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Ghemawat, P. (2011). The Cosmoploitan Corporation. Havard Business Review, 89(5),

In this article Ghemawat (2011) examines how global success requires that companies
appreciate diversity and distance rather than seek to eliminate them (p. 92). The author
presents statistics gained through research to demonstrate how the vast majority of
multinational corporations are deeply engrained within their home countries and how
this extends to all facets of the company including their respective customers,
employees, investors and suppliers. The authors idea of combatting this reality extends
to the adoption of a cosmopolitan approach by global organisations and their managers.
The scope of the article extended to international firms from both Western and Asian
markets. This article is useful to my research as it suggests that companies should
embrace an amalgamation of adjusting to, overcoming and exploiting differences
between counties. Ghemawat (2011) accentuates that given hostility toward
globalisation, emphasis upon adaption to difference is likely preferable. The main
limitation of this article is that some given statistics and arguments are presented as the
authors observational guess, as opposed verified research. For the multinational
corporation, in order to combat such issues as cultural division and the threat of
protectionism, the author concludes that firms should reorganise their companies to
adapt to local markets while educating leaders who have ability to bridge cultural and
national differences. This article will be used as a basis for my research due to its focus
on the encouragement of cultivated managers and cultural diversity within international


Shen, J., & Lang, B. (2009). Cross-cultural training and its impact on expatriate
performance in Australian MNEs. Human Resource Development International,
12(4), 371-386. doi: 10.1080/13678860903135763
In this article Shen and Lang (2009) examine cross-cultural training (CCT) policies
and practices in terms of provision, mode of delivery and level or rigor, and the relative
effects of different CCT programmes on expatriates in Australian multinational
enterprises (MNEs) (p. 371). The authors use a qualitative approach by interviewing
five Australian MNEs on their use of CCT programmes and its effect on the
assimilation of expatriates in international subsidiaries. The scope of the study focuses
upon Australian cross-cultural training and its contribution to current research. The
article is useful to my research as it suggests there are multiple facets of CCT that
enable an expatriate to achieve cultural adaptation and thus satisfaction within the host
country. The two main limitations of this article extend to both the small sample of
MNEs who participated in the study and the narrow geographic scope of the research,
which was limited to companies based within South Australia. In conclusion, the
authors highlight that the development of short-term assignments should be used as a
primary form of CCT for potential expatriates with no previous international experience
and that the effectiveness of CCT programs rely on a well-tailored approach. The
authors suggest that further research is required into the effect of different CCT
programs on expatriates using both quantitative and qualitative techniques. This article
will be used as a basis for my research due to its focus on CCT and how it facilitates the
transition of expatriates into international management roles.

McPhail, R., Fisher, R., Harvey, M., & Moeller, M. (2012). Staffing the Global
Organization: Cultural Nomads. Human Resource Development Quarterly,
23(2). doi: 10.1002/hrdq.21133
In this article McPhail, Fisher, Harvey and Moeller (2012) present a conceptual model
of types of expatriates and explore key decision making points along their potential
evolution into global staff (p. 259). The authors use an abstract approach to challenge
global staffing issues by presenting a model on four types of expatriates observed in
todays modern multinational corporation. The study encompasses staffing implications
for global organisations, focussing on how these firms are required to manage
expatriates, flexpatriates, propatriates and globpatriates separately in order to retain
them as international managers. The article is useful to my research as it highlights de-
identification of repatriates who often find the transition back to their home countries
difficult, if they have positively assimilated within their host country over an extended
period of time. The main limitation of the article was that it was of a conceptual nature,
without providing any data. Given future proposed research for the model, the authors
stressed that these issues would be addressed. The authors conclude the article by
stating that their proposed model should provide both global companies and their
international human resource managers with the tools in understanding the issues of
staff retention by assessing the type manager that they overseeing and whether it would
be more beneficial to bring them home or to keep them abroad. This article will be used
as supplementary material for my research given its emphasis on expatriate assimilation
and de-identification within a host country.


Schermerhorn, J. R., Davidson, P., Poole, D., Woods, P., Simon, A., & McBarron, E.
(2014). Management (5th Asia Pacific ed.). Queensland, Australia: John Wiley
& Sons Australia, Ltd.

In Chapter 4 of Management, Schermerhom et al. (2014) highlights how it is important
to identify the potential merits of management practices in other countries and the ways
cultural variables may affect their success or failure when approached elsewhere (p.
113). The authors conceptualise topics and choose to utilise a multitude of current
examples in order to explore all facets of international management including
challenges associated with multinational corporations. The scope of the chapter extends
to all multinational corporations within the major trading and business sectors. This
book is useful to my research as it highlights how cultural and global diversity is an
important management tool for both multinational corporations and their directors, in
order to align both personal and work-related values. The main limitation of the chapter
is that it fails to go into further detail on gender and its role in culture and internal
business, although it was briefly mentioned in the five dimensions of Hofstede. The
authors conclude that management practices may not necessarily be universal, but the
identification and understanding of cultural differences is important to any multinational
enterprise. The book will not form the basis of my research but will facilitate in the
understanding of cultural diversity and its place in international business.