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Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models used to analyze the differences

between group means and their associated procedures (such as "variation" among and between
groups), developed by R.A. Fisher. In the ANOVA setting, the observed variance in a particular variable is
partitioned into components attributable to different sources of variation. In its simplest form, ANOVA
provides a statistical test of whether or not the means of several groups are equal, and therefore
generalizes the t-test to more than two groups. Doing multiple two-sample t-tests would result in an
increased chance of committing a type I error. For this reason, ANOVAs are useful in comparing (testing)
three or more means (groups or variables) for statistical significance.
The reason for doing an ANOVA is to see if there is any difference between groups on some variable.
For example, you might have data on student performance in non-assessed tutorial exercises as well as
their final grading. You are interested in seeing if tutorial performance is related to final grade. ANOVA
allows you to break up the group according to the grade and then see if performance is different across
these grades.
ANOVA is available for both parametric (score data) and non-parametric (ranking/ordering) data.
Analysis of variance, a statistical method in which the variation in a set of observations is divided into
distinct components.

What do you mean by ANCOVA?
Covariance is a measure of how much two variables change together and how strong the relationship is
between them. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is a general linear model which blends ANOVA and
regression. ANCOVA evaluates whether population means of a dependent variable (DV) are equal across
levels of a categorical independent variable (IV),
What is the importance of the Hypothesis?

Hypothesis supports the research to find and answer to a problem.
It is express in declarative form.
Hypothesis bridges the gap between theory and empirical inquiry.
It does not matter if the hypothesis is positive of negative toward to the research problem.
The most important is it will provide a guideline to the problem

What are the advantages & disadvantages of SPSS?
Advantages of SPSS
SPSS is the statistical package most widely used by political scientists. There seem to be
several reasons why:
SPSS has been around since the late 1960s. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences,
Of the major packages, it seems to be the easiest to use for the most widely used
statistical techniques
One can use it with either a Windows point-and-click approach or through syntax (i.e.,
writing out of SPSS commands
Many of the widely used social science data sets come with an easy method to translate
them into SPSS; this significantly reduces the preliminary work needed to explore new
Disadvantages of SPSS
There are also two important limitations that deserve mention at the outset:
SPSS users have less control over statistical output than, But, once a researcher
wants greater control over the equations or the output, she or he will need to either
choose another package or learn techniques for working around SPSS
Once a researcher begins wanting to significantly alter data sets, he or she will have
to either learn a new package or develop greater skills at manipulating SPSS.
Overall, SPSS is a good first statistical package for people wanting to perform quantitative
research in social science because it is easy to use and because it can be a good starting point to
learn more advanced statistical packages.
What are the Characteristics of hypothesis?
Characteristics of hypothesis
1) Hypothesis should be clear and precise
2) A good hypothesis is assumption or explanation of why or how something occurs
3) Hypothesis should be capable of being tested.
4) Hypothesis should state relationship between variables.
5) Hypothesis should be limited in scope and must be specific.
6) Hypothesis should be tested in most simple terms so that the same is easily
understandable by all concerns.
7) Hypothesis should be consistent with most known facts, in other words, it should be the
one which judges accept as being the most likely.
8) Hypothesis should be agreeable to testing with a reasonable time.
9) Hypothesis must explain the facts what it claims to explain. It should have empirical
Eg: Companies manufacturing washing machines spend at least 10% of their annual profits
on advertising.
What is Null Hypothesis?
A type of hypothesis used in statistics that proposes that no statistical significance exists in a set of given
observations. The null hypothesis attempts to show that no variation exists between variables, or that a
single variable is no different than zero. It is presumed to be true until statistical evidence nullifies it for
an alternative hypothesis.
It is identified by the symbol Ho
It is always stated that There is no significant difference between the samples.
If the H0 is false, something else must be true. That is called alternative hypothesis
It is identified by the symbol H1.
It should be clear that both Null and alternative hypotheses cannot be true and only one of them
must be true.
For any exercise, our conclusion must result into the acceptance of one hypothesis and rejection of
the other.
What is Alternative Hypothesis?
The alternative hypothesis, H1, is a statement of what a statistical hypothesis test is set up to establish.
For example, in a clinical trial of a new drug, the alternative hypothesis might be that the new drug has a
different effect, on average, compared to that of the current drug. We would write
H1: the two drugs have different effects, on average.

What is Type I Error?
Type I Error
In a hypothesis test, a type I error occurs when the null hypothesis is rejected when it is in fact true; that
is, H0 is wrongly rejected.
For example, in a clinical trial of a new drug, the null hypothesis might be that the new drug is no better,
on average, than the current drug; i.e.
H0: there is no difference between the two drugs on average.
A type I error would occur if we concluded that the two drugs produced different effects when in fact
there was no difference between them.
The following table gives a summary of possible results of any hypothesis test:
Reject H0 Don't reject H0
Truth H0 Type I Error Right decision
H1 Right decision Type II Error

What is Type II ERROR?
In a hypothesis test, a type II error occurs when the null hypothesis H0, is not rejected when it is in fact
false. For example, in a clinical trial of a new drug, the null hypothesis might be that the new drug is no
better, on average, than the current drug; i.e.
H0: there is no difference between the two drugs on average.
A type II error would occur if it was concluded that the two drugs produced the same effect, i.e. there is
no difference between the two drugs on average, when in fact they produced different ones.

Use in statistical analysis

Descriptive statistics provides simple summaries about the sample and about the observations that have
been made. Such summaries may be either quantitative, i.e. summary statistics, or visual, i.e. simple-to-
understand graphs. These summaries may either form the basis of the initial description of the data as
part of a more extensive statistical analysis, or they may be sufficient in and of themselves for a
particular investigation.
For example, the shooting percentage in basketball is a descriptive statistic that summarizes the
performance of a player or a team. This number is the number of shots made divided by the number of
shots taken. For example, a player who shoots 33% is making approximately one shot in every three.
The percentage summarizes or describes multiple discrete events. Consider also the grade point
average. This single number describes the general performance of a student across the range of their
course experiences.
The use of descriptive and summary statistics has an extensive history and, indeed, the simple
tabulation of populations and of economic data was the first way the topic of statistics appeared. More
recently, a collection of summarization techniques has been formulated under the heading of
exploratory data analysis: an example of such a technique is the box plot.
In the business world, descriptive statistics provides a useful summary of many types of data. For
example, investors and brokers may use a historical account of return behavior by performing empirical
and analytical analyses on their investments in order to make better investing decisions in the future.

What are the Statistical tools used in research?
Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics