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Although a good number of authors have defined waste as an
undesirable by product or material resulting from domestic activities
or industrial operation for which there is no economic demand and
which must be disposed off, but it is generally not devoid of resource
value, it could be a useful material elsewhere. This means that waste
can equally be defined as materials which may no longer be needed
by the processor here, but may become a feed stock or raw material
Alhassan (2002 described waste as anything that a processor
consider valueless at a particular stage, but could be useful and
serve as important material in the manufacture of other products. The
wastes can be solid or liquid, garbage, sludge, gaseous and other
materials from homes, schools, business centres, poultry farms,
hospitals, industries, factories, hotels, petrol stations, markets and
motor mechanic workshops.
!olid wastes, which is the focus of this study are all the
unwanted solid materials that arise from man"s and animal"s daily
activities which cannot flow away freely because of their solid state.
!olid wastes comprise mainly of different kinds of refuse or
useless materials re#ected from the flow pattern and discarded in the
rural and urban communities as well as the more homogenous
accumulations from industrial and agricultural sectors. They can be
broken into glasses, tins, irons, rays and all other sorts of rubbish that
are solid in nature.
$n %igeria, industrial and household solid wastes problems have
been persistent problems. They are identified by garbage cans
overflowing with refuse or left randomly at the street corners, or
blocking the drainage system, thereby causing inadequate flow of
water and other liquid materials. This leads to the pollution of the
environment by producing odour and multiplication of mosquitoes as
the eggs are hatched in cans, containing stagnant water. $t is to this
end, (&deshire '((( lamented that dumpsite, kept in %igeria are the
cause of pandemic cases in the country. ).g typhoid fever, malaria,
diarrhoea, cholera and other types of water borne diseases. *ollution
also occurs in ground water as infiltration of polluted water into the
soil takes place, which makes the water to be unhygienic to the
consumers if consumed when not treated or properly treated.
+isposal of solid wastes should be in a manner that is in
accordance with the best principles of *ublic ,ealth, )ngineering,
)conomic and Aesthetic considerations.
-hen wastes are left to pile without being disposed, they
become nuisance to the public and to the environment as it will cause
the area surrounding the dump site to become isolated by individuals,
which will affect all the activities taking place thereby. The smoke that
emanates from burning wastes materials is dangerous to human
health and pollution of soil nutrients also occurs.
!olid wastes disposal is a ha.ard that can destroy the quality of
the environment and make it less habitable for man"s living.
$ndiscriminate dumping of solid wastes materials gives room for
spread of diseases in the area.
The guiding questions for this research work includes/
' $s there any effect on health ha.ard that can be linked to solid
waste dump0
2 -hat awareness is on ground to manage solid waste0
1 $s the smoke that emanates from burning waste materials
dangerous to human health0
The aims and ob#ectives of this study are2
' To determine the effects of improper solid wastes disposal and
management in the society.
2 To bring about significant improvements in the living conditions
of the people in $dah.
1 To reduce the discomforts of unpleasant odour arising from
decaying organic matters
3 To minimi.e the likelihood of fire outbreaks in the environment
4 To suggest possible ways of solving solid waste collection
problems at a timely manners to prevent the spread of
The study covers 5biga and )ga communities in $dah 6ocal
7overnment of 8ogi !tate. $ncluding residential houses, hospitals,
clinics and markets. The work is limited to the solid waste alone.
Alhassan (2002 described waste as anything that a processor
consider valueless at a particular stage, but could be useful and
serve as important material in the manufacture of other products.
!olid waste is properly the most visible form of pollution.
-ilson ('((3 9efuse is anything found around human
premises which is useless or unwanted. 9efuse is a collective name
of solid wastes consisting mainly of rubbish and garbage that cannot
as fluid be discharged through pipes, but transported by vehicles and
disposed off.
$t varies from tiny particles from sweeping or bulky substances
like abandoned vehicles, tins cans, bottles, papers, plastics, dead
animals, ashes and dust, bones, and many others that are not fluids.
:eachman ('(;0 stated that the quantity and quality of refuse
vary from locality to another, depending on the food availability,
feeding habits and customs of the people. :or e<ample, the quality
and quantity of refuse produced in rural area are less than that of the
urban areas.
%evertheless, refuse no matter its quality and quantity, the most
important issue is its proper disposal. $ts improper disposal will
encourage fire outbreak, in#uries from materials like sharp ob#ects,
breading of wild animals and untidy look of the environment.
As observed by Ade#oke ('((0, about eighty percent of solid
waste composition is organic and twenty percent inorganic. The
variation in the generation rates and the composition are remarkable
for different residential areas in a particular city.
The general composition of solid waste are metals, bottles,
glasses, plastics, papers, ashes and dust. !olid wastes from
industries, hospitals, slaughter houses and processing factories are
always to<ic and dangerous to the environment and its inhabitants.
The to<ic content causes pollution of ground water as it
infiltrates into the soil.
+uring the decomposition of organic waste, offensive odour is
produced and this attracts flies to perch on them and transmit
diseases to individuals they can reach.
The inorganic waste like wreckage of automobiles, broken
houses etc causes obstruction on the way and are in#urious to
!olid waste is classified based on its composition, nature,
physical and chemical characteristics. The classification is based on
whether the wastes comprise of/
' &rganic matter
2 $norganic=mineral matter
1 >ombustible carbonaceous matter
3 -ater content ( Adamu 2000
1) Orga!" Ma##$r%&
This kind of solid waste consist of organic materials that decay=
decomposes easily. The organic matters consists of garbage, offal,
bones, food wastes etc. This kind of solid wastes, during disposal
process, does not need to be checked for removal of non
decomposing materials before disposal by any disposal method.
-hen the landfill method of solid waste disposal is used to get rid of
organic waste, the e<pected decomposing process will surely be met.
(>onnel '(;4.
2) I'rga!"(M!$ra)&
?ineral wastes consists of irons, tins, broken glass, grit, dust,
stones, crockery etc. There are various solid substances that are
formed naturally in the earth and are useful to humans when they
have not become waste. They can also be recycled to produce a
certain material that can be used by humans. ,enstock ('(@3.
3) C'*+,%#!+)$&
>ombustible waste comprise of all discarded materials that are
combustible (can easily catch fire, such as wooden materials, cotton
unconsumed coal, ashes and coke as well as rags (%wankwo '(('.
They are often used as sources of energy. -ooden materials
generate heat energy when they are burning, and this heat energy
can be used for cooking and other things. >oal on the other hand,
generates heat energy that is later turned to mechanical energy in the
case of train operation. $t is also used in many other fields like
goldsmith etc.
