, Superheater, Boiler Bank, Economiser, Air Heater
Based on No. of Drums
1. Single Drum EL0002- M - 2- 0.3.a - SINGLE DRUM BOILER.
2. Bi Drum EL0002- M - 2- 0.3.b - Bi- Drum Boiler., EL0002-M -2-0-3d - PFI BOILER.
3. No Drum

Based on Construction
1. Vertical Package- VP EL0002-M -2-0-3c - THE FM.
2. Vertical Recovery- V2R EL0002-M -2-0-12a - simple combined cycle system
3. Heat Recover Steam Generator EL0002- M - 2- 0.12 - TYPES OF BOILER.
5. EL0002- M - 2- 0.13 - TYPES OF BOILER.
6. EL0002-M -2-0-13a - General Waste Heat Boiler.
7. Vertical Unit 40- VU40 EL0002-M -2-0-3e - VU 40 Boiler.
8. Vertical Unit 60- VU60 EL0002-M -2-0-3f - VU 60 Boiler.
9. Modular Unit
10. Modular Boilers
Modular boilers are small hot water boilers rated at 58 kwh to 263 kwh input. These boilers are
available with 85 percent or higher gross efficiency. These boilers are often used in tandem to
provide hot water for space heating and/or domestic hot water. For example, if the design
heating load were 58 kwh, four 176 kwh (input) modular boilers might be used. If the load were
25 percent or less on a particular day, only one boiler would fire and cycle on and off to supply
the load. The other three boilers would remain off with no water flow. This reduces flue and
jacket (covering of the boiler) heat losses.
Some modular boilers have very small storage capacity and very rapid heat transfer so water
flow must be proven before the burner is started.

11. Tower Type EL0002- M - 2- 0.6c - TOWER TYPE BOILER.
Based on Type of Firing EL0002- M - 2- 0.4 - TYPES OF BOILER.
A. Wall Firing

B. Tangential Firing
Tangential firing system
Alstom introduced tangential firing systems to the power generation industry. Today, our
systems lead the market in reducing emissions.
How does it work?
A rotating flame envelope is formed within the furnace, directing heat to each wall, regardless
of unit load of fuel input combinations. The furnace aerodynamic helps with heat absorption
and achieves lower bulk gas temperatures compared to wall-fired boilers.
C. Stoker
Stoker-fired boiler is typical of a medium pressure and temperature of some 15 to 20 years ago.
Stokers feed fuel onto a grate where it burns with undergrate air passing up through it, and overfire
air passing over it. The grate is located within the lower furnace and removes the ash resiue after
combustion. Evolving from the hand-fired boiler era, these type of boilers burn a wide range of fuels
for industrial, small utility and cogeneration applications. Other than coal the fuels include sludge,
wood waste and biomass (e.g. wood bark, straw, bagasse, rice hulls, peach pits, almond shells,
orchard prunings, coffee grounds as well as residential, agricultural, industrial and commercial
Modern mechanical stokers firing system are composed of:
1. A stoker or fuel feeding system also referred as feeder, distributor or spout
There are two types of systems
a. Underfeed stokers supply both the fuel

b. Overfeed stokers supply fuel from above grate and air from below the grate. These are
further divided into two types: mass feed and spreader
In the mass feed stoker, fuel is continuously fed to one end of grate surface and travels
horizontally across the grate as it burns. The residual ash is discharged from the opposite
end. Combustion air is introduced from below the grate and moves up through the
burning bed of fuel. In spreader stoker, combustion air is again introduced primarily from
below the grate but the fuel is thrown or spread uniformly across the grate area. The
finer fraction of the fuel burns in suspension as it is lifted by the upward moving flue gas
flow. The remaining heavier fraction of the fuel lands and burns on the grate surface with
any residual ash removed from the discharge end of the grate.

Based on Tube Content
a. Fire Tube Boiler EL0002- M - 2- 0.6 - FIRETUBE BOILER.
b. Water Tube Boiler EL0002- M - 2- 0.10 - TYPES OF BOILER.

Based on Fuel
1. Oil Fired
2. Oil & Coal Fired EL0002- M - 2- 0.6b - PULVERIZED FUEL BOILER.
3. Black Liquor
The Recovery Boiler furnace was developed for combusting black liquor organic material while
reducing the oxidized inorganic material in a pile, or bed, supported by the furnace floor. The
molten inorganic chemical or smelt in the bed are discharged to a tank and dissolved to form
green liquor. Green liquor active chemicals are Na
and Na
S. Green liquor contains
unburned carbon and inorganic impurities from the smelt, mostly calcium and iron compounds,
and this insoluble materials, or dregs, must be removed through clarification. This operation is
basically settling of sediment and decantation of clear green liquor that can be pumped as
slurry. Energy is released in the recovery furnace due to the combustion of black liquor. This
energy produces steam from feedwater. The steam is introduced into a turbine generator .
Steam is taken from the Turbine extractions at low pressure for process requirements such as
cooking wood chips, evaporation, recovery furnace air heating and drying the pulp or paper
production. Energy generated by turbine generator meets the energy demand of pulp and
paper mill.

4. Baggas (Stoker) EL0002- M - 2- 0.14 - Multii fuel Plant.
5. FBC EL0002- M - 2- 0.7 - FLUIDIZED BED BOILER.

Based on availability of Reheater
1. Reheat Type EL0002 - M - 2 -0.8 - REHEAT SYSTEM.
2. Non-reheat Type EL0002 - M - 2 -0.8a - NON - REHEAT SYSTEM.
Based on Circulation EL0002- M - 2- 0.9 - TYPES OF BOILER.
1. Natural
2. Forced Circulation
3. Controlled Circulation EL0002- M - 2- 0.11 - FORCED CIRCULATION SYSTEM.
4. Once Through

Boiler Parameter
A. Utility Boiler
1. Main Steam Flow- T/Hr
2. Main Steam Pressure- Kg/cm

3. Main Steam Temperature-
4. Reheat Steam Flow- T/Hr
5. Reheat Steam Pressure- Kg/cm

6. Reheat Steam Temperature-

B. Industrial Boiler
1. Steam Flow- T/Hr

C. Heat Recovery Unit
1. Fuel Used- T/Day

Pressure Parts
Based on Configuration
1. Headers
2. Panels
3. Coils
4. Connections
5. Supports
Based on Systems
1. Economizer System
2. Circulation System
3. Superheater System
4. Reheater System
Pressure Parts
(With respect to arrangement)
Performance Parameters
1. Size (Diameter)
2. Size (Thickness)
3. Material (SS)
4. Transverse Spacing
5. Longitudinal Spacing
6. Heating Surface Area
7. No. of elements
8. Inlet / Outlet Connection Requirements
9. Furnace Width
10. Furnace Dia.
11. Extended Pass
12. Back Pass Path
13. Hopper Angle
14. Arch Configuration
15. Coil / Bank Depth
Detail Design Requirement
IBR Requirements (Strength Calculation)
Heat Treatment
Transport L
Stress Analysis Requirement
Guide, Supports & Suspensions
Thermal Expansions
Flexibility of Distance of Tube from roof
Buck Stays Spacers
Arrangement Requirements
Interface free arrangement/ Routing of Risers / Pipes/ Links
Wield Accessibility