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Pre-Calculus review of geometry, formulas and definitions.

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Review of Geometry

In this book, we use the following variables when stating formulas:

A D area, P D perimeter, C D circumference, S D surface area, and

V D volume. Also, r denotes radius, h altitude, l slant height, b base,

B area of base, and central angle expressed in radians.

1.1 Polygons

CLASSIFICATION

Type Number of sides

triangle 3

quadrilateral 4

pentagon 5

hexagon 6

heptagon 7

octagon 8

nonagon 9

decagon 10

undecagon 11

dodecagon 12

TRIANGLES

A D

1

2

bh The sum of the measures of the

angles of a triangle is 180

.

P D a Cb Cc

Pythagorean theorem: The sum of the squares of the lengths of

the legs of a right triangle is equal to the square of the length of the

hypotenuse.

45

45

90

angles measuring 45

has a length equal to

p

2 times the length of one of those legs.

1

2 Chapter 1

30

60

90

angles measuring 30

and 60

,

1. The hypotenuse is twice as long as the leg opposite the 30

angle

(the shorter leg).

2. The leg opposite the 30

1

2

as long as the

hypotenuse.

3. The leg opposite the 60

of the other (shorter) leg times

p

3.

4. The leg opposite the 30

divided by

p

3.

Equilateral triangle: For any equilateral triangle:

D D D 60

A D

1

4

b

2

p

3 h D

1

2

b

p

3

QUADRILATERALS

Rectangle Square

A D w A D s

2

P D 2 C2w P D 4s

Diagonal D

p

2

Cw

2

Diagonal D s

p

2

Parallelogram Trapezoid

A D bh D ab sin A D

1

2

ha Cb

P D 2a C2b P D a Cb

Chcsc Ccsc

Chapter 1 3

REGULAR POLYGON OF n SIDES

central angle:

2

n

A D

1

4

na

2

cot

n

P D an

1.2 Circles

TERMINOLOGY

Denition: In a plane, a circle is the set of all points a given distance,

called the radius, from a given point, called the center.

Circumference: distance around a circle.

Chord: a line joining two points of a circle.

Diameter: a chord through the center: AB in Figure 1.1.

Arc: part of a circle: BC, AC, or ACB in Figure 1.1. The length s of an

arc of a circle of radius r with central angle (measured in radians)

is s D r.

To intercept an arc is to cut off the arc; in Figure 1.1,

6

COB intercepts

BC.

A tangent of a circle is a line that intersects the circle at one and only

one point.

A secant of a circle is a line that intersects the circle at exactly two

points.

FIGURE 1.1

4 Chapter 1

An inscribed polygon is a polygon, all of whose sides are chords of a

circle. A regular inscribed polygon is a polygon, all of whose sides

are the same length.

An inscribed circle is a circle to which all the sides of a polygon are

tangents.

A circumscribed polygon is a polygon, all of whose sides are tangents

to a circle.

A circumscribed circle is a circle passing through each vertex of a

polygon.

BASIC FORMULAS

Circle

A D r

2

C D 2r D d

Sector

A D

1

2

r

2

s D r

We rst use this in the text in Section 2.2 proving a very

important limit property.

Segment

A D

1

2

r

2

sin

Chapter 1 5

1.3 Solid Geometry

Rectangular parallelepiped (box)

V D abc

Diagonal D

p

a

2

Cb

2

Cc

2

.

Prism

V D Bh

B is area of the base

Pyramid

V D

1

3

Bh

B is area of the base

This formula is derived in Example 2, Section 6.2, of the text.

6 Chapter 1

Tetrahedron

(a pyramid with a triangular base)

V D

1

3

h

p

ss as bs c

where s D

1

2

a Cb Cc

Right circular cylinder

V D r

2

h

Lateral surface D 2rh

S D 2rh C2r

2

Right circular cone

V D

1

3

r

2

h

Lateral surface D rl

S D rl Cr

2

The formula for the lateral surface is derived in Section 6.4

of the text.

Frustum of a right circular cone

V D

1

3

hr

2

CrR CR

2

or

V D

1

3

hB

1

C

p

B

1

B

2

CB

2

Note: h D h

1

h

2

This formula is derived in Problem 66 of Problem Set 6.2.

Chapter 1 7

Frustum of a pyramid

V D

1

3

hB

1

C

p

B

1

B

2

CB

2

Note: h D h

1

h

2

Torus

S D 4

2

Rr

This formula is derived in Problem 55 of Problem Set 12.6.

V D 2

2

Rr

2

This formula is derived in Example 7 of Section 6.5.