4) Wa#$r C'#$#&
This consists of vegetables, leaves and fruits etc. -ater content
in solid waste is relatively small and mainly in vegetables and leaves.
&ther sources of water contents in solid wastes may be due to
e<posure to rainfall and contact with ordinary water, either flowing
through or sprinkled or poured upon them (wastes.
The presence of water in solid wastes quickens decomposition
process and consequently offensive odour. The relative amount of
water (moisture content in solid wastes vary with the frequency of
collection, disposal and the economic status of the people.
$n areas where there is less activities involving vegetables,
fruits, leaves and water is inadequate, there is likelihood of little
moisture content in the wastes generated.
According to *aul ('((0, the rate of waste generated in an
area affects the moisture content of the waste materials. $n areas
where there is high wastes generation, there will be less room for
evaporation of some quantity of water to take place. This is due to the
piling rate of the wastes. &n the other hand, where there is less
generation of waste, evaporation of moisture content of the wastes
will be high because of the e<tent of e<posure of the waste to the
open environment.
Adegoke ('((0 observed that solid wastes originated from
some fields like industrial, domestic, agricultural, and commercial.
)ach of these fields produce a different kind of wastes, depending on
the nature of processes involved and materials in use. The following
are some of the solid waste generated from the above listed sources.
' Ashes and dust
2 +emolition and construction wastes
1 ,a.ardous wastes
3 :ood wastes
4 9ubbish
1) I-,%#r!a) S')!- Wa%#$%&
$ndustrial wastes consists of ha.ardous, demolition and
construction waste. The ha.ardous wastes are chemical, biological,
e<plosive or radioactive wastes, flammable and others. They are
dangerous to humans, plants and animals due to their compositions.
The wastes are always in form of sludge (semiAsolid state. 6iquid,
solid and gases are carefully handled and disposed of with immediate
effect due to the rate at which they harm the environment and
+emolition and construction wastes are wastes that come from
structures that have been pulled down and unwanted and discarded
materials during construction. The wastes include stones concrete,
timbers, bricks, plasters, reinforcement bars, tiles, plumbing material
+) D'*$%#!" S')!- Wa%#$%&
:ood wastes rubbish, ashes and dust make up the domestic
wastes. :ood wastes are the animals, fruits and vegetables residues
resulting from the handling preparations, cooking and eating of foods.
$n addition, large amount of these wastes are generated at cafeteria,
restaurants, hotels, hospitals, prisons, recreational centres and
facilities associated with the marketing of foods, including wholesale
and retail stores and markets.
The main characteristics of these wastes are that they easily
decay and produce offensive odour. This odour makes the collection
and disposal sometimes very difficult.
9ubbish consists of materials such as papers, card boards,
plastics, rubber, leather, wood, te<tiles and garden trimmings. Also
are glass, tins, cans, aluminium cans, ferrous metals and dirt.
9ubbish can be combustible or nonAcombustible simply, rubbish is
the refuse of house holds, institutions, commercial activities and
others, that hardly or cannot decay (:eachman '(;0.
Ashes and dust are materials remaining from burnt wood, coal
and other combustible wastes in homes, stores, institutions and
municipals facilities. Ashes and dust are normally composed of fire,
powdery materials, cinders, clinkers and small amount of partially
burnt materials. (,enstock '((0.
C) Agr!",)#,ra) S')!- Wa%#$%&
9efuse from poultry farms, planting and harvesting of row, field
and trees and vine crops, the production of milk, the operation of feed
lots and from other diverse agricultural activities are called
agricultural wastes. These wastes easily decompose and become
nuisance to the environment if they are not quickly collected and
disposed of properly.
-) C'**$r"!a) S')!- Wa%#$%&
The refuse that comes from commercial activities due to selling
and buying process, workshops, recreational centres and others are
termed commercial solid wastes.
$t is necessary to know the composition of refuse in evaluating
alternative equipment requirements, system and management
programs and plans. :or instance, if the refuse generated at a certain
area consists of only paper products, the use of a special processing
equipment, such as shredder and ballast may be appropriate.
A) C/$*!"a) C'*0'%!#!'&
$t is important to know the chemical composition of solid wastes
in evaluating alternative processing and recovery portions. The main
chemical components of solid wastes are nitrogen and carbon.
>hemical characteristics help in the selection of appropriate
disposal methods. )specially when composting technique of wastes
disposal is being considered (-ilson '(@3.
B) P/1%!"a) C'*0'%!#!'&
$n the selection of equipment and facilities and their operations
information and data on the physical composition of solid waste
(refuse are very important. (-ilson '(@3.
The individual components that make up domestic refuse and
the moisture contents and density refuse are described as follows/
1) I-!2!-,a) C'*0'$#%&
>omponents that typically make up most domestic refuse and
their relative distribution are reported in the table one (' below.
Although any number of components could be selected because they
are readily identified and consistent with component categories
reported in the literature and because they have proven adequate for
the characteri.ation of refuse for most application.
Ta+)$ 1& T10!"a) P/1%!"a) C'*0'%!#!' '3 D'*$%#!" R$3,%$ 4 +1
>omponent 9ange Typical *arking ?aterial
:ood wastes B C 2B '4 A
*aper 24 C 34 30 44.;
>ardboard 1 C '4 3 ''
*lastic 2 C ; 1 1.B
6eather 0 A2 0.4 A
Te<tiles 0 C 3 2 0
9ubber 0 C 2 0.4 A
7arden trimmings 0 C 20 '2 A
-ood ' C 3 2 @.;
7lass 3 C 'B ; ';.'
Tin cans 2 C ; B '3.1
%onAferrous metals 0 C ' ' A
:errous ?etals ' C 3 2 A
+irt, ashes, brick etc 0 C ' 3 A
According to Adegoke ('((0, the percentage of domestic
refuse component vary with location, the season, economic
conditions and many other factors. :or that reason if the distribution
of components is a critical factor in a particular management decision
process, a special study should be undertaken, if possible, to assess
the actual distribution. Though it may still be impossible to obtain an
accurate assessment unless a prohibitively large number of samples
are analy.ed.
2) D$#$r*!a#!' '3 C'*0'$#% ! #/$ F!$)-&
+ue to the fact that determination of the composition of solid
wastes is not an easy task and strict statistical processes are difficult,
a more generali.ed field procedure, based on common sense and
random sampling techniques, has been developed for determining
the composition. (&kechukwu '((4.
The procedure involves unloading a quality of wastes in a
controlled area of a disposal site that is isolated from winds and other
operations. To ensure that results obtained are sound statistically, a
large sample must be obtained.
