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You are on page 1of 5

May 15, 2014

1. Alignment of the unit to the CCCSSM and MPS

MPS organized by day/ and day span

1) Make sense

of problems

and persevere

in solving

them.

2) Reason

abstractly and

quantitatively.

3) Construct

viable

arguments

and critique

the

reasoning of

others.

4) Model with

mathematics

.

5) Use

appropriate

tools

strategically.

6) Attend to

precision.

7) Look for

and make

use of

structure.

8) Look for

and express

regularity in

repeated

reasoning.

2, 3, 5, 6, 8,

POW 9, 10, 11-

18, 25-28

2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8,

POW 9, 10, 15-

18, 22-28

2, 3, 5, 8,

POW 9, 9, 10,

15-18, 22-28

3, 5, 6, 7, 8,

POW 9, 10,

11-14, 22-24

3, 5, 6, 8,

POW 9, 10,

19-21

3, 5, 7, 8, 10,

15-18, 25-28

POW 8, 3, 4,

7, 8, 9, 10, 11-

14, 15-18, 22-

24

3, 6, 7, 8, 9,

10, 25-28

CCSSM focus organized by day span

Day 7-10 Focus on the use and meaning of variables

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.A.2

Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.EE.B.4

Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to

solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.

Day 11-14 Deal primarily with drawing of graphs from both descriptive information and algebraic equations, including the use of

scales and the connections between situations, graphs, tables and algebraic rules.

Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.EE.B.5

Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional

relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to

determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.

Define, evaluate, and compare functions.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.A.1

Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered

pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output.1

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.A.2

Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by

verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by

an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change.

Day 15-18 focus on interpreting graphs and using them to make predictions and to solve problems

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.B.5

Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is

increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been

described verbally.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.A.3

Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are

not linear. For example, the function A = s2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its

graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line.

Use functions to model relationships between quantities.

Day 19-21 Introduces the use of graphing calculators to plot data and to graph equations, and to include the use of zoom and

trace techniques

Day 22-24 The use of linear equations to represent a situation and the use of a graph to help find solutions for problems involving

two linear conditions

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.B.4

Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the

function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph.

Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a

table of values.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.EE.C.8

Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

Day 25-28 Apply many of the ideas developed earlier to solve problems involving different kinds of rates.

Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.EE.B.5

Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional

relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to

determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.

2. Develop a learning trajectory for the content/topic as evidenced within the CCCSSM for grades K-

12.

This trajectory suggests the pathway that students take to reach a plateau of knowledge that makes

them capable of using the unit, The Overland Trail. As the trajectory suggests, this unit is majority an 8

th

grade or Algebra I course.

Measurement and Data Operations in Algebraic Thinking

Represent and interpret data.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.MD.C.4

Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three

categories; ask and answer questions about the total number

of data points, how many in each category, and how many

more or less are in one category than in another.

Work with addition and subtraction equations.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.D.7

Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if

equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.D.8

Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or

subtraction equation relating three whole numbers.

Represent and interpret data.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.D.9

Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several

objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated

measurements of the same object. Show the measurements

by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off

in whole-number units.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.D.10

Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale)

to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple

put-together, take-apart, and compare problems1 using

information presented in a bar graph.

Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for

multiplication.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.OA.C.3

Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd

or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or

counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even

number as a sum of two equal

addends.CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.OA.C.4

Use addition to find the total number of objects arranged in

rectangular arrays with up to 5 rows and up to 5 columns; write

an equation to express the total as a sum of equal addends.

Represent and interpret data.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.B.3

Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to

represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and

two-step "how many more" and "how many less" problems

using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example,

draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might

represent 5 pets.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.MD.B.4

Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers

marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by

making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in

appropriate units whole numbers, halves, or quarters.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.OA.A.3

Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word

problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and

measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and

equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent

the problem.1

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.OA.A.4

Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or

division equation relating three whole numbers.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.OA.B.6

Understand division as an unknown-factor problem. For

example, find 32 8 by finding the number that makes 32

when multiplied by 8.

