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Blood Circulation &

Transport
TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN HUMAN
By : Renu Sekaran
Structure of the
Human Heart
Located inside the thoracic cavity
Cone shaped, built of thick and strong cardiac muscles
Possesses 4 muscular chambers:
Left atrium & left ventricle
Right atrium & right ventricle
Left & right chambers separated by septum (muscle)
to ensure oxygenated and deoxygenated does not mix.
Each ventricle and atrium is linked to one big blood
vessel
One way flow of blood is controlled by 3 types of valves
Bicuspid (mitral) valve [left atrium -> left ventricle]
Tricuspid valve [ right atrium -> right ventricle]
Semilunar valve [ left ventricle -> aorta]
Semilunar valve [ right ventricle -> pulmonary
artery]
Functions of the Heart
Collect deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body. The blood is then
pumped from the heart to the lungs
Collect oxygenated blood from the lungs. The blood is pumped out from
the heart to the rest of the body.
i. transport nutrients and oxygen to the body cells
ii. Transport excretory products such as carbon dioxide, urea and water
from the body cells to be removed
Types of blood vessels
Artery
Wall is muscular, thick and elastic
Oxygenated blood (exp pulmonary
artery)
Flow under high pressure
Small lumen
No valve ( exp aorta pulmonary
artery )
Vein
Wall is muscular, thin and less elastic
Deoxygenated blood (exp pulmonary
vein)
Flow under low pressure
High lumen
There is presence of valve
Types of blood vessels
Capillary
Wall is not muscular and only one cell
thick.
Combination of oxygenated and
deoxygenated blood (exp pulmonary
artery)
Flow under low pressure
Very small lumen
No valve
The Human
Blood Circulatory
System
Pulmonary
Circulation
Systemic
Circulation
Pulmonary Circulation
Right
ventricle
contracts
Deoxy-blood is pumped from
heart to lung through
pulmonary artery
In lungs: Deoxy-blood
Oxy-blood
Oxy-blood flows
back into left
atrium through
pulmonary vein
Left atrium contracts,
blood flows into left
ventricle
End of pulmonary
circulation
Systemic Circulation
Left ventricle
contracts
quickly
Blood is pumped out through
aorta to the rest of the body.
Body: Oxy-blood Deoxy-blood &
excretory products diffuse from
tissues into blood
Deoxy-blood flows back into
heart through vena cava &
enters right atrium
Right atrium contracts,
blood flows into right
ventricle
End of systemic
circulation
Video 1
Video 2
Human Blood:
Constituents of
blood in human
beings
Blood type of fluid tissue
that is made up of liquid
and solid
Liquid component :
plasma (55%)
Solid component : red
blood cells, white blood
cells & platelets (45%)
Red blood cell
White blood
cell
Platelets
Functions of Blood
Transport of
oxygen
Transport of
carbon dioxide
Transport of
digested food,
vitamins and
mineral salts.
Transport of
waste materials
Transport of
heat
Transport of
water
Defending the
body against
infections
Defending the
body against
excessive loss of
blood
Comparison between types of blood
cells
Blood Groups
Transport System in Plants
Transport System in Plants
Process of Transpiration
Transpiration process of losing excess water. (From plant
to the atmosphere)
Only 10% of water absorbed is used for photosynthesis.
The remaining 90% of water is removed through the
stomata
A stoma is the fine structure found on the surface of leaves.
It comprises 2 kidney shaped guard cells (which
contains chloroplast).
The guard cells control the pore size of the stoma
(i.e opening and closing).
Water vapour is expelled out of the plant through the
stoma opening.
Gaseous exchange also occurs through the stoma
opening.
Role of Transpiration
Produce strong suction force
through continuous loss of water
Suction force exerts high
pressure on water
surrounding roots
Force causes root cells to
absorb more water into plant
Hence, water & dissolved
mineral salts will be forced up
to the upper part to replace
lost water.
Produce strong
suction force
through continuous
loss of water
Supply water for
photosynthesis
Maintain freshness
of plant cells
Cools down plant
on hot days
through
evaporation
Helps to loose
excess water in
plant
Factors Affecting Transpiration
Light
Wind
Temperature
Humidity
Video 3
Exercise
Test
References
1. Science Form 3 Chapter 1.ppt
2. Chapter 2, Blood Circulation & Transport (Mr.Zaidi)
3. Success Science PMR, Oxford Fajar
4. Delta & Johan Notes, Science Form 3, Chapter 2
5. Blood Fractionation : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_fractionation
6. Transpiration in Plants :http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U4rzLhz4HHk
7. Circulatory System : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9M959pyzatc