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REG 2008

ELECTRICAL MACHINES II

T.THILAGAMANI, AP-EEE









EE 2302
ELECTRICAL MACHINES - II

REGULATION 2008









REG 2008
ELECTRICAL MACHINES II

T.THILAGAMANI, AP-EEE


Unit 1: Synchronous Generator
1. Why is the stator core of Alternator laminated?
The stator core of Alternator is laminated to reduce eddy current loss.

2. Define voltage regulation of an alternator.
Voltage regulation of alternator is defined as the change in the terminal voltage of the
alternator when the full load is switched off divided by the full l oad t er mi nal
vol t age, assumi ng speed and f i el d exci t at i on ar e kept const ant .
% Regulation =

x 100% where, E0 no load terminal voltage, V full load rated terminal


voltage.

3. What are the various functions of damper winding provided in alternator?
a. Da mp e r s a r e u s e f u l i n preventing the hunting (momentary speed fluctuations and
needed in synchronous motors to provide the starti ng torque.
b. The damper winding also tends to maintain balanced 3-phase voltage under unbalanced
load conditions.
c. To make rotor speed equal to synchronous speed.

4. What is meant by armature reaction and mention its effects?
When the alternator is loaded the armature starts increasi ng. This armature current
produces its own flux which tends to either aid or oppose or di stort the main fiel d
flux. This effect is known as armature reaction.
The effects of armature reaction are: (i) magnetizing effect (ii) demagnetizing effect(iii) cross
magnetizing effect.

5. State the condition to be satisfied before connecting two alternators in parallel. (Or)
write down the conditions to be satisfied for proper synchronization of alternators.
The following are the three conditions to be satisfied by synchronizing the additional Alternator
with the existing one or the common bus-bars.
1. The terminal voltage magnitude of the incoming Alternator must be made equal to the
existing Alternator or the bus-bar voltage magnitude.
2. The phase sequence of the incoming Alternator voltage must be similar to the bus-bar
voltage.
3. The frequency of the incoming Alternator voltage must be the same as the bus-bar voltage.

6. Calculate the pitch factor for the given winding : 36 stator slots, 4 poles, coil span 1 to 8.
Slots /pole = 36/4 = 9
Here, coil span falls short by = (2/9) x 180 = 40
Pitch factor K
P
= cos

2
= cos
40
2
= 0.94
REG 2008
ELECTRICAL MACHINES II

T.THILAGAMANI, AP-EEE


7. What is meant by synchronous reactance?
The sum of leakage reactance X
L
and fictitious reactance Xa is known as synchronous
reactance Xs.
Xs = X
L
+ Xa

8. Why EMF method is called pessimistic method?
The value of voltage regulation obtained by EMF method is always more than the actual value,
and therefore it is called pessimistic method.

9. Compare salient pole and smooth cylindrical rotor.
S.no
Salient pole Smooth cylindrical
1
Large diameter and small axial
length.
Small diameter and large axial
length.
2
Used for low speed alternators
Used for high speed turbo
alternators
3
Has projecting poles No projecting poles
4
Needs damper windings Does not need damper windings
5
Windage loss is more Windage loss is less

10. What are the causes of changes in voltage of alternators when loaded? (Or) write down
the causes for reduction in terminal voltage of alternator from its no load value E
0
to V
for lagging power factor. (or) state factors responsible for a change in synchronous
generator terminal voltage while feeding isolated voltage.
Voltage drop due to resistance of winding, leakage reactance, armature reaction.

11. Why short pitch winding is preferred over full pitched winding?
Improve the waveform of induced emf
Save copper in coils end due to fewer spans
Reduce inductance of the winding.

