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# Rebecca Borlik

## Curriculum Analysis: The Overland Trail

May 15, 2014
1. Alignment of the unit to the CCCSSM and MPS
MPS organized by day/ and day span
1) Make sense
of problems
and persevere
in solving
them.
2) Reason
abstractly and
quantitatively.

3) Construct
viable
arguments
and critique
the
reasoning of
others.

4) Model with
mathematics
.

5) Use
appropriate
tools
strategically.

6) Attend to
precision.

7) Look for
and make
use of
structure.

8) Look for
and express
regularity in
repeated
reasoning.

2, 3, 5, 6, 8,
POW 9, 10, 11-
18, 25-28
2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8,
POW 9, 10, 15-
18, 22-28
2, 3, 5, 8,
POW 9, 9, 10,
15-18, 22-28
3, 5, 6, 7, 8,
POW 9, 10,
11-14, 22-24
3, 5, 6, 8,
POW 9, 10,
19-21
3, 5, 7, 8, 10,
15-18, 25-28
POW 8, 3, 4,
7, 8, 9, 10, 11-
14, 15-18, 22-
24
3, 6, 7, 8, 9,
10, 25-28
CCSSM focus organized by day span
Day 7-10 Focus on the use and meaning of variables
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.A.2
Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.EE.B.4
Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to
solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.
Day 11-14 Deal primarily with drawing of graphs from both descriptive information and algebraic equations, including the use of
scales and the connections between situations, graphs, tables and algebraic rules.
Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.EE.B.5
Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional
relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to
determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.
Define, evaluate, and compare functions.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.A.1
Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered
pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output.1
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.A.2
Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by
verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by
an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change.

Day 15-18 focus on interpreting graphs and using them to make predictions and to solve problems
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.B.5
Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is
increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been
described verbally.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.A.3
Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are
not linear. For example, the function A = s2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its
graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line.
Use functions to model relationships between quantities.

Day 19-21 Introduces the use of graphing calculators to plot data and to graph equations, and to include the use of zoom and
trace techniques
Day 22-24 The use of linear equations to represent a situation and the use of a graph to help find solutions for problems involving
two linear conditions
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.B.4
Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the
function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph.
Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a
table of values.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.EE.C.8
Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

Day 25-28 Apply many of the ideas developed earlier to solve problems involving different kinds of rates.
Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.EE.B.5
Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional
relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to
determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.

2. Develop a learning trajectory for the content/topic as evidenced within the CCCSSM for grades K-
12.

This trajectory suggests the pathway that students take to reach a plateau of knowledge that makes
them capable of using the unit, The Overland Trail. As the trajectory suggests, this unit is majority an 8
th

grade or Algebra I course.
Measurement and Data Operations in Algebraic Thinking
Represent and interpret data.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.MD.C.4
Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three
of data points, how many in each category, and how many
more or less are in one category than in another.
Work with addition and subtraction equations.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.D.7
Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if
equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.D.8
Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or
subtraction equation relating three whole numbers.
Represent and interpret data.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.D.9
Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several
objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated
measurements of the same object. Show the measurements
by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off
in whole-number units.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.D.10
Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale)
to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple
put-together, take-apart, and compare problems1 using
information presented in a bar graph.
Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for
multiplication.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.OA.C.3
Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd
or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or
counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even
number as a sum of two equal
Use addition to find the total number of objects arranged in
rectangular arrays with up to 5 rows and up to 5 columns; write
an equation to express the total as a sum of equal addends.
Represent and interpret data.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.B.3
Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to
represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and
two-step "how many more" and "how many less" problems
using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example,
draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might
represent 5 pets.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.B.4
Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers
marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by
making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in
appropriate units whole numbers, halves, or quarters.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.OA.A.3
Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word
problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and
measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and
equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent
the problem.1
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.OA.A.4
Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or
division equation relating three whole numbers.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.OA.B.6
Understand division as an unknown-factor problem. For
example, find 32 8 by finding the number that makes 32
when multiplied by 8.
Represent and interpret data.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.MD.B.4
Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in
fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving
addition and subtraction of fractions by using information
presented in line plots.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.OA.A.3
Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and
having whole-number answers using the four operations,
including problems in which remainders must be interpreted.
Represent these problems using equations with a letter
standing for the unknown quantity.
Generate and analyze patterns.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.OA.C.5
Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule.
Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit
in the rule itself.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.MD.B.2
Make a line plot to display a data set
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.OA.A.2
Write simple expressions that record calculations with
numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without
evaluating them.
Analyze patterns and relationships.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.OA.B.3
Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules.
Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms.
Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the
two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate
plane.