A residential sample representative might be a truckload
resulting from a typical daily collection in a residential area. A mi<ed
sample from an incinerator storage pit or discharge pit of a shredder
can also be representative. >ommon sense is important in selecting
the load to be sampled. :or e<ample, a load containing the weekly
accumulation of yard waste (leaves during autumn would not be
To obtain a sample from analysis, the load is first quartered.
:or e<ample, the measurement made on a sample si.e of about B0kg
will insignificantly vary from measurement made on a sample of up to
4kg, all taken from the same waste load.
After the quartering, one part is selected for additional
quartering until a sample si.e of about B0kg is obtained. $t is
important to maintain the composition of each selected quarter,
regardless of the odour or the e<tent of decay. &nly in this way can
some degree of randomness and unbiased selection be maintained.
3) M'!%#,r$ C'#$#&
The moisture content of refuse is usually e<pressed as the
weight of moisture per weight of wet or dry material. $n the wet weight
method of measurement, the moisture in a sample is e<pressed as a
percentage of the weight of the materials weight content. $n the dry
weight method, it is e<pressed as a percentage of dry weight of the
materials (Darry '(@;.
The moisture content can be calculated mathematically by the
formular below2
?oisture content (E F a C b G '00
-here a F $nitial weight of sample as delivered
b F -eight of sample after drying
!ource/ (Darry '(@;
Typical data on the moisture content for the refuse components
in table (' are given in table ($$ below.
Ta+)$ II& T10!"a) Da#a ' M'!%#,r$ C'#$# '3 D'*$%#!" R$3,%$
M'!%#,r$ P$r"$#ag$ 54)
>omponent 9ange Typical
:ood wastes 40 C ;0 @0
*aper 3 C '0 B
>ardboard 3 C ; 4
*lastic ' C 3 2
Te<tiles B C '4 '0
9ubber ' C 3 2
6eather ; C '2 '0
7arden trimmings 10 C ;0 B0
-ood '4 C 30 20
7lass ' C 3 2
Tin cans 2 C 3 1
%onAferrous metals 2 C 3 2
:errous metals 2 C B 1
+irt, ashes, Dricks etc B C '2 ;
$n residential houses, collection and storage of solid wastes are
normally done by collecting the volume or quality of solid waste
generated always and storing them in garbage cans, dustbin or ash
The collection and storage involve both human labour and
vehicles. -hen longer period of proper disposal method is carried
out, ash pits of reasonable si.e and its proper construction would be
allowed. Ash pit has to be situated at reasonable distances not closer
than 20.0m from the residential houses. $t has to be of brick that has
concrete living inside water as an adequate means of cleansing and
should have drain. An ashbin should be strongly constructed of
galvani.ed iron sheet or thick plastics and covered with a fitting cover
to e<clude rain. $t should be si.eable for men to easily carry about
during disposal process.
$n commercial .ones, central collection chambers are made
available for the storage of the wastes generated.
The wastes in these kinds of collection chambers are not
allowed to stay as long as residential waste before disposal due to
the rate of wastes generation. %ormally, in a high commercial areas
with great business activities that cause high wastes generation,
disposal should be done every two days.
The mode of collection of the wastes stored in garbage cans,
ash pits etc. $t is normally done by trucks and motor vehicles.
>ollection involves emptying of the garbage cans into the vehicle by
the use of transfer containers (e.g plastic bags or basket and by the
use of shovel to dump the stored wastes from the storage points into
a standby or waiting truck or motor vehicle.
>ollection involves movement from one storage point to
Transportation of solid wastes is done by the means of vehicles
that convey the wastes from the collection sites to the dumping sites.
The vehicles may be trucks or motor vehicles, depending on
the distance between the collection points and final disposal points. $t
also depends on the quality of solid wastes to be disposed off and the
kind of solid wastes and their weights.
+uring transportation of solid wastes, the vehicles are not
supposed to be over filled with wastes materials to disallow the
dropping of wastes on the streets in transit. The motor vehicles used
for the transportation of solid wastes include trailers, semi trailers
tractors, disposal vans and tippers. 9ailroad is also used too in
remote areas where highway travel is difficult and big containers
attached to trains can be used also for transportation of solid wastes.
These vehicles are multiApurpose vehicles designed to serve a
broader range of users than a small or single purpose facilities.
!ource (&kechukwu '((4.
The main reason of solid wastes disposal is to remove all the
wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally
solid, which are discarded as useless or unwanted from the inhabited
places (%wankwo '(('.
This removal process is periodically done in a manner to
prevent the spread of diseases, to minimi.e the fire outbreak
tendency, and to reduce the discomforting odour and water
*aul !.+. ('((0, identified the following diseases to be caused
by rats, plague, leptospinosis, histoplasmosis, ratbiats fever,
triclionosis and many other diseases. Another great source of danger
is the fire outbreak as a result of the addition of hot ashes to
combustible refuse. The fire starts with gradual burning process of
waste materials and then increases with time as it gets in contact with
more combustible solid waste materials.
The increasing danger of fire has also been greatly attributed to
some flammable industrial wastes. :ire can also convert some
wastes such as old tyres to to<ic materials which could be ha.ardous
to human health and the environment with it.
&thers reasons why wastes should be disposed of property are/
a The handling of refuse or solid wastes can cause illness to
workers, especially if night soil (waste matter from human
bowels contaminates the waste. -orld ,ealth &rgani.ation
(-,& e<pert committee ('(@' has shown that solid wastes
samples in the sun and at disposal site contain round worm
ova. $t has also been proved by -orld ,ealth &rgani.ation that
worm infestations in tools specimens from wastes workers
were three times more than those of the control group. The
accident rate amongst solid wastes workers is also high as a
result of lifting heavy loads and dealing with mechanical
b There is inevitable pollution of water as water passes from an
open refuse dump site to surface water. )nvironment
degradation has also increased as a result of uncollected
refuse in sanitary dump sites.
c Atmospheric pollution has been on the increase as a result of
the continuous burning of solid waste in the open. !moke is
very dangerous to human"s lungs and other sensitive organs of
human body. This smoke travels miles over land and takes
time to become less ha.ardous to the environment and its
inhabitants. &dour from the refuse generally has always been a
source of nuisance to the inhabitants of any untidy
environment. $t is due to the combination of decaying materials
and its inhabitants.
According to &ni (2000, when waste is deposited in
water, a more unpleasant odour can arise from the release of
hydrogen sulphide. $t is better to prevent wastes from coming in
contact with water by covering the containers and disposing all
wastes before they become rotten.
d A very high percentage of the housefly population in the
cities breed in open garbage cans, ash pit and open refuse
dump sites. :lies can travel up to eight to ten (; C '0
kilometres. $t has been also found that up to 40mm below the
surface of the dumped refuse on the ground rebuilds the
infestation of fly eggs and larva. This is one of the important
reasons for quick and proper disposal of refuse.
