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Breakdown Characteristics of Oils

Name : S.P.M Sudasinghe


Index No. : 100523G
Group : G - 12
Field : EE
Date of Performance : 2013/09/30
Date of Submission : 2013/10/21
EE 3092
Laboratory Practice V
PPP - II
Instructed by: Mr N.P.N.P Premarhathne
OBSERVATIONS
Name: S.P.M Sudasinghe
Index No: 100523G
Group: G 12
Date of Performance: 2013/09/30
Date of Submission: 2013/10/21
Instructed by: Mr. N.P.N.P Premarathne

1. Breakdown of coconut oil
Gap (mm)
Breakdown Voltage (kV)
1 2 3 4 5 Average
1.5 9 10 9 11 11 10.0
2.0 11 12 10 12 12 11.4
2.5 12 14 13 15 15 13.8
3.0 17 17 17 17 19 17.4
3.5 24 20 19 21 21 21.0


2. Breakdown of Engine Oil
Gap (mm)
Breakdown Voltage (kV)
1 2 3 4 5 Average
1.5 8 12 14 11 13 11.6
2.0 14 16 10 14 14 13.6
2.5 17 14 15 15 16 15.4
3.0 18 14 20 21 19 18.4
3.5 20 20 20 21 25 21.2


3. Breakdown of Transformer Oil
Gap (mm)
Breakdown Voltage (kV)
1 2 3 4 5 Average
1.5 7 7 7 7 7 7.0
2.0 9 9 10 8 8 8.8
2.5 9 10 10 11 10 10.0
3.0 12 13 12 12 12 12.2
3.5 16 16 16 15 15 15.6














Breakdown of Coconut Oil
Gap (mm) Breakdown Voltage (kV)
1.5 10.0
2.0 11.4
2.5 13.8
3.0 17.4
3.5 21.0

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1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
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Gap Distance (mm)
Breakdown Characteristics of Coconut Oil













Breakdown Characteristic of Engine Oil
Gap (mm) Breakdown Voltage (kV)
1.5 11.6
2.0 13.6
2.5 15.4
3.0 18.4
3.5 21.2















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Gap Distance (mm)
Breakdown Characteristic of Engine Oil













Breakdown Characteristic of Transformer Oil
Gap (mm) Breakdown Voltage (kV)
1.5 7.0
2.0 8.8
2.5 10.0
3.0 12.2
3.5 15.6














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1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
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Gap Distance (mm)
Breakdown Characteristic of Transformer Oil














































Comparison of Breakdown Voltage of Oils
Gap Distance
(mm)
Breakdown Voltage (kV)
Coconut Oil Engine Oil Transformer Oil
1.5 10.0 11.6 7.0
2.0 11.4 13.6 8.8
2.5 13.8 15.4 10.0
3.0 17.4 18.4 12.2
3.5 21.0 21.2 15.6














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Gap Distance (mm)
Comparison of Breakdown Characteristics of Oils
Coconut Oil Engine Oil Tranformer Oil

DISCUSSION
Conclusion from graphs
From all graphs it is clear that the breakdown strength increases as the gap distance increases.
It is clear from graph 4 that engine oil has the highest breakdown strength than other two oil
samples (coconut oil & transformer oil). Hence based on this test engine oil is the best oil for
transformer insulation.

1. Methods of purification of transformer oil before testing
Dissolved gasses in transformer oil can cause arcing, corona discharges, and overheating
reducing the electrical efficiency and lifetime of the transformer. Likewise, water contamination
at levels as low as 30 ppm (parts per million) can adversely affect the insulating strength of the
oil. Hence purification of oil is required for proper maintenance and before perform any test on
insulating oils.
Drying method can be considered as any process that reduces and maintains at a low
level the material's water vapour pressure.
Purification or Reconditioning of insulating oil is the process of removing moisture,
dissolved combustible gas and particulate matter, as determined by oil and transformers'
tests.
Regeneration or Reclaiming of insulating oil is the process of removal of contaminants
and products of degradation such as polar, acidic or colloidal material, as determined by
oil and transformer tests.
Dehydration
Water trapped in oil impregnated cellulose materials, indicated by increased water content
(and/or de-energised winding power factor and other electrical tests), requires some form of
dehydration of the transformer's insulation system. The drying procedures can only reduce the
rate of loss of mechanical strength but never regain that which has been lost through neglect.
Significant factors concerning the choice of drying method include the type of transformers,
ambient and operating temperatures, time limitations, thickness of the insulation pieces, and the
vapour pressure of moisture in the surrounding atmosphere. Moisture removal can be can be
accomplished by several methods using various combinations of factors. The two general
categories of drying, involves the use of heat /or vacuum performed using factory repair shop or
field methods-either, power off or power on. Even with all its benefits, improper drying can
result in damage to the transformer insulation. The universal demand for higher quality control
has resulted in the Heat-vacuum with Coalescing filters being the preferred process.
The primary advantage for dehydration of oil with high vacuum in contrast to heat alone lies in a
side effect-degasification-which simultaneously occurs. This does not occur with other methods
of water removal.


