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CHAPTER 1

Review of Geometry
In this book, we use the following variables when stating formulas:
A D area, P D perimeter, C D circumference, S D surface area, and
V D volume. Also, r denotes radius, h altitude, l slant height, b base,
B area of base, and central angle expressed in radians.
1.1 Polygons
CLASSIFICATION
Type Number of sides
triangle 3
quadrilateral 4
pentagon 5
hexagon 6
heptagon 7
octagon 8
nonagon 9
decagon 10
undecagon 11
dodecagon 12
TRIANGLES
A D
1
2
bh The sum of the measures of the
angles of a triangle is 180

.
P D a Cb Cc
Pythagorean theorem: The sum of the squares of the lengths of
the legs of a right triangle is equal to the square of the length of the
hypotenuse.
45

45

90

triangle theorem: For any right triangle with acute


angles measuring 45

, the legs are the same length, and the hypotenuse


has a length equal to
p
2 times the length of one of those legs.
1
2 Chapter 1
30

60

90

triangle theorem: For any right triangle with acute


angles measuring 30

and 60

,
1. The hypotenuse is twice as long as the leg opposite the 30

angle
(the shorter leg).
2. The leg opposite the 30

angle (the shorter leg) is


1
2
as long as the
hypotenuse.
3. The leg opposite the 60

angle (the longer leg) equals the length


of the other (shorter) leg times
p
3.
4. The leg opposite the 30

angle equals the length of the other leg


divided by
p
3.
Equilateral triangle: For any equilateral triangle:
D D D 60

A D
1
4
b
2
p
3 h D
1
2
b
p
3
QUADRILATERALS
Rectangle Square
A D w A D s
2
P D 2 C2w P D 4s
Diagonal D
p

2
Cw
2
Diagonal D s
p
2
Parallelogram Trapezoid
A D bh D ab sin A D
1
2
ha Cb
P D 2a C2b P D a Cb
Chcsc Ccsc
Chapter 1 3
REGULAR POLYGON OF n SIDES
central angle:
2
n
A D
1
4
na
2
cot

n
P D an
1.2 Circles
TERMINOLOGY
Denition: In a plane, a circle is the set of all points a given distance,
called the radius, from a given point, called the center.
Circumference: distance around a circle.
Chord: a line joining two points of a circle.
Diameter: a chord through the center: AB in Figure 1.1.
Arc: part of a circle: BC, AC, or ACB in Figure 1.1. The length s of an
arc of a circle of radius r with central angle (measured in radians)
is s D r.
To intercept an arc is to cut off the arc; in Figure 1.1,
6
COB intercepts
BC.
A tangent of a circle is a line that intersects the circle at one and only
one point.
A secant of a circle is a line that intersects the circle at exactly two
points.
FIGURE 1.1
4 Chapter 1
An inscribed polygon is a polygon, all of whose sides are chords of a
circle. A regular inscribed polygon is a polygon, all of whose sides
are the same length.
An inscribed circle is a circle to which all the sides of a polygon are
tangents.
A circumscribed polygon is a polygon, all of whose sides are tangents
to a circle.
A circumscribed circle is a circle passing through each vertex of a
polygon.
BASIC FORMULAS
Circle
A D r
2
C D 2r D d
Sector
A D
1
2
r
2

s D r
We rst use this in the text in Section 2.2 proving a very
important limit property.
Segment
A D
1
2
r
2
sin
Chapter 1 5
1.3 Solid Geometry
Rectangular parallelepiped (box)
V D abc
Diagonal D
p
a
2
Cb
2
Cc
2
.
Prism
V D Bh
B is area of the base
Pyramid
V D
1
3
Bh
B is area of the base
This formula is derived in Example 2, Section 6.2, of the text.
6 Chapter 1
Tetrahedron
(a pyramid with a triangular base)
V D
1
3
h
p
ss as bs c
where s D
1
2
a Cb Cc
Right circular cylinder
V D r
2
h
Lateral surface D 2rh
S D 2rh C2r
2
Right circular cone
V D
1
3
r
2
h
Lateral surface D rl
S D rl Cr
2
The formula for the lateral surface is derived in Section 6.4
of the text.
Frustum of a right circular cone
V D
1
3
hr
2
CrR CR
2
or
V D
1
3
hB
1
C
p
B
1
B
2
CB
2

Note: h D h
1
h
2
This formula is derived in Problem 66 of Problem Set 6.2.
Chapter 1 7
Frustum of a pyramid
V D
1
3
hB
1
C
p
B
1
B
2
CB
2