Spherical segment

S D 2rh, with radius r

V D

1

6

h3r

1

2

C3r

2

2

Ch

2

, with cross sections of radii r

1

and r

2

For the cap,

S D 2rr h, with radius r

V D

3

2r

2

3r

2

h Ch

3

, with cross sections of radii r

1

and r

2

This volume for the cap is Problem 65 of Problem Set 6.2.

8 Chapter 1

Cylinder with a cross-sectional area A

V D Ah; S D p C2A

Prismatoid, pontoon, wedge

V D

1

6

hB

0

C4B

1

CB

2

Quadric Surfaces

Sphere

x

2

Cy

2

Cz

2

D r

2

V D

4

3

r

3

S D 4r

2

We derive the formula for the volume of a sphere in Example 3 of

Section 12.3 and again in Example 5 of Section 12.7.

Chapter 1 9

Ellipsoid

x

2

a

2

C

y

2

b

2

C

z

2

c

2

D 1

V D

4

3

abc

A special case of this formula is derived in Problem 46 of the

supplementary problems for Chapter 6, where r D 0 and c D b.

Elliptic Paraboloid

x

2

a

2

C

y

2

b

2

D z

Hyperboloid of One Sheet

x

2

a

2

C

y

2

b

2

z

2

c

2

D 1

10 Chapter 1

Hyperboloid of Two Sheets

x

2

a

2

C

y

2

b

2

z

2

c

2

D 1

Hyperbolic paraboloid

y

2

a

2

x

2

b

2

D z

An oblate spheroid is formed by the rotation of the ellipse

x

2

a

2

C

y

2

b

2

D 1 about its minor axis, b. Let be the eccentricity.

V D

4

3

a

2

b

S D 2a

2

C

b

2

ln

1 C

1

x

2

a

2

C

y

2

b

2

D 1 about its minor axis, a. Let be the eccentricity.

V D

4

3

ab

2

S D 2b

2

C

ab

sin

1

Chapter 1 11

1.4 Congruent Triangles

We say that two gures are congruent if they have the same size

and shape. For congruent triangles ABC and DEF, denoted by

ABC ' DEF, we may conclude that all six corresponding parts

(three angles and three sides) are congruent.

EXAMPLE 1.1 Corresponding parts of a triangle

Name the corresponding parts of the given triangles.

a. ABC ' A

0

B

0

C

0

b. RST ' UST

Solution

a. AB corresponds to A

0

B

0

b. RS corresponds to US

AC corresponds to A

0

C

0

RT corresponds to UT

BC corresponds to B

0

C

0

ST corresponds to ST

6

A corresponds to

6

A

0

6

R corresponds to

6

U

6

B corresponds to

6

B

0

6

RTS corresponds to

6

UTS

6

C corresponds to

6

C

0

6

RST corresponds to

6

UST

Two angles are equal if they have the same measure. For the

triangles in Example 1.1, we see that

6

A corresponds to

6

A

0

. This

means that these angles are the same size, or have the same measure.

We write m

6

A D m

6

A

0

to mean that the angles have the same measure,

or in other words, the same size and shape.

Line segments, angles, triangles, or other geometric gures are

congruent if they have the same size and shape. In Example 1.1, since

m

6

A D m

6

A

0

, we say that angles A and A

0

are congruent, and we write

6

A '

6

A

0

.

In this section, we focus on triangles.

12 Chapter 1

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

Two triangles are congruent if their corresponding sides

have the same length and their corresponding angles have

the same measure.

To prove that two triangles are congruent, you must show that they

have the same size and shape. It is not necessary to show that all six

parts (three sides and three angles) are congruent; if certain of these

six parts are congruent, it necessarily follows that the other parts are

congruent. Three important properties are used to show congruence

of triangles:

CONGRUENT-TRIANGLE PROPERTIES

SIDESIDESIDE (SSS)

If three sides of one triangle are congruent to three sides of

another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.

SIDEANGLESIDE (SAS)

If two sides of one triangle and the angle between those

sides are congruent to the corresponding sides and angle of

another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.

ANGLESIDEANGLE (ASA)

If two angles and the side that connects them on one

triangle are congruent to the corresponding angles and side

of another triangle, then the two triangles are congruent.

EXAMPLE 1.2 Finding congruent triangles

Determine whether each pair of triangles is congruent. If so, cite one

of the congruent-triangle properties.

Solution

a. b.

Congruent; SAS Not congruent

Chapter 1 13

c. d.

Congruent; ASA Congruent; SSS

A side that is in common to two triangles obviously is equal in length

to itself and does not need to be marked.