12. Define the term distribution factor.
The ratio of the vector sum of the emf induced in all the coils distributed in a number of slots
under one pole to the arithmetic sum of the emf induced is known as breadth factor or
distribution factor. (K
d
)
K
d
=
EMF induced in a distributed winding
EMF induced if the winding would have been concentrated


13. Two alternators A and B identical in all aspect are designed with different length of air
gap, the gap length being more for alternator B. which of the two machines would
require more copper for its field winding? Why?
REG 2008
ELECTRICAL MACHINES II

T.THILAGAMANI, AP-EEE

The alternator B requires more copper for field winding. More airgap length, the flux linkages
between stator and rotor is low. So the increase in flux linkage requires more copper for its field
excitation.

14. Why alternators are rated in KVA and not in Kw?
Apart from constant loss, the variable loss which depends on square of the current. As the
current is directly related to its apparent power delivered by the generator, the alternator only
their apparent power in VA/KVA/MVA as their power rating.


Also study the characteristic curve, equations, advantages and disadvantages,
applications and related questions.


















REG 2008
ELECTRICAL MACHINES II

T.THILAGAMANI, AP-EEE


Unit 2 : SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
1. What is synchronous condenser or synchronous capacitor?
A lightly loaded synchronous motor supplying a leading current for power factor correction.
(Or) An over excited synchronous motor, running without any mechanical load, used
specifically for power factor correction, is known as synchronous capacitor.

2. What is meant by torque angle?
Angle between the rotating stator flux and rotor poles. An unloaded synchronous motor rotates
in synchronous with the rotating flux and takes up load (torque) when the rotor is slowed down
and lags the driving flux.

3. Why synchronous motor is called synchronous capacitor?
A synchronous motor can operate either as a Generator or a Motor. When a synchronous
motor has current applied to the windings on its rotor and the stator is energized with say a 50
Hz line supply (with little or no physical load) then the exact amount of excitation provided by
the rotor can determine whether the stator displays inductive or capacitive properties. If the
rotor is under excited (too Little rotor current) the Synchronous Motor will behave as an
Inductor, however if the rotor is over excited then the Synchronous Motor will behave like a
Capacitor.

4. What is hunting?
Due to the fluctuation of power input to the prime mover if the driving torque applied to the
alternator becomes pulsating, the rotor during rotation will oscillate from its normal speed. This
oscillation is called hunting.

5. What are the inherent disadvantages of synchronous motor?
I. High cost,
II. Necessity of a dc excitation source,
III. Greater initial cost,
IV. High maintenance cost.

6. Mention four applications of synchronous motor?
I. Power factor correction,
II. Constant speed, constant load drives,
III. Voltage regulation of transmission lines,
IV. As frequency changer.

7. What is the role of synchronous motor in a transmission line? How?
REG 2008
ELECTRICAL MACHINES II

T.THILAGAMANI, AP-EEE

Synchronous motor acts as a voltage regulator in transmission line. When line voltage
decreases due to inductive load, motor excitation is increased, thereby increasing its power
factor which compensates for line voltage drop.
When line voltage increases due to line capacitive effect, motor excitation is decreased,
thereby making its power factor which helps to maintain the transmission line voltage at its
normal value.

8. Define pull out and pull in torque in synchronous motor.
The maximum torque which the motor can develop without pulling out of step or synchronism is
called pull out torque.
It pertains to the ability of the machine to pull into synchronism when changing from induction to
synchronous motor operation is called pull in torque.

9. What are V-curves?
The V-curve shows the relation that exists between the armature current and field current for
different constant power input.

10. Why is a synchronous motor not self starting?
If a three phase supply is given to stator of a stationary synchronous machine with the rotor
excited, no steady starting torque will be developed. Instead, a sinusoidally time varying torque
is developed, the average value of which is zero and thats why synchronous motor is not self
starting.

11. When is synchronous motor is said to receive 100% excitation?
When Eb = V, synchronous motor receives 100% excitation.

12. What does synchronous phase modifier or phase advancer mean?
Synchronous condensers are sometimes operated at power factors ranging from lagging
through unity to leading for voltage control. When operated in this way.

13. Name the important characteristics of a synchronous motor not found in an induction
motor.
I. The essential features of synchronous machine are
II. The rotor speed is synchronous with stator rotating field
III. The power factor can be easily varied by varying its field current.
IV. It is used for constant speed operation.