Note: h D h
1
h
2
Torus
S D 4
2
Rr
This formula is derived in Problem 55 of Problem Set 12.6.
V D 2
2
Rr
2
This formula is derived in Example 7 of Section 6.5.
Spherical segment
S D 2rh, with radius r
V D
1
6
h3r
1
2
C3r
2
2
Ch
2
, with cross sections of radii r
1
and r
2
For the cap,
S D 2rr h, with radius r
V D

3
2r
2
3r
2
h Ch
3
, with cross sections of radii r
1
and r
2
This volume for the cap is Problem 65 of Problem Set 6.2.
8 Chapter 1
Cylinder with a cross-sectional area A
V D Ah; S D p C2A
Prismatoid, pontoon, wedge
V D
1
6
hB
0
C4B
1
CB
2

Quadric Surfaces
Sphere
x
2
Cy
2
Cz
2
D r
2
V D
4
3
r
3
S D 4r
2
We derive the formula for the volume of a sphere in Example 3 of
Section 12.3 and again in Example 5 of Section 12.7.
Chapter 1 9
Ellipsoid
x
2
a
2
C
y
2
b
2
C
z
2
c
2
D 1
V D
4
3
abc
A special case of this formula is derived in Problem 46 of the
supplementary problems for Chapter 6, where r D 0 and c D b.
Elliptic Paraboloid
x
2
a
2
C
y
2
b
2
D z
Hyperboloid of One Sheet
x
2
a
2
C
y
2
b
2

z
2
c
2
D 1
10 Chapter 1
Hyperboloid of Two Sheets
x
2
a
2
C
y
2
b
2

z
2
c
2
D 1
Hyperbolic paraboloid
y
2
a
2

x
2
b
2
D z
An oblate spheroid is formed by the rotation of the ellipse
x
2
a
2
C
y
2
b
2
D 1 about its minor axis, b. Let be the eccentricity.
V D
4
3
a
2
b
S D 2a
2
C
b
2

ln

1 C
1

A prolate spheroid is formed by the rotation of the ellipse


x
2
a
2
C
y
2
b
2
D 1 about its minor axis, a. Let be the eccentricity.
V D
4
3
ab
2
S D 2b
2
C
ab

sin
1

Chapter 1 11
1.4 Congruent Triangles
We say that two gures are congruent if they have the same size
and shape. For congruent triangles ABC and DEF, denoted by
ABC ' DEF, we may conclude that all six corresponding parts
(three angles and three sides) are congruent.
EXAMPLE 1.1 Corresponding parts of a triangle
Name the corresponding parts of the given triangles.
a. ABC ' A
0
B
0
C
0
b. RST ' UST
Solution
a. AB corresponds to A
0
B
0
b. RS corresponds to US
AC corresponds to A
0
C
0
RT corresponds to UT
BC corresponds to B
0
C
0
ST corresponds to ST
6
A corresponds to
6
A
0
6
R corresponds to
6
U
6
B corresponds to
6
B
0
6
RTS corresponds to
6
UTS
6
C corresponds to
6
C
0
6
RST corresponds to
6
UST