:lies are the sources of some common diseases like
dysentery, and diarrheoa while mosquitoes on the other hand,
have their eggs hatched in broken pots, abandoned tyres and
tins containing water, and are transmitters of malaria (&kafor
!olid wastes disposal is very necessary for a very tidy
and comfortable environment and for the good health benefits
of the inhabitants. (-,& '(@'.
$n the recent time, some solid wastes disposal methods have
been accepted as being appropriate. These methods includes2
composting technique, incineration method, chemical landfill,
incineration at sea, open dump method, deep well in#ection, deep
ocean disposal and sanitary landfill method. (%wankwo '(('.
!ome of these methods were moderni.ed from old solid waste
disposal method. The modern methods have great advantages over
the obsolete ones both in operational methods and appropriateness.
This method of disposal involves controlled biological
decomposition of organic wastes. The decomposition is due to the
actions of organisms such as bacteria, fungi, proto.oa, insects and
$n composting technique, it is necessary to undertake
investigations on which preAtreatment operation that will give the
desired result in a given situation.
The composting technique entails filing of wastes to a certain
height (about '00cm in order to generate heat for decomposition
process and for the formation of decomposing agent (organisms
(,enstock '(@3.
!ource/ ,enstork ('(@3
Hand pick
2.8.2 I"!$ra#!'&
This is the process of burning solid wastes ashes. $n this
method, non combustible components are separated from the
combustible materials before incineration begins and to ensure
complete combustion. The nonAcombustible materials are then
disposed of by landfill or other disposal methods (!hrubsall ('(@3.
?odern incineration technique has taken over the later, and has
been developed into a sophisticated and environmentally accepted
technology. $n the modern incineration method, refuse materials are
changed into a refractory lined furnance, so designed as to ensure
complete combustion.
This is achieved by proper control of temperature, e<cess air,
gas turbulence and residence time in the hot .one as well as burning
out time of the ashes before discharge.
F)': D!agra* 3'r I"!$ra#!' M$#/'-
#%ar"e furnace
#o$&ustion c%a$&er
As some refuse materials contain to<ic chemical which is
dangerous to both man and his environment, the chemical landfill
method of wastes disposal is considered best for the disposal of such
refuse materials.
The chemical landfill method, is a special disposal method for
to<ic chemical which is identical to the sanitary landfill method of solid
wastes disposal, (>onnel '(@1.
2.8.4 I"!$ra#!' a# S$a
This is another special method of solid waste disposal done at
sea. $ncineration of refuse materials in this method takes place
several hundreds of kilometres from the sea shores. !pecial boats
are used. These boats are fitted with incinerators which burn off the
refuse at sea. There are some companies which speciali.e in this
method of incineration of combustible wastes at sea.
After the incineration process, the burnt materials are
discharged into the sea, where they will be deposited at the buttom of
the sea. (*aul '((0.
2.8.. O0$ D,*0
This is a common method of refuse disposal practiced in
%igeria. $t involves the disposal of organic and inorganic solid waste
materials (metal, glass, plastics, rags, ashes, dust, sewage and
animal wastes in an open space.
,ere, the wastes are collected by individuals from several
points and dumped at a general open dump site. This method in
some places is not practiced with the scientific guidelines which
makes it not a decent and proper solid wastes disposal method
(Adegoke '((0.
2.8.6 D$$0 W$)) I;$"#!'
The deep well in#ection method of solid waste disposal has
limited application for industrial waste disposal due to legal and
regulatory agency restraints.
This method entails the permanent storage of wastes in a deep
strata. -astes are collected and dumped into a dig deep well, where
they are kept out of sight and off the environment.
The most significant ha.ard posed by deep well in#ection is the
danger to ground water pollution.
2.8.8 D$$0 O"$a D!%0'%a)
$n this method, large volumes of solid wastes are dumped into
the ocean. The materials sometimes are burnt to reduce their large
quantity before discharging their burnt materials (ash into the ocean.
$n the past, the ocean has been e<tensively used for the disposal of
highly accumulating industrial and municipal wastes, (*ickford '((@.
The wastes are sometimes collected and packed up in a strong
container like sacks, bags and other containing materials that will not
tear or fail easily and after a short period of time. After packing of
refuse, they are taken to the ocean where they are dumped at deep
parts of the ocean.
2.8.< Sa!#ar1 La-3!)) 5 a L': C'%# R$"'**$-$- M$#/'-)
This is the least e<pensive more proven, most reliable and
fle<ible, economical and engineered method of solid waste disposal.
$n this method, the problems associated with wastes disposal, like
fire, pollution of underground water and air, insects, rodents and
materials blown around like leaves and papers are controlled and
stopped. The ma#or problem in this method is the availability of land
and the potential for pollution of groundwater through leaching
process from the land filled materials. (-ilson '(@3.
!imilarly, landfill method is carried out by the process of solid
wastes disposal, by spreading them in layers, compacting them to the
smallest practical volume and covering with earth daily or more
frequently in a manner that will minimi.e environmental pollution.
(:eachman '(;0.
5nlike in some of the other solid waste disposal methods,
leached water is collected at the bottom of the landfilled materials and
discharged in areas where it will not cause any harm to the
environment, ground water and humans.
The sanitary landfill method has many advantages along side
its cost effectiveness. The advantages include/
' 9eliability
2 )nergy reclamation
1 *ublic acceptability
3 6and 9eclamation
The solid wastes generated in $dah consist of household,
agricultural and commercial types. +epending on the availability of
disposal equipment, storage facilities and manpower the solid wastes
generated in $dah are disposed off by the following means.
' !elf disposal
2 >ommunity disposal
1 >entral collection disposal
+epending on the living standard of the residents, refuse is
disposed off using various refuse collection containers like disposable
and polythene, plastic or metal, cartons container, open dump etc.
but ma#ority of the residents in 5biga and )ga use open dump as
their method of wastes disposal.
These wastes dumped within the environment are sometimes
burnt and some other times pushed into drainage system and most
times left within the environment thereby littering the environment
with wastes materials by the sectional wind that blows always.
$n some societies, wastes disposal is done collectively. A place
like the market, where there are different sections, each section might
decide to dump their refuse materials in a certain place or point and
the final disposal operation is taken care of by the group of individuals
that make up that section.