Develop understanding of statistical variability.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.SP.A.1
Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to
algebraic expressions.
Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates
variability in the data related to the question and accounts for
it in the answers.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.SP.A.2
Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical
question has a distribution which can be described by its
center, spread, and overall shape.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.RP.A.2
Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a
ratio a:b with b 0, and use rate language in the context of a
ratio relationship.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.RP.A.3
Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and
mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of
equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line
diagrams, or equations.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.A.1
Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-
number exponents.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.A.2
Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for
numbers.CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.A.2.C
Evaluate expressions at specific values of their variables.
Include expressions that arise from formulas used in real-world
problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those
involving whole-number exponents, in the conventional order
when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order
Reason about and solve one-variable equations and
inequalities.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.B.5
Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of
answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any,
make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to
determine whether a given number in a specified set makes
an equation or inequality true.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.B.6
Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when
solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand
that a variable can represent an unknown number, or,
depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a
specified set.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.B.7
Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and
solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in
which p, q and x are all nonnegative rational numbers.
Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between
dependent and independent variables.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.C.9
Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world
problem that change in relationship to one another; write an
equation to express one quantity, thought of as the
dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of
as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship
between the dependent and independent variables using
graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation.
Use properties of operations to generate equivalent
expressions.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.EE.A.1
Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract,
factor, and expand linear expressions with rational co-
efficients. Solve real-life and mathematical problems using
numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.EE.B.3
Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed
with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole
numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically.
Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in
any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess
the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and
estimation strategies.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.EE.B.4
Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or
mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and
inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the
quantities.

Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous
linear equations.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.EE.C.7
Solve linear equations in one variable.
Define, evaluate, and compare functions.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.A.1
Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input
exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of
ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding
output.1
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.A.2
Compare properties of two functions each represented in a
different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables,
or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function
represented by a table of values and a linear function
represented by an algebraic expression, determine which
function has the greater rate of change.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.A.3
Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function,
whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that
are not linear. For example, the function A = s2 giving the area
of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because
its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are
not on a straight line.
Use functions to model relationships between quantities.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.B.4
Construct a function to model a linear relationship between
two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value
of the function from a description of a relationship or from two
(x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a
graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear
function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its
graph or a table of values.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.B.5
Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two
quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is
increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph
that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has
been described verbally.
Calculate expected values and use them to solve problems
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.MD.A.1
(+) Define a random variable for a quantity of interest by
assigning a numerical value to each event in a sample space;
graph the corresponding probability distribution using the
same graphical displays as for data distributions.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSA.CED.A.1
Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use
them to solve problems.Include equations arising from linear
and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential
functions.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSA.CED.A.2
Create equations in two or more variables to represent
relationships between quantities; graph equations on
coordinate axes with labels and scales.
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSA.CED.A.3
Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by
systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions
as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context.

A-CED 1,2,3,4
A-REI 2,3.1, 11
F-IF 4,5,6,7,8,9
F-BF 1,2
S-ID 2

3. Discourse for increased learning
Grouping is Organized Collaboration is Encouraged Discussion Enhancers Questioning from multiple
The Family
described on page
14.
Club card- minimal
family
Diamond card-large
family
Heart card-nonfamily
conglomerate family