Two angles are equal if they have the same measure. For the
triangles in Example 1.1, we see that
6
A corresponds to
6
A
0
. This
means that these angles are the same size, or have the same measure.
We write m
6
A D m
6
A
0
to mean that the angles have the same measure,
or in other words, the same size and shape.
Line segments, angles, triangles, or other geometric gures are
congruent if they have the same size and shape. In Example 1.1, since
m
6
A D m
6
A
0
, we say that angles A and A
0
are congruent, and we write
6
A '
6
A
0
.
In this section, we focus on triangles.
12 Chapter 1
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
Two triangles are congruent if their corresponding sides
have the same length and their corresponding angles have
the same measure.
To prove that two triangles are congruent, you must show that they
have the same size and shape. It is not necessary to show that all six
parts (three sides and three angles) are congruent; if certain of these
six parts are congruent, it necessarily follows that the other parts are
congruent. Three important properties are used to show congruence
of triangles:
CONGRUENT-TRIANGLE PROPERTIES
SIDESIDESIDE (SSS)
If three sides of one triangle are congruent to three sides of
another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.
SIDEANGLESIDE (SAS)
If two sides of one triangle and the angle between those
sides are congruent to the corresponding sides and angle of
another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.
ANGLESIDEANGLE (ASA)
If two angles and the side that connects them on one
triangle are congruent to the corresponding angles and side
of another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.
EXAMPLE 1.2 Finding congruent triangles
Determine whether each pair of triangles is congruent. If so, cite one
of the congruent-triangle properties.
Solution
a. b.
Congruent; SAS Not congruent
Chapter 1 13
c. d.
Congruent; ASA Congruent; SSS
A side that is in common to two triangles obviously is equal in length
to itself and does not need to be marked.
In geometry, the main use of congruent triangles is when we want
to know whether an angle from one triangle is congruent to an angle
from a different triangle or when we want to know whether a side
from one triangle is the same length as the side from another triangle.
In order to do this, we often prove that one triangle is congruent to the
other (using one of the three congruent-triangle properties) and then
use the following property:
CONGRUENT-TRIANGLE PROPERTY
Corresponding parts of congruent triangles are congruent.
1.5 Similar Triangles
See Sections 3.7 and 4.6 of the text for examples in which we use
these ideas in calculus.
It is possible for two gures to have the same shape, but not necessarily
the same size. These gures are called similar gures. We will now
focus on similar triangles. If ABC is similar to DEF, we write
ABC DEF
Similar triangles are shown in Figure 1.2.
You should note that congruent triangles must be similar, but similar
triangles are not necessarily congruent. Since similar gures have the
same shape, we talk about corresponding angles and corresponding
sides. The corresponding angles of similar triangles are the angles
that have the same measure. It is customary to label the vertices of
triangles with capital letters and the sides opposite the angles at those
14 Chapter 1
Figure 1.2 Similar triangles
vertices with corresponding lowercase letters. It is easy to see that, if
the triangles are similar, the corresponding sides are the sides opposite
equal angles. In Figure 1.2, we see that
6
A and
6
D are corresponding angles;
6
B and
6
E are corresponding angles; and
6
C and
6
F are corresponding angles.
Side a BC is opposite
6
A, and d EF is opposite
6
D, so we say that
a corresponds to d;
b corresponds to e; and
c corresponds to f.
Even though corresponding angles are the same size, corresponding
sides do not need to be the same length. If they are the same length,
then the triangles are congruent. However, when they are not the same
length, we can say they are proportional. As Figure 1.2 illustrates,
when we say the sides are proportional, we mean that
a
b
D
d
e
a
c
D
d
f
b
c
D
e
f
b
a
D
e
d
c
a
D
f
d
c
b
D
f
e
SIMILAR TRIANGLES
Two triangles are similar if two angles of one triangle have
the same measure as two angles of the other triangle. If
the triangles are similar, then their corresponding sides are
proportional.
Chapter 1 15
FIGURE 1.3
EXAMPLE 1.3 Similar triangles
Identify pairs of triangles that are similar in Figure 1.3.
Solution ABC JKL; DEF GIH; SQR STU.
EXAMPLE 1.4 Finding unknown lengths in similar triangles
Given the following similar triangles, nd the unknown lengths
marked b
0
and c
0
:
Solution Since corresponding sides are proportional (other propor-
tions are possible), we have
a
0
a
D
b
0
b
a
c
D
a
0
c
0
4
8
D
b
0
12
8
14.4
D
4
c
0
b
0
D
412
8
c
0
D
14.44
8
D6 D7.2

16 Chapter 1
EXAMPLE 1.5 Finding a perimeter by using similar triangles
In equilateral ABC, suppose DE D 2 and is parallel to AB, as shown
at the right. If AB is three times as long as DE, what is the perimeter
of quadrilateral ABED?
Solution ABC DEC, so DECis equilateral. This means that
CE and DC both are of length 2; thus, EB and AD both are of length
4. The perimeter of the quadrilateral is
jABj CjBEj CjDEj CjADj D 6 C4 C2 C4 D 16
Finding similar triangles is simplied even further if we know that the
triangles are right triangles, because then the triangles are similar if
one of the acute angles has the same measure as an acute angle of the
other triangle.
EXAMPLE 1.6 Using similar triangles to nd an unknown
length
Suppose that a tree and a yardstick are casting shadows as shown
in Figure 1.4. If the shadow of the yardstick is 3 yards long and the
shadow of the tree is 12 yards long, use similar triangles to estimate
the height of the tree if you know that angles S and S
0
are the same
size.
FIGURE 1.4
Chapter 1 17
Solution Since
6
Gand
6
G
0
are right angles, and since S and S
0
are the
same size, we see that SGT S
0
G
0
T
0
. Therefore, corresponding
sides are proportional. Hence,
1
3
D
h
12
h D
112
3
D 4
The tree is 4 yards tall.
EXAMPLE 1.7 Similar triangles in a pyramid
This example is adapted from Example 2 of Section 6.2
Aregular pyramid has a square base of side L, and its apex is located H
units above the center of its base. The pyramid is shown in Figure 1.5.
Suppose a cut is made h units from the bottom, thus forming two
triangles, as shown at the right in Figure 1.5. Use similar triangles to
nd the length of the cut.
Solution Let be the length of the cut. We recognize two triangles:
ABC and DEC, and we want to show that these triangles are
similar. Obviously, m
6
C D m
6
C in both triangles. Since the line
segment AB is parallel to the line segment DE, and we can consider
the line passing through A and D to be a transversal, we conclude that
m
6
A D m
6
D because
6
A and
6
D are corresponding angles. Since two
angles of one triangle have the same measure as the corresponding
angles in the other triangle, we conclude that ABC DEC. It
follows that if the triangles are similar, then their corresponding sides
Figure 1.5 Pyramid with a square base
18 Chapter 1
are proportional.

