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You are on page 1of 13

Version 1.24

Wireless Communication Technologies Group, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersurg, !aryland"

INT#$%&CTI$N

The performance of a digital radio system, in terms of its bit error rate (BER) or probability of bit error (Pe), is related to the bit energy-

to-noise density ratio (Eb/No) at the receiver, here !noise! may incl"de interference in addition to the thermal noise generated in the

receiver# Theoretical analysis of system performance is based on post"lating a val"e for the signal-to-noise poer ratio ($NR) at the

receiver, hich can be converted to received Eb/No#

%hen assessing the act"al system performance in a partic"lar application, it is necessary to calc"late the act"al received $NR#

This calc"lation re&"ires a !lin' b"dget,! hich simply is a caref"l acco"nting of the vario"s terms in the folloing e&"ation for received

$NR e(pressed in dB "nits)

$NR(dB) * Received signal poer(dBm) - receiver noise poer(dBm)

* Transmitted poer (dBm) + ,in' gains (dB) - ,in' losses (dB) - Receiver noise poer (dBm)

here, as ill"strated in the

diagram, the lin' gains incl"de

antenna gains and the lin' losses

can be gro"ped into three cate-

gories) transmission losses (,t),

propagation loss (,p), and

reception losses (,r)#

-n the folloing or'sheets

of this spreadsheet or'boo', te(t

and macros for e(plaining and

entering the poer, gain, and loss

terms of the lin' b"dget e&"ation

are provided# The last or'sheet

then s"mmari.es the lin' b"dget

and calc"lates hether there is a

!b"dget s"rpl"s#! -ptions for

changing lin' b"dget parameters

/0T0

$-1R2E

Bit rate, R

b

2-/3N4 5

6-/1,0T3-N

$ymbol rate, R

s

TR0N$63TTER

-"tp"t poer, P

t

0NTENN0

0ntenna gain, G

t

Transmission losses, L

t

0NTENN0

0ntenna gain, G

r

RE2E37ER

$ymbol rate, R

s

/E6-/1,0T3-N

5 /E2-/3N4

Bit rate, R

b

/0T0

$3N8

N-3$E +

3NTER9EREN2E

Noise fig"re, NF, or noise

poer spectral density, N

0

Received E

b

/N

0

Propagation loss, L

p

Reception losses, L

r

to !balance the b"dget! are

s"ggested#

:This softare as developed by employees of the National 3nstit"te of $tandards and Technology (N3$T), an agency of the 9ederal

4overnment# P"rs"ant to title ;< 1ntied $tates 2ode $ection ;=<, or's of N3$T employees are not s"b>ect to copyright protection

in the 1nited $tates and are considered to be in the p"blic domain# 0s a res"lt, a formal license is not needed to "se the softare#

Permission to "se this softare is contingent "pon yo"r acceptance of the terms of this agreement and "pon yo"r providing appropriate

ac'noledgments of N3$T?s onership of the softare#

/isclaimer)

-----------

This softare is provided by N3$T as a service and is e(pressly provided @0$ 3$#A N3$T 608E$ N- %0RR0NTB -9 0NB 83N/,

ECPRE$$, 36P,3E/ -R $T0T1T-RB, 3N2,1/3N4, %3TD-1T ,363T0T3-N, TDE 36P,3E/ %0RR0NTB -9 6ER2D0NT0B3,3TB,

93TNE$$ 9-R 0 P0RT321,0R P1RP-$E, N-N-3N9R3N4E6ENT 0N/ /0T0 0221R02B# N3$T does not arrant or ma'e any

representations regarding the "se of the softare or the res"lts thereof, incl"ding b"t not limited to the correctness, acc"racy, reliability

or "sef"lness of the softare#

E"estions and comments to)

--------------------------

,# E# 6iller $DEET PR-TE2T3-N

%ireless 2omm"nications Technologies 4ro"p The or'sheets are protected "sing the passord

National 3nstit"te of $tandards and Technology (N3$T) !ln'bdg! in order to prevent accidental eras"re or

lmillerFnist#gov modification of the content#

7ersion history)

;#=; G/HH/=H 0dded !2lic' toI! on data entry b"ttonsJ corrected intro te(t

;#; G/HK/=H 3mplemented margin calc"lation for combined fading and shadoing

;#;; ;=/;=/=H Removed stray implementation data on ,in' ,osses page left over from previo"s editing

;#;H L/;M/=L Noted alternate definition of noise temperat"re

;#H ;;/H;/=L 2orrected Data form"las for !open! and !s"b"rban! (antenna height-gain not added)

;#H; ;H/;</=L 2orrected !large city! Data form"la (L#H factor on antenna height-gain, not L#;)