Families have
folders that keep their
information
organized
Supplies list (38-41)
to their supplies for
the next leg of the
journey (pg. 112)
The large amount of
that apply to
students success on
the journey is a
natural spark to
collaboration and
discussion.
While there are a lot
of collaboration
necessary in Day 1-7,
there is not a lot of
group questions to
guide discourse.
Prepare for this if
necessary.
May use homework
questions to assist in
discussions
pg. 117
Comparisons and
discussions of graphs-
pg 122
What assumptions did
you make? (pg. 26)
How can you use
variables to rewrite this
sentence as an
algebraic expression?
(pg. 54)
How long would you
suggest that each type
of shift be? Provide at
least three different pairs
of answers. (pg. 167)
If you didnt find another
solution, does that prove
that there isnt another
one? (pg. 55)

#4 Examples of formative and summative.
Formative Assessments Summative Assessments
authors recommend teachers to read these assignments
carefully
Homework 2: Hats for Families (pg. 23)making estimates
Homework 7: Laced Travelers (pg. 51)---
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.SP.A.2
Homework 11: Graph Sketches (pg. 83)---
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.EE.B.5
Homework 13: Situations, Graphs, Tables, and Rules (pg. 99)---
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.A.1
Who Will Make It? (Day 17)(pg. 130)---
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.B.5
In-Class Assessment (pg. 256-257)
variables; drawing graphs based on tables, situations, and
algebraic rules; interpreting graphs, linear equations;
proportional relationships
Take-Home Assessment (pg. 258-259)
variables; drawing graphs based on tables, situations, and
algebraic rules; interpreting graphs, linear equations;
proportional relationships

These assessments are fair in that they assess the same
Homework 23: More Fair Share for Hired Hands (pg. 177)
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.EE.C.8
Catching Up by Saturday Night (Day 27) (pg. 200)
CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.EE.B.5
These assessments justify the math standards stated above
and does the following: assesses variables; drawing graphs
based on tables, situations, and algebraic rules; interpreting
graphs, linear equations; proportional relationships.
concepts and skills that the content teaches. The vocabulary
is a bit difficult especially for EL and SPED students, so
scaffolding may be necessary.
It would be helpful to test the fairness of the assessment also
by giving the assessment. After that, data can be analyzed
and the fairness can be verified or questioned.

#5 Intervention and differentiation for all learners
EL Student Intervention Examples
(while no explicit EL intervention exists due to the time this curriculum was created, there are many instances where you can
incorporate lessons for language learners)
1. Display Map starting on Day 1 for Context (pg. 7)
2. Show online video about The Overland Trail to build prior knowledge
3. Have a living word wall for both history terms and math terms
4. Sometimes the quantity of words and stories in instructions can be problematic for EL students. It may help to have groups
read directions and discuss work in groups prior to students working independently. This time of brainstorming can be invaluable
to ELs. (page 78) (pg 166)
5. Preview lessons concepts ahead of time with students to help with the rich content. For example, discuss and give examples
of water conservation before the assignment on page 186.
SPED Student Intervention Examples
1. Display Map starting on Day 1 for Context (pg. 7)
2. Show online video about The Overland Trail to build prior knowledge
3. Have a picture word wall for both history terms and math terms (which are bolded in the unit)
4. During the discussions of homework, instead of always circulating among groups, it may be necessary to pull a group of
students who have erroneous thinking. The unit doesnt allow for correcting these errors except for in whole class discussions or
group work (by other students)
One example: page 62, to meet with a small group regarding order of operations while the rest of the groups discuss Homework
8. Another example of this would be on page 80, when the unit outlines that day 11 assumes students are familiar with the
coordinate system. Teachers can circulate to reteach students that are unfamiliar with this concept.
5. Preview math concepts prior to learning about them. For example, meet and frontload students on rate before day 26. (pg.
191)
GATE Student Differentiation Examples
1. For groups or individuals that finish early, write a question regarding the content that day on a post-it note, and place it at the
group for discussion. Questions should be ones that demand rigor.
2. Some lessons reserve latter questions on assignments for those that finish fast, or for those that need a challenge (pg. 187).
3. Homework, page 139: Excellent debate and group discussion generated by that.
4. POW- open ended question that can be extended depending on levelspage 181 is an example
5. Extensions for problems and activities on page 230.