L
D
Hh
H
Note that the height of DEC is Hh
D

1
h
H

L Multiply both sides by L.


1.6 PROBLEM SET 1
1. In TRI and ANG shown at right,
6
R '
6
N and jTRj D
jANj. Name other pairs you would need to know in order to
show that the triangles are congruent by
a. SSS b. SAS c. ASA
2. In ABC and DEF shown at right,
6
A '
6
D and jACj D
jDFj. Name other pairs you would need to know in order to
show that the triangles are congruent by
a. SSS b. SAS c. ASA
Name the corresponding parts of the triangles in Problems 36.
3. 4.
Chapter 1 19
5. 6.
In Problems 710, determine whether each pair of triangles is
congruent. If so, cite one of the congruent-triangle properties.
7. 8.
9. 10.
In Problems 1116, tell whether it is possible to conclude that the
pairs of triangles are similar.
11.
12.
20 Chapter 1
13.
14.
15.
16.
Given the two similar triangles shown, nd the unknown lengths in
Problems 1722.
17. a D 4, b D 8, a
0
D 2; nd b
0
.
18. b D 5, c D 15, b
0
D 2; nd c
0
.
19. c D 6, a D 4, c
0
D 8; nd a
0
.
20. a
0
D 7, b
0
D 8, a D 5; nd b.
21. b
0
D 8, c
0
D 12, c D 4; nd b.
22. c
0
D 9, a
0
D 2, c D 5; nd a.
23. How far from the base of a building must a 26-ft ladder be
placed so that it reaches 10 ft up the wall?
24. How high up a wall does a 26-ft ladder reach if the bottom of
the ladder is placed 6 ft from the building?
Chapter 1 21
25. A carpenter wants to be sure that the corner of a building is
square and measures 6 ft and 8 ft along the sides. How long
should the diagonal be?
26. What is the exact length of the hypotenuse if the legs of a right
triangle are 2 in. each?
27. What is the exact length of one leg of an isosceles right triangle
if the hypotenuse is 3 ft?
28. An empty rectangular lot is 40 ft by 65 ft. How many feet would
you save by walking diagonally across the lot instead of walking
the length and width? Round your answer to the nearest foot.
29. A television antenna is to be erected and held by guy wires. If
the guy wires are 15 ft from the base of the antenna and the
antenna is 10 ft high, what is the exact length of each guy wire?
What is the length of each guy wire, rounded to the nearest foot?
If three guy wires are attached, how many feet of wire should
be purchased if it cannot be bought in fractions of a foot?
30. In equilateral ABC, shown below, Dis the midpoint of segment
AB. What is the length of CD?
31. In the gure shown below, AB and DE are parallel. What is the
length of AB?
32. Ben walked diagonally across a rectangular eld that measures
100 ft by 240 ft. How far did Ben walk?
33. Use similar triangles and a proportion to nd the length of the
lake shown in the following gure:
34. Use similar triangles and a proportion to nd the height of the
house shown in the following gure:
22 Chapter 1
35. If a tree casts a shadow of 12 ft at the same time a 6-ft person
casts a shadow of 2
1
2
ft, nd the height of the tree to the nearest
foot.
36. If an inverted circular cone (vertex at the bottom) of height 10
cm and a radius of 4 cm contains liquid with height measuring
3.8 cm, what is the volume of the liquid?
37. A person 6 ft tall is walking away from a streetlight 20 ft high
at the rate of 7 ft/s. How long (to the nearest ft) is the persons
shadow at the instant when the person is 10 ft from the base of
the lamppost?
Example 2, Section 3.7
38. A bag is tied to the top of a 5-m ladder resting against a vertical
wall. Suppose the ladder begins sliding down the wall in such a
way that the foot of the ladder is moving away from the wall.
How high is the bag at the instant when the base of the ladder is
4 m from the base of the wall?
Example 3, Section 3.7
Chapter 1 23
39. A tank lled with water is in the shape of an inverted cone 20
ft high with a circular base (on top) whose radius is 5 ft. How
much water does the tank hold when the water level is 8 ft deep?
See Example 5 of Section 3.7 of the text.