Represent and interpret data.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.MD.B.4

Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in

fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving

addition and subtraction of fractions by using information

presented in line plots.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.OA.A.3

Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and

having whole-number answers using the four operations,

including problems in which remainders must be interpreted.

Represent these problems using equations with a letter

standing for the unknown quantity.

Generate and analyze patterns.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.OA.C.5

Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule.

Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit

in the rule itself.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.MD.B.2

Make a line plot to display a data set

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.OA.A.2

Write simple expressions that record calculations with

numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without

evaluating them.

Analyze patterns and relationships.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.OA.B.3

Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules.

Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms.

Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the

two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate

plane.

Develop understanding of statistical variability.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.SP.A.1

Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to

algebraic expressions.

Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates

variability in the data related to the question and accounts for

it in the answers.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.SP.A.2

Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical

question has a distribution which can be described by its

center, spread, and overall shape.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.RP.A.2

Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a

ratio a:b with b 0, and use rate language in the context of a

ratio relationship.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.RP.A.3

Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and

mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of

equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line

diagrams, or equations.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.A.1

Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-

number exponents.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.A.2

Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for

numbers.CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.A.2.C

Evaluate expressions at specific values of their variables.

Include expressions that arise from formulas used in real-world

problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those

involving whole-number exponents, in the conventional order

when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order

Reason about and solve one-variable equations and

inequalities.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.B.5

Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of

answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any,

make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to

determine whether a given number in a specified set makes

an equation or inequality true.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.B.6

Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when

solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand

that a variable can represent an unknown number, or,

depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a

specified set.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.B.7

Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and

solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in

which p, q and x are all nonnegative rational numbers.

Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between

dependent and independent variables.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.EE.C.9

Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world

problem that change in relationship to one another; write an

equation to express one quantity, thought of as the

dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of

as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship

between the dependent and independent variables using

graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation.

Use properties of operations to generate equivalent

expressions.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.EE.A.1

Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract,

factor, and expand linear expressions with rational co-

efficients. Solve real-life and mathematical problems using

numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.EE.B.3

Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed

with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole

numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically.

Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in

any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess

the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and

estimation strategies.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.7.EE.B.4

Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or

mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and

inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the

quantities.

Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous

linear equations.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.EE.C.7

Solve linear equations in one variable.

Define, evaluate, and compare functions.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.A.1

Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input

exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of

ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding

output.1

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.A.2

Compare properties of two functions each represented in a

different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables,

or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function

represented by a table of values and a linear function

represented by an algebraic expression, determine which

function has the greater rate of change.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.A.3

Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function,

whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that

are not linear. For example, the function A = s2 giving the area

of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because

its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are

not on a straight line.

Use functions to model relationships between quantities.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.B.4

Construct a function to model a linear relationship between

two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value

of the function from a description of a relationship or from two

(x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a

graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear

function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its

graph or a table of values.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.B.5

Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two

quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is

increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph

that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has

been described verbally.

Calculate expected values and use them to solve problems

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSS.MD.A.1

(+) Define a random variable for a quantity of interest by

assigning a numerical value to each event in a sample space;

graph the corresponding probability distribution using the

same graphical displays as for data distributions.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSA.CED.A.1

Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use

them to solve problems.Include equations arising from linear

and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential

functions.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSA.CED.A.2

Create equations in two or more variables to represent

relationships between quantities; graph equations on

coordinate axes with labels and scales.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSA.CED.A.3

Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by

systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions

as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context.

A-CED 1,2,3,4

A-REI 2,3.1, 11

F-IF 4,5,6,7,8,9

F-BF 1,2

S-ID 2

3. Discourse for increased learning

Grouping is Organized Collaboration is Encouraged Discussion Enhancers Questioning from multiple

quadrants

The Family

described on page

14.

Club card- minimal

family

Diamond card-large

family

Heart card-nonfamily

Spade card-

conglomerate family

Families have

folders that keep their

information

organized

Supplies list (38-41)

Making adjustments

to their supplies for

the next leg of the

journey (pg. 112)

The large amount of

reading about topics

that apply to

students success on

the journey is a

natural spark to

collaboration and

discussion.

While there are a lot

of collaboration

necessary in Day 1-7,

there is not a lot of

group questions to

guide discourse.