/0T0

$-1R2E

Bit rate, R

b

2-/3N4 5

6-/1,0T3-N

$ymbol rate, R

s

TR0N$63TTER

-"tp"t poer, P

t

0NTENN0

0ntenna gain, G

t

Transmission losses, L

t

0NTENN0

0ntenna gain, G

r

RE2E37ER

$ymbol rate, R

s

/E6-/1,0T3-N

5 /E2-/3N4

Bit rate, R

b

/0T0

$3N8

N-3$E +

3NTER9EREN2E

Noise fig"re, NF, or noise

poer spectral density, N

0

Received E

b

/N

0

Propagation loss, L

p

Reception losses, L

r

;#HH ;/H;/=N 6odified licensing and disclaimer information

;#HL </HO/=< 2orrected poer conversion form"las for poer entered in dBm

;#HN ;/;M/=O 0dded reminder to clic' on noise calc"lation if bandidth is changed

'ccounting of Signal, Noise, and Interference (o)ers

the val"es belo#

Transmit poer =#==H % H m% L#= dBm

constant and Tr is the receiver noise temperat"re in degrees 8elvin# Bolt.mannPs constant e&"als ;#LGE-HL Qo"les/R8#

3nstead of giving a noise temperat"re for a receiver, man"fact"rers more commonly give a factor, 9 * Tr / To, 'non: as

No * (;#LGE-HL):Tr * (N#=NLE-H;):9 J in dB, No(dB) * -;ML#K dB(m%/D.) + N9(dB)

mod"lator symbol rate, Rs, for a ide variety of p"lse shapes# The bit rate, Rb, is "s"ally loer than the symbol rate

beca"se of coding, repetition, spreading, etc

Rb('D.) Rs('D.)

K#O HN<M#O

3nterference, if ta'en to be noise poer independent of the signal, can be acco"nted for "sing an e&"ivalent interference

spectral poer density, 3o# $ince the total !noise! spectral poer density then is No + 3o * No(; + 3o/No), the interference

poer can be specified by the ratio 3o/No#

Noise temperat"re (R8) ;GNK

Noise fig"re (dB) G#=

Noise poer (dBm) -;=H#=

3nterference ratio (dB) -H#H

Note) if rates are changed, the noise poers need to 3nterference poer (dBm) -;=N#H

be recalc"lated by clic'ing above# Total noise poer (dBm) -;==#=

BER--is either specified directly as the !receiver sensitivity! or indirectly in the form of a re&"ired $NR val"e or a re&"ired

Eb/No val"e# Eb/No e&"als the $NR times Rs/Rb, the ratio of symbol rate to bit rate (processing gain)# 4iven the re&"ired

Transmit Power can be entered in "nits of atts (%), milliatts (m%), or decibels relative to ; m% (dBm)# 2lic' to enter or change

Noise Power at the receiver is referenced to the o"tp"t of the receiverPs front end matched filter# 3t is calc"lated as the prod"ct of the

receiver noise bandidth and the noise spectral poer density, No# The e&"ation for No is No * 'Tr, here ' is Bolt.mannPs

the noise figure hen e(pressed in dB "nits, here To * HKL R8# Th"s, in %atts/D.,

The noise bandwidth (e&"ivalent rectang"lar bandidth) at the front end of the receiver is appro(imately e&"al to the

Signal Power at the receiver inp"t--the minim"m val"e re&"ired to achieve some meas"re of comm"nications effectiveness s"ch as

2lic' to Enter Transmit Poer

2lic' to Enter Rates

2lic' to Enter N9, 3o/NoJ calc"late noise poers

$NR, the receiver sensitivity is simply the amo"nt of received poer necessary to res"lt in the re&"ired $NR val"e# 3f there

is interference in addition to thermal noise (3o/No S = above), the effect is to !desensiti.e! the receiver in that minim"m

val"e of signal poer has to be increased to overcome the combination of interference and noise#

Re&"ired Eb/No (dB) M#H

Re&"ired $NR (dB) -;L#K

Receiver sensitivity (dBm) -;;G#K

Receiver sensitivity ith

interference (dBm) -;;L#G

:6any te(tboo's define an effective noise temperat"re as Te * Tr To, so that 9 * ; + Te/To#

2lic' to Enter receiver sensitivity data

'ccounting of Link Gains

res"lts from the foc"sing of emitted poer in partic"lar directions rather than from an increase in the emitted poer#

Receiving antenna gain res"lts from the reciprocal effect of capt"ring more poer in certain directions than in others#

The reference for antenna gain is the (fictional) isotropic radiator, a point so"rceJ the poer theoretically transferred

antennas, the appropriate e&"ation for poer transfer in free space is

here 4t and 4r e(press the increase the increase in available poer for the non-isotropic case# 0ppropriately, these