The case of )ga ?arket is sure that every one gather the
refuse within his=her area and dispose it either in the drainage system
or the sectional point of wastes disposal e<cept people within the
same and closer pro<imity that gather the wastes and dispose them
together and this is done turn by turn.
$n this method of solid wastes disposal the wastes gathered are
always evacuted faster than self disposal method.
$nspite of the dangers associated with broken bottles and other
harmful materials, small children could be found spending their
leisure time regardless of the dangers posed. The system of random
disposal or self chosen collection points by the residents is always
having a lot of disadvantages both on the children that play around
and littering of the street with wastes materials by the wind that blows
>entrali.ed solid wastes collection is another process of solid
waste disposal system that takes a lot of factors into consideration,
for the benefit of the people living within. !ome people in 5biga and
)ga normally dump their discarded materials at the road sides. This
brings about large heaps of wastes that eventually leads to blockage
of the roads and create difficulty for motorist.
$n central collection disposal method, a place is marked out that
is quite secluded from the living houses and individuals dump all their
collected refuse there. :rom this point, convergence trucks and
bulldo.ers are used to evacuate these wastes materials to a final
dumping site.
The central collection point used by the residence in )ga, 5biga
and other near by areas is the one very close to the market. -astes
are disposed there and left to heap up. $t is sometimes burnt after a
long period of time. $t is also a flood plane so, during rainy season,
these wastes materials are taken by the water into the river.
!olid waste management is an important factor of
environmental hygiene and needs to be integrated in total
environmental planning, -,& )<perts >ommittee, ('(@'. $t"s
storage, collection, treatment and disposal can lead to short term
risks. $n the long term, there may be dangers arising particularly from
the chemically pollution of water supplies.
The main ob#ective of solid waste management and disposal is
the removal of refuse from getting in contact with the human
population. 5sually, this entails collection and transportation of the
refuse materials to an open dump located on the outskirts of the
As the wastes accumulate at the disposal site, fire is normally
set on to reduce combustible material, thereby reducing wastes to be
!ome ma#or ports have been taken over in $dah by heaps of
wastes, thereby hindering free flow of traffic and other things as
people try to avoid contact with them. Also, indiscriminate disposal of
refuse by the residents in the area has often caused blockage of
drainage channels which in turns results to flood and environmental
!erious health and social problems go along with improper
refuse dumping problem, and when properly handled will yield good
results for the benefit of the inhabitants.
5ncollected refuse and insanitary tips in full public view are
eyesores. +iscarded materials of solid wastes provide food and
shelter for rats, flies and mosquitoes. :ood waste attracts insect and
rodents. The debris found in waste materials provide shelter as well
as breeding environment for insects.
?osquito larvae are hatched in containers containing stagnant
water and multiplication of mosquitoes occurs and malaria cases are
bound to increase. :lies and other insects that have contact with
refuse materials do cause different kinds of diseases to humans as
they come in contact with their food and water.
-astes containing human and animal faecal material are
dangerous, because disease present in the individuals producing
these wastes can be transmitted by insects that come in contact with
them, &kafor (200'. +isease that are transmittable like typhoid,
cholera, dysentery etc are easily transmitted by organisms that can
come in contact with human food and water.
?alaria is a common and dangerous disease in %igeria. The
parasites that cause malaria fever are transmitted by mosquitoes and
mosquitoes are hatched from mosquito larvae in stagnant water. $f
refuse materials are collected and disposed off in due time, there will
be no stagnant water left for mosquito larvae to be hatched.
,igh persistent detergents, pesticides and other to<ic wastes
are becoming an everAincreasing problem in our society. !ome of the
physical and chemical risks associated with solid waste handling
when precautionary measures are not taken include direct contact,
household to<ic chemicals, e<plosive ha.ard of solvent etc.
D!r$"# C'#a"#&
$n#uries are always sustained from broken bottles and other
sharp ob#ects in refuse when an individual comes in contact with
them. &ther problems associated with this includes blood poisoning.
?aterials can be contaminated with bacteria and other micro
organisms that cause different dangerous diseases.
-orkers in the refuse management and disposal agencies and
those individuals involved in order to keep the environment clean and
healthy are more susceptible to physical and chemical ha.ards than
the general public. :or e<ample, during the burning of the refuse
materials, many heavy metals like carcinogenic metals (cancer
causing, neuroto<ic metals etc. are released as gas and after
burning they are the fly ash in which direct contact can cause a long
term problem.
H',%$/')- T'?!" C/$*!"a)%&
$n modern houses, chemicals such as pesticides, insecticides,
cleaning ammonia, lime (sodiumdio<ide and other organic chemicals
are used in substantial quantities. These chemicals may be very to<ic
if ingested or absorbed through the skin.
-hen their containing vessels are carelessly thrown away, they
can cause problems like children playing with them thereby having
direct contact with them.
This is the practice in $dah as anything can be discarded or
thrown into the environment. !mall children play with such containers
therefore accumulating problems like causing diseases like cancer,
cholera, dysentery etc.
+ata analysis is based on percentage method. This
method of data analysis was adopted because of its simplicity and
relative ease of interpretation and presentation. +ata was obtained
using oral (one to one interview and questionnaires from 40
The inhabitants of $dah 6ocal 7overnment are engaged in
various occupations but the predominant occupation especially in
5biga and )ga is trading.
Ta+)$ 4.1& O"",0a#!'a) D!%#r!+,#!'
Type %umber of 9espondents *ercentage
:arming 4 '0
Trading 14 @0
>ivil !ervants '0 20
Total 40 '00
!ource/ :ield study, 20''.
The percentage F 4=40 G '00 F '0E
i.e E F %umber of respondents G '00E
Total %umber of respondents sampled
:rom the information in table 3.', @0E of the respondents are
traders, '0E farmers and 20E >ivil !ervants. Trading activities leads
to more wastes generation and this is the reason why refuse disposal
is prominent in this areas.
O"",0a#!'a) D!%#r!+,#!'
,radin" #ivil Servants
The degree of illiteracy determines or has an effect on the
method of wastes disposal in any given society, therefore the
educational background of the inhabitants of these areas is important.
Ta+)$ 4.2& E-,"a#!'a) 9,a)!3!"a#!'
Type %umber of 9espondents *ercentage
Arabic B '2
*rimary '0 20
!econdary ; 'B
Tertiary 2 3
$lliteracy 23 3;
Total 40 '00
!ource/ :ield study, 20''.
*ercentage F B G '00 F 0.'2 G '00
40 F '2E
i.e %umber of respondents
Total number of respondents sampled
'2E of the respondents went to Arabic schools 20E primary,
'BE secondary, 3E tertiary and 3;E are illiterates.
E-,"a#!'a) D!%#r!+,#!'