In geometry, the main use of congruent triangles is when we want

to know whether an angle from one triangle is congruent to an angle

from a different triangle or when we want to know whether a side

from one triangle is the same length as the side from another triangle.

In order to do this, we often prove that one triangle is congruent to the

other (using one of the three congruent-triangle properties) and then

use the following property:

CONGRUENT-TRIANGLE PROPERTY

Corresponding parts of congruent triangles are congruent.

1.5 Similar Triangles

See Sections 3.7 and 4.6 of the text for examples in which we use

these ideas in calculus.

It is possible for two gures to have the same shape, but not necessarily

the same size. These gures are called similar gures. We will now

focus on similar triangles. If ABC is similar to DEF, we write

ABC DEF

Similar triangles are shown in Figure 1.2.

You should note that congruent triangles must be similar, but similar

triangles are not necessarily congruent. Since similar gures have the

same shape, we talk about corresponding angles and corresponding

sides. The corresponding angles of similar triangles are the angles

that have the same measure. It is customary to label the vertices of

triangles with capital letters and the sides opposite the angles at those

14 Chapter 1

Figure 1.2 Similar triangles

vertices with corresponding lowercase letters. It is easy to see that, if

the triangles are similar, the corresponding sides are the sides opposite

equal angles. In Figure 1.2, we see that

6

A and

6

D are corresponding angles;

6

B and

6

E are corresponding angles; and

6

C and

6

F are corresponding angles.

Side a BC is opposite

6

A, and d EF is opposite

6

D, so we say that

a corresponds to d;

b corresponds to e; and

c corresponds to f.

Even though corresponding angles are the same size, corresponding

sides do not need to be the same length. If they are the same length,

then the triangles are congruent. However, when they are not the same

length, we can say they are proportional. As Figure 1.2 illustrates,

when we say the sides are proportional, we mean that

a

b

D

d

e

a

c

D

d

f

b

c

D

e

f

b

a

D

e

d

c

a

D

f

d

c

b

D

f

e

SIMILAR TRIANGLES

Two triangles are similar if two angles of one triangle have

the same measure as two angles of the other triangle. If

the triangles are similar, then their corresponding sides are

proportional.

Chapter 1 15

FIGURE 1.3

EXAMPLE 1.3 Similar triangles

Identify pairs of triangles that are similar in Figure 1.3.

Solution ABC JKL; DEF GIH; SQR STU.

EXAMPLE 1.4 Finding unknown lengths in similar triangles

Given the following similar triangles, nd the unknown lengths

marked b

0

and c

0

:

Solution Since corresponding sides are proportional (other propor-

tions are possible), we have

a

0

a

D

b

0

b

a

c

D

a

0

c

0

4

8

D

b

0

12

8

14.4

D

4

c

0

b

0

D

412

8

c

0

D

14.44

8

D6 D7.2

16 Chapter 1

EXAMPLE 1.5 Finding a perimeter by using similar triangles

In equilateral ABC, suppose DE D 2 and is parallel to AB, as shown

at the right. If AB is three times as long as DE, what is the perimeter

of quadrilateral ABED?

Solution ABC DEC, so DECis equilateral. This means that

CE and DC both are of length 2; thus, EB and AD both are of length

4. The perimeter of the quadrilateral is

jABj CjBEj CjDEj CjADj D 6 C4 C2 C4 D 16

Finding similar triangles is simplied even further if we know that the

triangles are right triangles, because then the triangles are similar if

one of the acute angles has the same measure as an acute angle of the

other triangle.

EXAMPLE 1.6 Using similar triangles to nd an unknown

length

Suppose that a tree and a yardstick are casting shadows as shown

in Figure 1.4. If the shadow of the yardstick is 3 yards long and the

shadow of the tree is 12 yards long, use similar triangles to estimate

the height of the tree if you know that angles S and S

0

are the same

size.

FIGURE 1.4

Chapter 1 17

Solution Since

6

Gand

6

G

0

are right angles, and since S and S

0

are the

same size, we see that SGT S

0

G

0

T

0

. Therefore, corresponding

sides are proportional. Hence,

1

3

D

h

12

h D

112

3

D 4

The tree is 4 yards tall.

EXAMPLE 1.7 Similar triangles in a pyramid

This example is adapted from Example 2 of Section 6.2

Aregular pyramid has a square base of side L, and its apex is located H

units above the center of its base. The pyramid is shown in Figure 1.5.

Suppose a cut is made h units from the bottom, thus forming two

triangles, as shown at the right in Figure 1.5. Use similar triangles to

nd the length of the cut.