&"antities are "s"ally given in "nits of dBi, or decibels relative to the val"e for an isotropic antenna#

The resonant half-ave dipole is often "sed as a standard of compar-

ison for other antennas, hether at one fre&"ency or over a very narro band of

fre&"encies# 0n antenna gain of ;#= (=#= dB) referenced to a dipole antenna

is e(pressed as a gain of =#= dBd# Note that the radiation pattern of a dipole,

as ill"strated to the right, is omnidirectional in the hori.ontal or a.im"thal plane,

b"t is directional in the vertical or elevation plane# 9or that reason, a short

dipole antenna has a slight gain of ;#MO dBi relative to an isotropic radiator#

Th"s, dBi * dBd + ;#MO#

9or lin' b"dget p"rposes, if a directional antenna is employed the antenna gain that is specified sho"ld be

the gain in the specific direction of the lin' beteen transmitter and receiver#

4t (dBi) ;=#=

4r (dBi) L#=

may enhance the receiver performance# The effect of s"ch gains is to red"ce the re&"ired Eb/No at the receiver inp"t#

1s"ally, these gains are already ta'en into acco"nt in specifying the val"e of Eb/No that is re&"ired# Doever, it can be

"sef"l to acco"nt for them separately# 1se the table belo to enter and to s"btotal any !other! gains#

Antenna gains at the transmitter and receiver are "s"ally the most significant gains on a radio lin'# Transmitting antenna gain

beteen to isotropic antennas separated by distance d in free space can be e(pressed by

Pr / Pt * (; / N dTH) : (TH / N) * ( / Nd)TH

here the first factor (; / N dTH) acco"nts for dil"tion of the spatial density of the transmitted poer as d increases

and the second term (TH / N) is the ma(im"m effective apert"re for an isotropic antenna# 9or act"al (non-isotropic)

Pr / Pt * 4t : 4r : ( / Nd)TH

Other gains at the receiver may contrib"te to the lin' b"dget# 9or e(ample, diversity reception, special coding, or array processing

2lic' to Enter antenna gains

Type of 4ain 7al"e in dB

Total !other! gains =#=

T-T0, 403N$ in dB ;L#=

'ccounting of Link Losses and !argin

antenna system# 0 typical val"e of cabling loss for a cell"lar base station is H dB#

,oss in dB H#=

terminal location relative to obstacles and reflectors, and lin' distance, among many other factors# 1s"ally

The estimate ta'es into acco"nt the sit"ation--line of sight (,-$) or non-,-$ (N,-$)--and general terrain

and environment "sing more or less detail, depending on the partic"lar model# $ee the N3$T o"tdoor

propagation calc"lator Prop2alc for a comparison of several empirical propagation loss models# Dere e

"se the ell 'non Data 6odel#

Transmitter antenna height (m) L=#=

Receiver antenna height (m) H#=

2enter fre&"ency in 6D. G<=

Environment $mall 2ity

a# 3ntercept (dB val"e at ; 'm) ;HN#< ,in' distance ('m) ;#<==

b# Poer la (slope / ;=) L#<H Propagation loss (dB) ;L=#M

By contrast, for free space the poer la is H#= and the intercept in dB is K;#=

is not 'non abo"t the lin', s"ch as hether there is shadoing of the signal by some hill or other obstacle

in the path from transmitter to receiver# 3f one or both terminals on the lin' are moving, a variation in terrain

ith time is ind"ced, and the shadoing is often referred to as !slo fading#! This "ncertainty is e(pressed

as a random amo"nt of positive or negative dB shadoing loss, modeled as a 4a"ssian random variable ith

a .ero mean and a specified standard deviation# 0 typical val"e of standard deviation for o"tdoor propagation

is sigma, * G dB# Th"s, prior to any !fast fading,! the total loss in absol"te "nits (not dB) is a lognormal

random variable#

4iven the lognormally atten"ated signal poer at a given distance from the transmitter, the signal

may e(perience !fast fading! in hich the envelope of the signal is m"ltiplied by a Rayleigh random variable,

Transmission losses may incl"de cabling losses and those d"e to any mismatches beteen the transmitter and the

Propagation loss is the largest and most variable &"antity in the lin' b"dget# 3t depends on fre&"ency, antenna height,

a statistical path loss model or prediction program is "sed to estimate the median propagation loss in dB#

Model output: dB loss intercept and poer la on a log-log plot of loss vs# distance) a + ;=:b:log;=(dU'm)

Shadowing/fade margin. 0fter calc"lation of the median propagation loss, there is left over an "ncertainty d"e to hat

the poer is m"ltiplied by a fading factor b that has "nit mean and an e(ponential distrib"tion#

The probability that the received $NR is greater than the median $NR val"e that is some margin