Ta+)$ 4.1.3& M$#/'- '3 S')!- Wa%#$ D!%0'%a)
?ethod %umber of 9espondents *ercentage
+ustbin @ '3
&pen space 2; 4B
+rainage '0 20
*olythene bags 4 '0
Total 40 '00
!ource/ :ield study, 20''.
*ercentage F @ G '00 F '3E
'3E of the respondents disposed their wastes using dustbin,
20E drainage, '0E use polythene bags and 4BE of the respondents
disposed their wastes materials on open space which is the most
dangerous way of waste disposal. This result calls for awareness as
so many people do not know the danger in their means or method of
waste disposal.
!ust &in /pen space !raina"e
Pol)t%ene &a"
Pri$ar) 1lliterac)
Secondar) ,ertiar)
0 '0 20 10 30
Ta+)$ 4.1.4& D!%0'%a) S$r2!"$ E*0)'1$-
?ethod %umber of
2 3
*rivate 0 0
!elf 3; (B
Total 40 '00
!ource/ :ield study, 20''.
The percentage is calculated as 2 G '00 F 3E
This result shows the level of concern of the government for the
people in this areas. !ince (BE of the inhabitants of this area are
responsible for their wastes and only 3E is for government, so they
dispose the waste anyhow.
'ovt2 Private
S.R31#. .0P4/-.!
Ta+)$ 4.1..& Fr$@,$"1 '3 R$3,%$ C'))$"#!'
?ethod %umber of
+aily 1 B
-eekly 4 '0
?onthly 3 ;
$rregular 1; @B
Total 40 '00
!ource/ :ield study, 20''.
The percentage is calculate with the formular given above.
:rom the result above, BE of the respondents dispose their wastes
daily, '0E weekly, ;E monthly and @BE irregular. $t is seen that
greater percentage of the respondents leave their wastes for a long
period of time before it is disposed.
45 !ail) +eekl) 0ont%l)
P.R1/!1# !1SP/S*4
-ith regards to refuse collection and disposal in $dah, the use
of sanitary landfill system should be recommended because of its
numerous advantages and where necessary, small incinerators could
also be used.
This is an engineering method in which wastes are disposed by
spreading them in layers compacting them to the smallest practical
volume and covering with early daily or more frequently in a manner
that will minimi.e environmental pollution. $t is the most fle<ible,
economical and reliable method currently available.
The ma#or problems that must be faced are the availability of
land and the potential for pollution of the ground water by leaching
from the landfill materials.
As earlier stated, this is the least e<pensive, more proven and
most reliable of the currently available methods of solid waste
disposal. !anitary landfill method is chosen because it has the
following advantages.
4.2.1 C'%# E33$"#!2$$%%
>ost consideration is made in any commercial operation when
choosing from alternative methods available. $n methods of waste
disposal, cost differences are highly considered.
-here these methods are available, controlled landfill at local
site is undoubtedly the lowest cost option to be chosen. 6andfill also
accepts ashes and dusts from incinerators.
$t must be noted that whatever treatment method employed,
there would be a landfill requirement for the re#ected.
6andfill is the only disposal method that can with reasonable
care and economy, be made ((E reliable. ?ost landfill sites, do have
more than one machine in order to handle the waste input with
another, when one breaks down. 9eplacement of machine when
broken down on site, does not take a long time.
6andfill site, provided it is reasonably large and suitably located,
can be rich source of energy in the form of landfill gas, (>onnel
'(@1. The capital investment required for gas e<tractions equipment,
if not unduly high, can be quickly regained given the right
!everal companies in )urope, including 6ondon bricks have
been able to e<ploit landfill gas to reduce fuel cost in their
manufacturing processes.
Among the aspects of landfill that must be stressed on is that it
is a method of land reclamation, for e<ample, pits. The things
reclaimed are neither the materials in the wastes, nor usually the
energy content, but an equally important and useful asset C land.
$n areas where there is a mineral e<traction activities going on,
alongside other processes that can cause great voids to e<ist in lands
as well as borrow pits. 6andfill can be sued to restore such despoiled
lands for productive use.
6andfill practitioners are faced with living down the reputation
gained by poor operations in the past. The public has a long memory
and trends to think of landfill site as a smelly, rat and flyAinfected and
burning dumps. &b#ection to a proposed site are often e<pressed in
such terms. The only way to improve the image of landfill is to
operate sites to a very high standard and produce good and quality
restorations. The cost of achieving this is not a great deal higher than
that of operating a site that is unacceptable to the general public.
7ood landfill operational procedures and management are all it
takes to achieve this.
!ocial, *olitical, )conomic and )ngineering factors play
important roles in selecting a site for sanitary landfill. $t is therefore
essential to make a proper decision. The main important factors that
play roles in selecting sanitary sites are/
a) A2a!)a+)$ La-& The required land fort the sanitary landfill can be
calculated using this formular
A F Holume G 2@ G '
'21B0 meter
-here volume F Holume required for waste disposal per year in
cubic yard.
Holume F 1B4 -* G '.'324
-here - F Amount of wastes in 8ilogram per capital=day
* F *opulation of the community
+ F +ensity of 6andfill wastes in kilogram
!ource/ >ornwell ('(@3
The amount of land needed depends on the characteristics and
quality of the solid wastes and the density to which they are
compacted etc.
+) S'!) C'-!#!'% a- T'0'gra0/1& $t is necessary to collect data
of soils in the area and obtain both geology and hydrological
") S,r3a"$ Wa#$r H1-r')'g1& $t is important to consider precipitation,
surface runoff characteristics, evaportranspiration and groundwater
$n relation to solid wastes during site selection, the site should
have a topographic characteristics that will keep some amount of
surface water infiltrating the landfill to a minimum to reduce the
amount of leachate produced from sanitary landfill.
-) 7$')'g!"a) C'-!#!'& ,istory of water has to be investigated to
determine the location of the site through the direction and rate of
flow of ground water and the quality. :or e<ample, gravel site should
be neglected due to their high rate of permeability. :ive feet (4ft is
usually recommended between landfill and water table.
There are various methods and operations depending on which
is most suitable for a particular environment.
The plans and specification require various steps to be taken
before the full operation of landfills commences, including site
clearing, construction of fences, operational facilities like access
roads etc.
There are three types of operational methods/
At locations where natural or artificial depression e<ist, it is
often possible to use them effectively for landfilling operations.
>arryons, dry borrow pits and quarries have all been used for this
purpose. The techniques to use in placing and compacting the refuse
wastes in depression landfills vary with the geometry of the site, the
characteristics of the cover materials, the hydrology and geology of
the site and the access to the site.
