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between group means and their associated procedures (such as "variation" among and between

groups), developed by R.A. Fisher. In the ANOVA setting, the observed variance in a particular variable is

partitioned into components attributable to different sources of variation. In its simplest form, ANOVA

provides a statistical test of whether or not the means of several groups are equal, and therefore

generalizes the t-test to more than two groups. Doing multiple two-sample t-tests would result in an

increased chance of committing a type I error. For this reason, ANOVAs are useful in comparing (testing)

three or more means (groups or variables) for statistical significance.

The reason for doing an ANOVA is to see if there is any difference between groups on some variable.

For example, you might have data on student performance in non-assessed tutorial exercises as well as

their final grading. You are interested in seeing if tutorial performance is related to final grade. ANOVA

allows you to break up the group according to the grade and then see if performance is different across

these grades.

ANOVA is available for both parametric (score data) and non-parametric (ranking/ordering) data.

Analysis of variance, a statistical method in which the variation in a set of observations is divided into

distinct components.

What do you mean by ANCOVA?

Covariance is a measure of how much two variables change together and how strong the relationship is

between them. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is a general linear model which blends ANOVA and

regression. ANCOVA evaluates whether population means of a dependent variable (DV) are equal across

levels of a categorical independent variable (IV),

What is the importance of the Hypothesis?

Hypothesis supports the research to find and answer to a problem.

It is express in declarative form.

Hypothesis bridges the gap between theory and empirical inquiry.

It does not matter if the hypothesis is positive of negative toward to the research problem.

The most important is it will provide a guideline to the problem

What are the advantages & disadvantages of SPSS?

Advantages of SPSS

SPSS is the statistical package most widely used by political scientists. There seem to be

several reasons why:

SPSS has been around since the late 1960s. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences,

Of the major packages, it seems to be the easiest to use for the most widely used

statistical techniques

One can use it with either a Windows point-and-click approach or through syntax (i.e.,

writing out of SPSS commands

Many of the widely used social science data sets come with an easy method to translate

them into SPSS; this significantly reduces the preliminary work needed to explore new

data.

Disadvantages of SPSS

There are also two important limitations that deserve mention at the outset:

SPSS users have less control over statistical output than, But, once a researcher

wants greater control over the equations or the output, she or he will need to either

choose another package or learn techniques for working around SPSS

Once a researcher begins wanting to significantly alter data sets, he or she will have

to either learn a new package or develop greater skills at manipulating SPSS.

Overall, SPSS is a good first statistical package for people wanting to perform quantitative

research in social science because it is easy to use and because it can be a good starting point to

learn more advanced statistical packages.

What are the Characteristics of hypothesis?

Characteristics of hypothesis

1) Hypothesis should be clear and precise

2) A good hypothesis is assumption or explanation of why or how something occurs

3) Hypothesis should be capable of being tested.

4) Hypothesis should state relationship between variables.

5) Hypothesis should be limited in scope and must be specific.

6) Hypothesis should be tested in most simple terms so that the same is easily

understandable by all concerns.

7) Hypothesis should be consistent with most known facts, in other words, it should be the

one which judges accept as being the most likely.

8) Hypothesis should be agreeable to testing with a reasonable time.

9) Hypothesis must explain the facts what it claims to explain. It should have empirical

reference.

Eg: Companies manufacturing washing machines spend at least 10% of their annual profits

on advertising.

What is Null Hypothesis?

A type of hypothesis used in statistics that proposes that no statistical significance exists in a set of given

observations. The null hypothesis attempts to show that no variation exists between variables, or that a

single variable is no different than zero. It is presumed to be true until statistical evidence nullifies it for

an alternative hypothesis.

It is identified by the symbol Ho

It is always stated that There is no significant difference between the samples.

If the H0 is false, something else must be true. That is called alternative hypothesis

It is identified by the symbol H1.

It should be clear that both Null and alternative hypotheses cannot be true and only one of them

must be true.

For any exercise, our conclusion must result into the acceptance of one hypothesis and rejection of

the other.

What is Alternative Hypothesis?

The alternative hypothesis, H1, is a statement of what a statistical hypothesis test is set up to establish.

For example, in a clinical trial of a new drug, the alternative hypothesis might be that the new drug has a

different effect, on average, compared to that of the current drug. We would write

H1: the two drugs have different effects, on average.

What is Type I Error?

Type I Error

In a hypothesis test, a type I error occurs when the null hypothesis is rejected when it is in fact true; that

is, H0 is wrongly rejected.

For example, in a clinical trial of a new drug, the null hypothesis might be that the new drug is no better,

on average, than the current drug; i.e.

H0: there is no difference between the two drugs on average.

A type I error would occur if we concluded that the two drugs produced different effects when in fact

there was no difference between them.

The following table gives a summary of possible results of any hypothesis test:

Decision

Reject H0 Don't reject H0

Truth H0 Type I Error Right decision

H1 Right decision Type II Error

What is Type II ERROR?

In a hypothesis test, a type II error occurs when the null hypothesis H0, is not rejected when it is in fact

false. For example, in a clinical trial of a new drug, the null hypothesis might be that the new drug is no

better, on average, than the current drug; i.e.

H0: there is no difference between the two drugs on average.

A type II error would occur if it was concluded that the two drugs produced the same effect, i.e. there is

no difference between the two drugs on average, when in fact they produced different ones.

Use in statistical analysis

Descriptive statistics provides simple summaries about the sample and about the observations that have

been made. Such summaries may be either quantitative, i.e. summary statistics, or visual, i.e. simple-to-

understand graphs. These summaries may either form the basis of the initial description of the data as

part of a more extensive statistical analysis, or they may be sufficient in and of themselves for a

particular investigation.

For example, the shooting percentage in basketball is a descriptive statistic that summarizes the

performance of a player or a team. This number is the number of shots made divided by the number of

shots taken. For example, a player who shoots 33% is making approximately one shot in every three.

The percentage summarizes or describes multiple discrete events. Consider also the grade point

average. This single number describes the general performance of a student across the range of their

course experiences.

The use of descriptive and summary statistics has an extensive history and, indeed, the simple

tabulation of populations and of economic data was the first way the topic of statistics appeared. More

recently, a collection of summarization techniques has been formulated under the heading of

exploratory data analysis: an example of such a technique is the box plot.

In the business world, descriptive statistics provides a useful summary of many types of data. For

example, investors and brokers may use a historical account of return behavior by performing empirical

and analytical analyses on their investments in order to make better investing decisions in the future.

What are the Statistical tools used in research?

Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics

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