REG 2008
ELECTRICAL MACHINES II

T.THILAGAMANI, AP-EEE


Unit 3 : THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR
1. Why the rotor slots are slightly skewed in squirrel cage IM?
The rotor slots are made skewed by a small angle to the shaft axis because
a. It prevent magnetic locking of rotor teeth with stator teeth
b. It reduces humming noise when running
c. It gives more uniform torque when running
d. It avoids crawling of an induction motor

2. A 50 Hz, 6 pole, 3phase induction motor runs at 970 rpm. Find slip.
s =

; Ns = 120f/p ; Ns = 120*50/ 6 = 1000 rpm ;


s = 0.03; %s =
1000970
1000
* 100 = 3% ;

3. Under what condition, the slip in an induction motor is (a) Negative, (b) Greater than one.
Rotor at a higher speed than the magnetic field then the slip is negative. The motor is in
generator mode.
Electromagnetic torque now acts opposite to rotor rotation then the slip is negative. The motor
is in braking region.

4. What are the two fundamental characteristics of a rotating magnetic field?
A three phase winding is place at 120 electrical degrees apart in the stator. When a three
phase supply is fed to the three phase winding, a rotating magnetic field is produces in the
stator. It has a constant magnitude and revolves at synchronous speed.

5. Define slip of induction motor.
The slip of an induction motor is defined as ratio of difference between synchronous speed (Ns)
and rotor speed (N) to synchronous speed.
S =



6. What is the function of doublecage induction motor over single cage induction motor?
The function of doublecage induction motor is obtaining high starting torque without sacrificing
electrical efficiency under normal running condition.

7. How can you reverse the direction of rotation of induction motor?
For reversing the direction of rotation f AC 3- phase induction motor, it is required to transpose
or change over any two leads of supply lines.

8. Why are semi closed type slots preferred in wound rotors?
The semi closed type slots preferred in wound rotors because it reduces the magnetic
reluctance.


REG 2008
ELECTRICAL MACHINES II

T.THILAGAMANI, AP-EEE

9. What is the effect of variation of supply frequency and supply voltage in an induction
motor?
s.no increases Decreases
effects Effects
Supply
frequency
Increases power factor but
decreases torque
decreases power factor but
increases torque
Supply
voltage
decreases power factor,
secondary copper loss and slip but
increases torque, magnetic
density, magnetizing current and
iron loss.
increases power factor,
secondary copper loss and slip
but decreases torque, magnetic
density, magnetizing current and
iron loss.


10. What will happen if single phase phasing occurs of a working induction motor & how
motor can protect against it?
There will be a peculiar noise which results from large current increase in the two running
lines and also in all the three windings till it is isolated by the overload device or the single
phase preventor. Single phase working the motor reduces the capacity of the motor and also
places extra duty on the windings if this condition persists for a long time and ultimately
this will burn the coil.
To protect the motor against single phasing, it is preferred /to incorporate a combined overload
and single phasing relay or a phase failure relay in the control gear and starter.

11. What is cogging in induction motor? How can it be overcome?
When the number of rotor slots is equal to stator slots, precisely the same order harmonics are
strongly produced, all rotating at corresponding speeds in both stator and rotor. Thus
harmonics of every order would try to exert synchronous torques at their corresponding
synchronous speeds and the motor would refuse to start. i.e., magnetic locking between
rotor and stator slots. This is known as cogging or magnetic locking. Similar thing
happens when number of rotor slots is an integral multiple of number of stator slots. This can
be overcome by making the number of rotor slots prime to the number of stator slots.

12. What are the purpose that could be served by external resistors connected in the rotor
circuit of phase wound induction motor?
i. Smooth and wide range of speed control.
ii. Starting torque can be improved.
iii. High line power factor.
iv. Availability of full rated torque at starting.