$f a carryon floor is reasonably flat, the first fill the carryon site
may be carried out using the trench method operation. &nce filling in
the flat area has been completed, filling starts of the head end of the
carryon and ends at the mouth. This practice prevents accumulation
of water below the landfill. -astes usually are deposited on the
carryon floor and from there are pushed up against the carryon face
at the slope of about 2/'.
*its and quarries landfill sites are almost always lower than the
critical factor in the development of such sites. As with carryon sites,
pits and quarries sites are filled in multiple lifts and the method of
operation is the same.
A key to the successful use of pits and quarries is the
availability of adequate cover materials to cover the individual lifts as
they are completed and to provide a final cover over the landfill when
the final height is reached.
Decause of settlement, it is usually desirable to fill pit and
quarry sites to a level above that of the surrounding terrain.
$n trench method of landfilling operation, e<cavation is usually
carried out and the solid wastes are placed in it and also covered
back with the e<cavated soil material and compacted. $n the case of
level or gentle sloping land where the water table is not near the
surface, the trench method is usually employed.
)<cavation in trench method can be carried out in several
a )<cavation of a trench parallel to the e<isting one and using the
e<cavated materials as cover, using drag line or scrapper. The
wastes deposited in both trenches are covered with the newly
e<cavated trench materials.
b )<cavation along trench with dragline or powered grader. The
trench e<cavated materials are not always enough here, solid
wastes from borrow pits are used also.
c )<cavation of small portion of the trench to be handled. &ne of
three ways solid wastes can be introduced into the trench and
convenient equipment e<ample of a, is used to e<tend
the trench and apply the e<cavated soil as the cover material.
Trench method has an advantage due to the fact that cover
materials are readily available as a result of trench e<cavation. The
depth of the trench depends on the location of ground water and the
characteristics of soil.
>over materials are also supposed to be solid materials, fit to
cover the solid wastes without any future problems.
Therefore, solid cover material is e<pected to drain well so as to
prevent une<pected collapse or any sort of failure and is supposed to
have low permeability and should be firmly compacted.
The method includes the deposition of solid wastes on the
surface. >ompacted soil depth of each layer at the end of the working
day, varies from '.34m to '.41m. >over materials may be taken from
a barrow area on the site or elsewhere. The width and length of the
operating face depends on the nature of terrain, the volume of the
solid wastes delivered daily and at the number of trucks that will
unload at a certain time.
The width over which the wastes are compacted varies from ; C
20m depending on the terrain. The thickness at the compacted
intermediate cover is about 0.1'm and the thickness of the
compacted top cover is about 0.B'.
All e<posed surface of the tip, sides and ends should be quickly
covered by inert material. The usually practice is to cover the top and
sides of freshly tipped refuse as soon as possible, and certainly not
later than the end of the working day. The working face (the
advancing end of the tip should be ideally covered at the end of the
working day. ,owever, in most controlled tips, the working face is
only covered at weekends or more elongated time or when the tip is
!mall bulldo.ers such as +
are often used on large tips to
spread refuse and covering materials. &ne +
3 can deal with
about 400 tonnes of refuse in an ; hours, equivalent to si< or seven
tiers operations (Darry '(@;. $t"s weight while moving about on the
completed parts of the tip, helps in compaction process. $f a
is not available, a tractor loader shovel can be used. This can do
other works on the site such as carrying cover materials.
9efuse should be tipped from the collection or transfer vehicles
on top the top, the or tractor then pushes the refuse over
the edge. !ides of the tipped refuse should be sloped at one vertical
to three hori.ontal so that the can operate on the slopes.
The use of the tip shall be planned to reduce the e<posure
sides and ends as much as possible. &ne method is to divide the
area into strips each, say 20 meters wide. Tripping is first carried out
on alternate strips and providing cover on both sides. -hen the
intermediate strips are used, no cover is required at sides.
$t is important to select the right machine or equipment on
variables such as density specification for the landfill, cover and haul
distance, type and quality of refuse to be handled, amount of
e<cavation required, composition of the cover material, angle of
working slopes and length of working days.
A specially designed sanitary landfill compactor that can easily
handle sleep slope work, with minimal wheel contact and travel
aggressively on refuse staying relatively free from refuse building and
suffer minimal wear and drainage from refuse materials becoming
entrapped or striking the machine, is useful. &ther useful machines
depending on scope of the activity involved, include elevating
scrappers (for ma#or e<cavations and haulage of cover materials over
long distance, crawlers (for ripping requirement, through e<cavation
conditions, initial site preparation operations, land clearing landfill that
received large quantities of rock, bricks, concrete and demolition
materials. :ourAwheel drive leaders (for loading trucks with cover
material, stockpiling cover loading recyclables, motor graders (for
applying a smooth final grading etc.
A landfill site at very stage of its development must be designed
and constructed so that all potential problems are either overcome or
controlled within an acceptable limit.
&ne method has been used to prevent leaching of the organic
wastes in landfill which is solidification=stabili.ation.
!olidification is a process that converts the to<ic components of
a ha.ardous waste to a chemical form that is more resistant to
leaching in the ultimate disposal site. !tabili.ation process involves
chemical reactions between the wastes, the supporting medium and
binder. The surface area of the raw waste is decreased thus limiting
the possibility of leaching of the ha.ardous constituents. !olidification
is a process in which sufficient quantities of solids are added to
ha.ardous waste to permit land filling as the mi<ture, regardless of
whether stabili.ation or fi<ation has occurred.
The primary goal of solidification and stabili.ation are/
a To improve the handling and physical properties of the waste
b To decrease the surface area across which transfer or loss of
certain pollutants can occur.
c To limit the solubility of any pollutants contained in the wastes.
d To reduce or remove to<icity of certain pollutants
A wide variety of solidification techniques are available, (e.g
cement based, lime base or po..olanic etc. the cement based is
widely used for inorganic wastes.
&f special interest from a public view point is the central of
seepage from tips. &ver half of the rain falling on a tip will probably
be absorbed or evaporated. The remainder will flow out of the
base and this leachate may contain high concentration of bacteria
up to '00ml, D&+ up to 10000mg=l, nitrogen, sulphide and
chlorides. The leachate may also contain some to<ic or poisonous
substances found in the tip. The quality of the leachate tend to
improve as the tip becomes older, contrean ('(;2.
The danger to ground and surface water abstraction points
depends completely on the local topography, geology and climate.
Advice, particularly from hydrogeologists should be taken
before a tip is located. The volume of leachate may be reduced by
drainage of the tip surface, by diverting runoff from ad#acent areas,
and by planting vegetation on the top of the tip :enchman ('(;'.