The value of a high degree of dehydration and degasification at the factory or in the field, prior to
energising brings these benefits:
Minimizes partial discharge (corona) effect from inadequate oil impregnation.
Removal of unwanted oxygen.
Removal of combustible gases.
Extremely dry oil.

Degasification
The oil degassing process begins with a pump down from atmosphere and continues until a pre-
specified vacuum level indicates that complete degassing has been achieved. Depending on the
dissolved gas requirements, the temperature of the oil, and the method for evolving the gas; the
level is typically set between 0.1 and 5 Torr. This requires a vacuum gauge that can accurately
measure pressures in the sub-Torr range. Another important requirement for the gauge is that it
be rugged and tolerant of the oil environment. Dial gauges are not accurate enough for the task.
Also, the visual-only output of a dial gauge is inadequate for the current and future needs of this
application. Functional features like electronic interfacing and settable trip-points provide
integration with process controllers, reduce operator error, and enable data logging and
documentation.

2. Other tests for testing transformer oil

Dissolved Gas-In-Oil Analysis
The most important test that can be done on the liquid insulation of a transformer is an annual
Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA). This test can give an early indication of abnormal behaviour of the
transformer. As the name implies, this test analyses the type and quantity of gases that are
dissolved in the transformer oil.

Interfacial Tension
The interfacial tension test of electrical insulating fluids is an indicator of the presence of polar
compounds. These compounds are considered by some to be an indicator of contaminants of
oxidation or deterioration of the materials of transformer construction.

Colour
Determination of the colour of petroleum products is used mainly for manufacturing control
purposes. It is an important quality characteristic since colour is readily observed by the user of
the product. In some cases, the colour may serve as an indication of aging and presence of
contaminants. However, colour is not always a reliable guide to liquid quality and should not be
used as a stand-alone test for determination of contamination.

Acidity
The acidity test is used to estimate the total acid value of the transformer insulating liquid. As
acid values increase, (usually due to oxidation of the oil), the insulating quality of the oil
decreases. In general, acidic by-products produce increased dielectric loss, increased corrosivity,
and may cause thermal difficulties attributable to insoluble components called "sludge.

Power Factor
A power factor (dissipation factor) test measures the dielectric losses in the liquid and hence the
amount of energy dissipated as heat. The laboratory normally performs this test at two
temperatures,20 degrees C (68 degrees F) and 100 degrees C (212 degrees F), boiling. By testing
the oil at a standard temperature, the test results can be compared to standard values. Power
factor test results can help reveal the quality and the integrity of the insulation liquid. This
information can form the basis for making a judgment on whether its suitable for a transformer
to continue in service. The screen test can be used as a maintenance test for determining when a
filtering or change of the transformer liquid is in need.

Water Content
The water content test detects the moisture content in parts per million of the liquid insulation.
The electrical characteristics of an insulating liquid are dramatically affected by its water
content. A high water content may make a dielectric liquid unsuitable for some applications
because a deterioration in properties such as dielectric breakdown voltage will occur. This test is
suitable for evaluating filtration.

Dielectric Dissipation Factor (Tan Delta)
This test reveals the presence of moisture, resins varnishes or their products of oxidation in oil.
For transformer rating less than 145 KV, Tan Delta should be maximum 1 and for higher voltages
it should be maximum 0.2. This test can perform in two different temperatures at 27
0
C and 90
0
C.

Resistivity
The measurement of Resistivity of insulating oil is a sensitive test for detection of conducting
impurities in insulating oil. The specific resistance in ohm-cm of a liquid is the ratio of the DC -
potential gradient in volts per centimeter to the current density in ampere per square cm at a
given instant of time and under prescribed conditions. High resistance indicates good insulating
oil. Resistivity of oil is improved by filtration.

Flash Point
It is the minimum temperature to which oil must be heated so that it gives enough vapour which
can form a flammable mixture with the air under the prescribed conditions of the test. A
minimum value of flash point is specified in order to prevent the risk of fire that might result by
accidental ignition. Normally a flash point should be greater than 125
0
C