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Acedera, Rose Anne E.

2011-10370
Essentials of Electrical and Electronics Engineering 1


EXPERIMENT 1
D.C. and Resistance Measurements

1. The method used in determining the
internal resistance of the milliammeter is
just an approximation. Discuss how the
value of the resistor R1 affects the
accuracy of the measurement.

Determination of the internal resistances of
instruments used in measuring certain
quantities in a circuit is a crucial part of any
electrical analysis. A meter or any measuring
instrument extracts energy from the circuit
itself. This causes loading of the circuit.
Error (e) due to this is dependent on the
ratio of the internal resistance of the
instrument and the resistance of the circuit.

The following set-up was used to get Rm, the
internal resistance of the 1mA movement.


To fully state the dependence of the accuracy
of the measurements to the value of R1, the
relationship between R1 and Rm was sought
first.

Since the method utilized in this part is the
half-scale deflection method, one can assume
that the following relationship holds true.

(1)

Therefore,

)
(2)

The expression above shows the relationship
of R1 and the accuracy of the measurements.

2. Based on the meter resistance of your
1mA movement, predict the accuracy
that you should obtain for each of the
measurements made in Procedure B.
Compare these figures with the actual
accuracy of your measurements.
Account for any differences.

3. Show how you computed for the value
of Rs to be used to convert your 1mA
movement into a 10-V voltmeter. What
is the internal resistance of your 10-V
voltmeter?


To convert the 1mA movement into a 10-
V voltmeter, the value of Rs was
calculated to be 10,000 . This is from
the Ohms Law, V=IR.

) (

)

Now, let Im be the full scale current
circulating through the circuit. According
to Ohms Law,

(3)

Since the milliammeter and the resistor
are connected in series,

(4)

Substituting Equation (4) to (3) and
rearranging yields,

(5)

From Equation (5), the internal resistance
of the 10-V voltmeter is zero.

4. Discuss the linearity and accuracy of
the 10-V voltmeter you constructed
based on the calibration points given
to you in Table 2. What are the
possible sources of error?

The 10-V voltmeter constructed gave
sufficiently accurate measurements for the
calibration points as seen in Table 2. The
measurements relative deviations from
the true values do not exceed 0.10 or
10%. A factor that might have
contributed to the accurate measurements
was its internal resistance being 0, which
means that the loading effect in the
circuit was minimized if not totally
abolished.

Though the voltmeter yielded high
accuracy readings, errors are still
inevitable in the experiment, as for any
analyses. Parallax errors might be present
when taking the measurements, also, as
what is mentioned in the above
paragraph, loading effect might also gave
rise to errors.

5. Based on the internal resistance of
your 10-V voltmeter, predict the
accuracy that you should obtain for
each of the measurements made in
Procedure D. Compare these figures
with the actual accuracy of your
measurements.

It was already mentioned that the internal
resistance is directly proportional to the
error obtained in the experiment. Since
the value of the internal resistance of the
10 V voltmeter is very low (approaching
zero), one can expect very accurate
voltage measurements.

6. Show that the relationship between
unknown resistance Ru and deflection
D for the series ohmmeter circuit of
Figure 5 is given by Ru = Ro (1 - D)/D.
In our case, what is Ro?



Since the resistor with unknown
resistance, Ru, is connected in series with
the potentiometer, the current, I, flowing
across the two devices are equal. From
the experiment, it was found that I is
equal to the %deflection (D) multiplied
by 1mA. Doing a KVL analysis on the
circuit gives,

10 k(I) + Ru(I)=10
10 D + RuD = 10
RuD= 10D-10
(
()

)

The equation above follows the pattern of
our desired equation,
(

( )

)
Therefore, Ro is equal to 10 k.

7. Compare the computed resistance in
Procedures E and F with the actual
values of Ra, Rb, and Rc given by
your instructor. Account for any
differences.

The theoretical values of Ra, Rb and Rc are
100 k, 4700 k and 2,200 k,
respectively.

From the data obtained in Procedures E
and F, we can conclude that Procedure F
yielded values which are closer to the
theoretical ones. However, deviations are
still observed. Deviations noticed for
Procedure F were positive, that is, the
calculated resistance is greater than the
theoretical resistance and for Procedure E
were negative.

These deviations came from (1) mistakes
committed in reading the voltage and
current measurements, (2) loading effect
due to the internal resistances of the
equipment, and (3) ammeter insertion
effect, which tends to decrease the
current in the circuit, that is, the current
being read is less than the current
expected.

8. Given the two possible arrangements
for making resistance measurements
using the voltmeter-ammeter method,
when should one method be used
instead of the other if the resistance is
to be taken as the voltage reading
divided by the current reading?


Configuration I


Configuration II

For Configuration I, the voltmeter reads
the true voltage required but the ammeter
yields a lower measurement (than the
theoretical value). Here, the current is
equal to the current passing through the
resistor minus the current flowing
through the voltmeter. In turn, the
resistance calculated is lower than the
theoretical value. This explains why
negative deviations were observed for
Procedure E. Consequently, for
Configuration II, the ammeter reads the
true current but the voltage read is higher
than expected. This causes the positive
deviations observed for Procedure F.

In the voltmeter-ammeter method,
internal meter resistances should be taken
in consideration. In reality, voltmeters are
usually made with high internal
resistances. Because of this, nearly all the
current flows through the resistor.
Therefore, the current passing through
the voltmeter is negligible. Considering
the effect of the internal meter
resistances, Configuration I should be
used if the resistance to be calculated is
small and Configuration II is used when
the resistance is large.