$ncineration is simply a process of solid waste disposal in which
all the three states of matter that is solid, liquid and gaseous
combustible wastes are converted to residue by means of
controlled combustion, leaving behind no amount of combustible
matter and gases which could be released in the atmosphere. The
main ob#ectives in this process are to reduce or decrease the
volume supplied refuse, and to produce a residue that is
inoffensive to the environment.
The design of a small capacity incinerator is necessary as a
modern engineering way of reducing the volume of the refuse
wastes. Dulky combustible wastes, which includes logs, rags
papers etc. are fed into the chamber being fed as to enhance a
complete combustion of refuse materials in the chamber.
$ncineration is most advantageous when wastes are separated
prior to the collection. ?aterials which contain no bulky materials
appro<imately ten times as much volume reduction is attained as
compared to compaction within a landfill. The temperature of an
incinerator must be high to destroy odour ((40
c C ''00
c to
satisfy the environment requirement. %wankow ('((3.
An incinerator is an enclosed fire place, for burning household
industrial wastes etc.
$n the operation of an incinerator the waste is taken through
feeding aperture, which is rectangular in shape with protective
coating at all sides and shape door to close the opening at a lower
floor level. The lower floor level is provided for hand levelling of waste
and withdrawal of furnace residue from fire. Deneath the grade levels
in an ash pit floor for removal of dust, from the lower floor, and are
closed by heavy cost doors with refracting lining and capable of being
raised in a vertical plane by centre balance cables.
!olid waste collection and disposal are parts of sanitation which
deals with the preservation of health and life as well as environmental
tidiness. $n certain instances, some members of the community
dispose their solid wastes wherever they like without due regard to
the effects such actions result into. ,ouseholders dispose such
wastes in the pro<imity of their houses and dumping area instead of
taking the waste to the actual point of disposal
There is need to enlighten the public on this improper wastes
disposal so as to avoid pollution of the environment. *olluted land
surface, often result in creation of odour, provision of feeding and
breeding places for flies, rats etc consequently, all sorts of vectors
and pathogenic organisms multiply mainly in waste dumps. ,ealth
education through new prints, electronic media and direct contact
with individuals in the villages and communities is needed to
enlighten the people.
9oadside and even house foods, if uncovered, can be
contaminated by flies from open dumps. The main diseases in which
food plays an essential role in the transmission are cholera, typhoid,
fever, dysentery, tuberculosis etc.
>urrently, effective methods, such as sanitary land filling
incineration and sorting are considered more reliable in dealing with
the type of solid wastes generated in $dah.
This pro#ect went a long way in motivating the community to
care for the refuse generated as it provides her with the idea of the beneficial part of the refuse generated in the area.
!olid wastes management in a developing society like ours is
probably greater than it has ever been. This pro#ect would enhance a
tidy environment and preserves good health hence, a healthy living of
the residents of $dah.
The main ob#ectives of solid waste management is to remove
unwanted materials (wastes from inhabited places in a timely
manner, to prevent the spread of diseases to minimi.e the fire
outbreaks and to reduce the discomforting odour arising from
purifying organic matter. $t is therefore, highly important to dispose off
all discarded materials in an environmentally acceptable manner.
!anitary landfill does employ an engineered method or process
of solid wastes disposal on land, in which solid wastes are spread to
the smallest practicable volume and applying and compacting cover
materials towards the end of each day.
Hectors (disease carriers, water and air pollution should not be
a problem in a properly compacted and maintained landfill. *roperly
compacted wastes and cover materials are highly important factors
governing the achievement and control of insects and rodents.
$t is a matter of common sense to reali.e that environmental
sanitation is directly related to good and basic health maintenance.
,ence, the adage that Ia healthy man is a wealthy manJ, is quite true.
The fact is that a clean environment enhances economic productivity
of the people. The handling and sanitary disposal of solid wastes are
parts of physical planning.
The problem of solid wastes disposal lies in making sufficient
fund available to handle all works involved. $t is also commendable to
investigate and find out other associated problems to be able to
counter them.
To reali.e substantial improvement, the method of collection,
plan route of collection, method of transportation and disposal should
be in line with the laid down standard and rules. To achieve this the
following activities are recommended.
a Authorities both at the state and local levels should be
b The authorities need to have practical plans towards ensuring a
mass participation. ?ore dustbins must be provided.
c $nspection should be conducted to ensure that the contractors
and all the personnel involved in the provision of services are
actually performing their functions in a proper manner and in
accordance with the stated agreement.
d $n most part of the area, people dispose off solid wastes on the
bare ground or soil surface without any meaningful means of
preventing the spread of whatever volume dumped. Therefore,
the health department of the agencies in charge should tackle
the problem and the agency should make adequate collective
dumping point available and fast evacuation of the dump
e >ollection vehicles should be given attention so as to ensure
fast evacuation of the dumped materials from the dumping
f -orkers involved in the solid wastes management should be
motivated as this will boast their moral towards their work
Adam $.A. (2000/ Proper Management Scheme of Solid Wastes. A
case study of 8aduna !outh 6.7.A
Adegoke &.!. ('((0/ Waste Management within the context of
sustainable development. :ederal )nvironmental *rotection
Agency ('((0.
Alhassan 7. (2002/ Waste Generation Management and Public
Health. $ssue Tackling the problem of indiscriminate dumping
and littering of refuse material on the street in %iger !tate.
*aper *resented at a 2A day Konal -orkshop in ?inna %igeria.
Association of *ublic ,ealth $nspectors ('(@2/Environmental Health
Report '(@'. 6ondon
Darry 9. ('(@;/ Construction of uilding. Holume 4 >rosby
6ockwood and son 7reat Dritain.
>onnel A. ('(@1/ !ipping and Sanitar" #andfill, >ity )ngineer +ept.
5niversity of %ottingham.
>ornwell +.A ('(;4/$ntroduction to Environment Engineering. *.-.!.
*ublishers Dorton ?assachusette.
:eachman 9. ('(;0/ Water Waste and Health in hot climates. Lohn
-illey and !ons.
,enstock ?. ('(@3/ !he Rec"cling and %isposal of Solid Waste.
5niversity of %ottingham.
%wankwo >.T ('(('/ Solid Wastes Handling Methods. A seminar
paper at %igeria !ociety of )ngineers (%!) Los Dranch.
*aul !.+. ('((0/ Management of Solid Wastes in the societ"
-orld ,ealth &rgani.ation ('(@'/ & !echnical Report Series. %0 3;3
-orld ,ealth &rgani.ation ('(@4/ Expert Committee on Sanitation. A
technical report 7eneva.