13. Explain the condition for maximum torque under running condition.
Torque under running condition, T =

2
2

2
2
+(
2
)
2
Nm
Torque T for fixed input voltage will be maximum when

= 0
REG 2008
ELECTRICAL MACHINES II

T.THILAGAMANI, AP-EEE

2
2
+
2

2
2

2
2

2

2
2

2
2
2
2
= 0
i.e .,
2
=
2
. The torque is maximum when the rotor resistance is equal to multiplication of
slip and rotor reactance.

14. What is crawling in induction motor?
The tendency of the motor to run stably at speeds as low as one seventh of its synchronous
speed with a low pitched howling sound is called crawling.

15. What is an induction generator?
In general, the induction motor connected to a constant voltage, constant frequency supply is
able to run only at sub synchronous speeds. Suppose the rotor is to be driven by another
machine at above synchronous speed, the induction motor runs as a generator. Such
arrangement of machine is called an induction generator.

Also study the characteristic curve, equations, advantages and disadvantages, applications
and equivalent circuit related questions.















REG 2008
ELECTRICAL MACHINES II

T.THILAGAMANI, AP-EEE



Unit 4 : STARTING AND SPEED CONTROL OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

1. State 2 advantages of speed control of IM by injecting an emf in the rotor circuit.
I. The main advantage of this method is that any speed within the working range can be
obtained.
II. If the rotary converter is over excited, it will take a leading current which compensates
for the lagging current drawn by SRIM and hence improves the power factor of the
system.

2. Point out the disadvantages of rotor rheostat control to obtain variable speed of
induction motor.
I. Reduced efficiency because the slip energy is wasted in the rotor circuit resistance,
II. Speed changes vary widely with load variation,
III. Unbalance in voltage and current if rotor circuit resistances are not equal.

3. Give the functions performed by induction motor starter.
I. To limit the starting current,
II. To start the motor,
III. To protect from over load condition and low voltage condition.

4. List out four methods of speed control in 3 phase induction motor.
I. Stator voltage control,
II. Stator frequency control,
III. Rotor resistance control,
IV. Pole changing method,
V. Slip power recovery scheme
5. Why starter is necessary to start the 3 phase induction motor.
At the time of starting, heavy current of five to seven times its full load current will flow through
the motor and it develops only 1.5 to 2.5 time full load torque, there is no back emf present
leads to large line voltage drop. In order to protect the electrical equipments starters are used
at the time of starting.

6. Name the different types of starters used in 3 phase induction motor.
I. DOL starter,
II. Primary resistance starter,
III. Autotransformer starter,
IV. Star-delta starter,
V. Rotor resistance starter.


REG 2008
ELECTRICAL MACHINES II

T.THILAGAMANI, AP-EEE

7. What is voltage/frequency method?
This is one method of speed control. From the emf equation, the air gap flux is given by
=
1
2
1

; from this expression, by varying the supply frequency, the airgap flux changes.
This will lea to saturation of the motor. To avoid this, the airgap flux should be maintained
constant. To maintain airgap flux constant, the parameters V and f must be changed so as to
maintain (V/f) ratio constant. This is V/f control.

8. What is the purpose of adding external resistance in the rotor circuit?
I. Starting torque can be improved,
II. Starting current will be reduced,
III. Motor speed can be controlled.

9. Draw the speed-torque characteristics of rotor resistance control.












10. What is meant by slip power recovery scheme?
Slip power can be returned to the supply source and can be used to supply an additional motor
which is mechanically coupled to the main motor. This type of drive is called as slip power
recovery scheme which improve the overall efficiency of the machine.

11. Why is speed control by pole changing technique suitable only to squirrel cage
induction motor?
Cage rotor is not wound for any specific number of poles as stator winding. Therefore, an
arrangement is required only for changing the number of poles in stator but in slip ring induction
motor arrangement for changing the number of poles in rotor is also required, which
complicated the machine.