MdB * ;= log;=(M) dB more than its re&"ired val"e e&"als the probability that the propagation loss in dB is

more than 6dB dB belo its median val"e# Th"s the $NR is greater than threshold X percent of the time hen

2lic' to Enter Transmission ,osses

2lic' to Enter ,in' Parameters

{ }

1 /

, shadowing only

Pr E , shadowing and fading

100

, fading only

dB

G

L

dB

dB req b G

L

M

M

P

M X

SNR M SNR P

e

_

,

_

+ >

' ' ;

,

N#=

K=V

;;#<

no cable loss, b"t it is s"b>ect to other !scenario! losses s"ch as those d"e to orientation and b"ilding

penetration#

3mplementation losses in dB H#=

$cenario losses in dB ;H#=

T-T0, ,-$$E$ in dB) ;NO#M

This e&"ation can be solved for MdB# 9or e(ample if the desired reliability is C * K=V, then E * =#K and from a

table of the 4a"ssian distrib"tion e find that MdB/L * ;#HGH for shadoing only#

$td# /eviation in dB, L

Percentage of time, X

6argin in dB, M

Reception losses may incl"de cabling or other implementation losses at the receiver# Typically, a mobile receiver has

{ }

1 /

, shadowing only

Pr E , shadowing and fading

100

, fading only

dB

G

L

dB

dB req b G

L

M

M

P

M X

SNR M SNR P

e

_

,

_

+ >

' ' ;

,

2lic' to Enter reception losses

terminal location relative to obstacles and reflectors, and lin' distance, among many other factors# 1s"ally

The estimate ta'es into acco"nt the sit"ation--line of sight (,-$) or non-,-$ (N,-$)--and general terrain

and environment "sing more or less detail, depending on the partic"lar model# $ee the N3$T o"tdoor

propagation calc"lator Prop2alc for a comparison of several empirical propagation loss models# Dere e

is not 'non abo"t the lin', s"ch as hether there is shadoing of the signal by some hill or other obstacle

in the path from transmitter to receiver# 3f one or both terminals on the lin' are moving, a variation in terrain

ith time is ind"ced, and the shadoing is often referred to as !slo fading#! This "ncertainty is e(pressed

as a random amo"nt of positive or negative dB shadoing loss, modeled as a 4a"ssian random variable ith

a .ero mean and a specified standard deviation# 0 typical val"e of standard deviation for o"tdoor propagation

is sigma, * G dB# Th"s, prior to any !fast fading,! the total loss in absol"te "nits (not dB) is a lognormal

4iven the lognormally atten"ated signal poer at a given distance from the transmitter, the signal

may e(perience !fast fading! in hich the envelope of the signal is m"ltiplied by a Rayleigh random variable,

may incl"de cabling losses and those d"e to any mismatches beteen the transmitter and the

is the largest and most variable &"antity in the lin' b"dget# 3t depends on fre&"ency, antenna height,

median propagation loss in dB#

dB loss intercept and poer la on a log-log plot of loss vs# distance) a + ;=:b:log;=(dU'm)

0fter calc"lation of the median propagation loss, there is left over an "ncertainty d"e to hat

The probability that the received $NR is greater than the median $NR val"e that is some margin

) dB more than its re&"ired val"e e&"als the probability that the propagation loss in dB is

percent of the time hen

shadoing and fading

no cable loss, b"t it is s"b>ect to other !scenario! losses s"ch as those d"e to orientation and b"ilding

# 9or e(ample if the desired reliability is C * K=V, then E * =#K and from a

may incl"de cabling or other implementation losses at the receiver# Typically, a mobile receiver has

Summary $ptions

Transmit poer L#= dBm

4ains ;L#= dB !OR A POS"T"#$ S%RP&%S' (ou can

) ,osses ;NO#M dB - decrease the transmitter poer

* Received poer -;L=#M dBm - "se less directive antennas or a cheaper receiver

) Noise + interference poer -;==#= dBm - "se loer antennas or a longer lin' distance

* 6edian received $NR -L=#M dB

Processing gain HN#; dB

* 6edian received EbNo -O#O dB

) Re&"ired EbNo M#H dB !OR A N$+AT"#$ S%RP&%S' (ou can

* E(cess -;L#G dB - increase the transmitter poer

) 6argin ;;#< dB - "se more directive antennas or a better receiver

* $1RP,1$ -H<#N dB - "se higher antennas or a shorter lin' distance

/esired lin' reliability K= V

Effective lin' reliability = V

$pecified lin' distance ;#<== 'm

/istance for desired reliability =#HGO 'm

Reliability mode shadoing and fading

- "se less directive antennas or a cheaper receiver

- "se loer antennas or a longer lin' distance

- "se more directive antennas or a better receiver

- "se higher antennas or a shorter lin' distance

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