Solution Let be the length of the cut. We recognize two triangles:

ABC and DEC, and we want to show that these triangles are

similar. Obviously, m

6

C D m

6

C in both triangles. Since the line

segment AB is parallel to the line segment DE, and we can consider

the line passing through A and D to be a transversal, we conclude that

m

6

A D m

6

D because

6

A and

6

D are corresponding angles. Since two

angles of one triangle have the same measure as the corresponding

angles in the other triangle, we conclude that ABC DEC. It

follows that if the triangles are similar, then their corresponding sides

Figure 1.5 Pyramid with a square base

18 Chapter 1

are proportional.

L

D

Hh

H

Note that the height of DEC is Hh

D

1

h

H

1.6 PROBLEM SET 1

1. In TRI and ANG shown at right,

6

R '

6

N and jTRj D

jANj. Name other pairs you would need to know in order to

show that the triangles are congruent by

a. SSS b. SAS c. ASA

2. In ABC and DEF shown at right,

6

A '

6

D and jACj D

jDFj. Name other pairs you would need to know in order to

show that the triangles are congruent by

a. SSS b. SAS c. ASA

Name the corresponding parts of the triangles in Problems 36.

3. 4.

Chapter 1 19

5. 6.

In Problems 710, determine whether each pair of triangles is

congruent. If so, cite one of the congruent-triangle properties.

7. 8.

9. 10.

In Problems 1116, tell whether it is possible to conclude that the

pairs of triangles are similar.

11.

12.

20 Chapter 1

13.

14.

15.

16.

Given the two similar triangles shown, nd the unknown lengths in

Problems 1722.

17. a D 4, b D 8, a

0

D 2; nd b

0

.

18. b D 5, c D 15, b

0

D 2; nd c

0

.

19. c D 6, a D 4, c

0

D 8; nd a

0

.

20. a

0

D 7, b

0

D 8, a D 5; nd b.

21. b

0

D 8, c

0

D 12, c D 4; nd b.

22. c

0

D 9, a

0

D 2, c D 5; nd a.

23. How far from the base of a building must a 26-ft ladder be

placed so that it reaches 10 ft up the wall?

24. How high up a wall does a 26-ft ladder reach if the bottom of

the ladder is placed 6 ft from the building?

Chapter 1 21

25. A carpenter wants to be sure that the corner of a building is

square and measures 6 ft and 8 ft along the sides. How long

should the diagonal be?

26. What is the exact length of the hypotenuse if the legs of a right

triangle are 2 in. each?

27. What is the exact length of one leg of an isosceles right triangle

if the hypotenuse is 3 ft?

28. An empty rectangular lot is 40 ft by 65 ft. How many feet would

you save by walking diagonally across the lot instead of walking

the length and width? Round your answer to the nearest foot.

29. A television antenna is to be erected and held by guy wires. If

the guy wires are 15 ft from the base of the antenna and the

antenna is 10 ft high, what is the exact length of each guy wire?

What is the length of each guy wire, rounded to the nearest foot?

If three guy wires are attached, how many feet of wire should

be purchased if it cannot be bought in fractions of a foot?

30. In equilateral ABC, shown below, Dis the midpoint of segment

AB. What is the length of CD?

31. In the gure shown below, AB and DE are parallel. What is the

length of AB?

32. Ben walked diagonally across a rectangular eld that measures

100 ft by 240 ft. How far did Ben walk?

33. Use similar triangles and a proportion to nd the length of the

lake shown in the following gure:

34. Use similar triangles and a proportion to nd the height of the

house shown in the following gure:

22 Chapter 1

35. If a tree casts a shadow of 12 ft at the same time a 6-ft person

casts a shadow of 2

1

2

ft, nd the height of the tree to the nearest

foot.

36. If an inverted circular cone (vertex at the bottom) of height 10

cm and a radius of 4 cm contains liquid with height measuring

3.8 cm, what is the volume of the liquid?

37. A person 6 ft tall is walking away from a streetlight 20 ft high

at the rate of 7 ft/s. How long (to the nearest ft) is the persons

shadow at the instant when the person is 10 ft from the base of

the lamppost?

Example 2, Section 3.7

38. A bag is tied to the top of a 5-m ladder resting against a vertical

wall. Suppose the ladder begins sliding down the wall in such a

way that the foot of the ladder is moving away from the wall.

How high is the bag at the instant when the base of the ladder is

4 m from the base of the wall?

Example 3, Section 3.7

Chapter 1 23

39. A tank lled with water is in the shape of an inverted cone 20

ft high with a circular base (on top) whose radius is 5 ft. How

much water does the tank hold when the water level is 8 ft deep?

See Example 5 of Section 3.7 of the text.

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