12. What is the effect of change in supply on starting torque?
Large reduction in starting torque because the starting torque varies as square of voltage
applied to the stator.

speed
t
o
r
q
u
e

Tmax
Tst1
Tst2
Tst3
R3>R2>R1
R3 R2 R1
REG 2008
ELECTRICAL MACHINES II

T.THILAGAMANI, AP-EEE

13. Is it possible to add an external resistance in the rotor circuit of a 3 phase cage
induction motor? Give reasons.
No, because the rotor copper bar is permanently short-circuited.

14. Define slip power in an induction motor.
The portion of the air gap power, which is not converted into mechanical power,is called slip
power. Slip power is nothing but multiplication of slip(s) and air gap power (Pag).

Also study the characteristic curve, equations, advantages and disadvantages, applications
related questions.































REG 2008
ELECTRICAL MACHINES II

T.THILAGAMANI, AP-EEE


Unit 5 : SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR AND SPECIAL MACHINES

1. What is a stepper motor?
A stepper motor is a digital actuator whose input is in the form of programmed energization
of the stator windings and whose output is in the form of discrete angular rotation.

2. How is the direction of rotation of a repulsion start induction run motor reversed?
The direction of rotation of a repulsion motor is changed by shifting the brushes around the
commutator.

3. Mention the applications of stepper motor.
I. Robotics,
II. Computer peripherals,
III. Facsimile machine,
IV. Aerospace.

4. State the typical power factor of a single phase induction motor at full load condition.
0.5 to 0.9

5. Name the motor used in ceiling fan and in lathes.
Ceiling fan capacitor run motor.
Lathes capacitor start and capacitor run motor.

6. What are the classifications of single phase induction motor based on the method of
starting? (Or) Name any two methods to start a single phase motor (or) List the
various types of single phase induction motors.
I. Split phase induction motor,
II. Capacitor start induction motor,
III. Capacitor run induction motor,
IV. Capacitor start capacitor run induction motor,
V. Shaded pole induction motor.

7. List out 4 applications of shaded pole induction motor.
I. Turn table,
II. Hair driers,
III. Fans,
IV. Blowers

8. Write down any 2 applications of universal motor.
I. Vacuum cleaners,
II. Driac and fond mixers,
REG 2008
ELECTRICAL MACHINES II

T.THILAGAMANI, AP-EEE

III. Portable drills,
IV. Domestic sewing machine.

9. Define double field revolving theory.
The double field revolving theory makes use of the principle that pulsating field produced in
a single phase motor can be resolved into two components of half its amplitude and rotating
in opposite directions with synchronous speed.

10. How a single phase induction motor is made as self starting motor?
The auxiliary winding in the stator is provided in addition to the main winding. Then the
induction motor starts as a two phase motor. The main winding axis and auxiliary winding
axis are displaced by 90 electrical degrees. The impedances of the winding differ and
currents in the two windings are phase shifted from each other. As a result of this, a rotating
field is produced and rotor rotates.

11. What are the features of universal motor?
I. Operate on either dc or ac supply,
II. High starting torque,
III. High no-load speed.

12. Draw the schematic diagram to illustrate the reversal of a split-phase motor.





13. Define step angle.
Step angle is defined as the angle through which the stepper motor shaft rotated for each
command pulse. It is denoted as .
=

* 360
where Ns = no of stator poles or stator teeth ; Nr = no of rotor poles or rotor teeth

14. Is single phase induction motor self starting? Why?
The single phase induction motor is not self starting. When a sig le phase fed to the stator
winding, it produces only an alternating flux only i.e., one which alternates along one space
axis only. Due to this, starting torque will be zero. Hence the motor does not rotate.

S1
S2
P
N
Main
winding
starting
winding
S
S1
S2
N
P
Main
winding
starting
winding
S
REG 2008
ELECTRICAL MACHINES II

T.THILAGAMANI, AP-EEE


15. Draw the equivalent circuit of a single phase induction motor without core loss.



















Xm/2


X
1

Xm/2


R
2
/2s
R
1

V
I
1

P

N


X
2
/2
X
2
/2
R
2
/2 (2-s)
V
f

V
b

Vf
Z
f

Z
b

Vf