Prepare for this if

necessary.

May use homework

questions to assist in

discussions

Day 15 Adjustments-

pg. 117

Comparisons and

discussions of graphs-

pg 122

Quadrant A:

What assumptions did

you make? (pg. 26)

Quadrant B:

How can you use

variables to rewrite this

sentence as an

algebraic expression?

(pg. 54)

Quadrant C:

How long would you

suggest that each type

of shift be? Provide at

least three different pairs

of answers. (pg. 167)

Quadrant D:

If you didnt find another

solution, does that prove

that there isnt another

one? (pg. 55)

#4 Examples of formative and summative.

Formative Assessments Summative Assessments

authors recommend teachers to read these assignments

carefully

Homework 2: Hats for Families (pg. 23)making estimates

Homework 7: Laced Travelers (pg. 51)---

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.6.SP.A.2

Homework 11: Graph Sketches (pg. 83)---

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.EE.B.5

Homework 13: Situations, Graphs, Tables, and Rules (pg. 99)---

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.A.1

Who Will Make It? (Day 17)(pg. 130)---

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.F.B.5

In-Class Assessment (pg. 256-257)

variables; drawing graphs based on tables, situations, and

algebraic rules; interpreting graphs, linear equations;

proportional relationships

Take-Home Assessment (pg. 258-259)

variables; drawing graphs based on tables, situations, and

algebraic rules; interpreting graphs, linear equations;

proportional relationships

These assessments are fair in that they assess the same

Homework 23: More Fair Share for Hired Hands (pg. 177)

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.EE.C.8

Catching Up by Saturday Night (Day 27) (pg. 200)

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.8.EE.B.5

These assessments justify the math standards stated above

and does the following: assesses variables; drawing graphs

based on tables, situations, and algebraic rules; interpreting

graphs, linear equations; proportional relationships.

concepts and skills that the content teaches. The vocabulary

is a bit difficult especially for EL and SPED students, so

scaffolding may be necessary.

It would be helpful to test the fairness of the assessment also

by giving the assessment. After that, data can be analyzed

and the fairness can be verified or questioned.

#5 Intervention and differentiation for all learners

EL Student Intervention Examples

(while no explicit EL intervention exists due to the time this curriculum was created, there are many instances where you can

incorporate lessons for language learners)

1. Display Map starting on Day 1 for Context (pg. 7)

2. Show online video about The Overland Trail to build prior knowledge

3. Have a living word wall for both history terms and math terms

4. Sometimes the quantity of words and stories in instructions can be problematic for EL students. It may help to have groups

read directions and discuss work in groups prior to students working independently. This time of brainstorming can be invaluable

to ELs. (page 78) (pg 166)

5. Preview lessons concepts ahead of time with students to help with the rich content. For example, discuss and give examples

of water conservation before the assignment on page 186.

SPED Student Intervention Examples

1. Display Map starting on Day 1 for Context (pg. 7)

2. Show online video about The Overland Trail to build prior knowledge

3. Have a picture word wall for both history terms and math terms (which are bolded in the unit)

4. During the discussions of homework, instead of always circulating among groups, it may be necessary to pull a group of

students who have erroneous thinking. The unit doesnt allow for correcting these errors except for in whole class discussions or

group work (by other students)

One example: page 62, to meet with a small group regarding order of operations while the rest of the groups discuss Homework

8. Another example of this would be on page 80, when the unit outlines that day 11 assumes students are familiar with the

coordinate system. Teachers can circulate to reteach students that are unfamiliar with this concept.

5. Preview math concepts prior to learning about them. For example, meet and frontload students on rate before day 26. (pg.

191)

GATE Student Differentiation Examples

1. For groups or individuals that finish early, write a question regarding the content that day on a post-it note, and place it at the

group for discussion. Questions should be ones that demand rigor.

2. Some lessons reserve latter questions on assignments for those that finish fast, or for those that need a challenge (pg. 187).

3. Homework, page 139: Excellent debate and group discussion generated by that.

4. POW- open ended question that can be extended depending on levelspage 181 is an example

5. Extensions for problems and activities on page 230.

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