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- Designing DC-DC Converters Based on ZETA Topology
- Tủ nguồn Delta -48V
- Kenwood_KAC-9103D
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control of electrical power using high

efficiency electronic circuits The key

functional element in power electronics is

called a switching converter.

This lecture describes the basic functions

performed by switching converters and it

introduces how high efficincy electronic

circuits

can be constructed that realize these

functions.

The switching converter generally includes

two input terminals.

One is the power input.

Where the, where a source is connected.

The second input is a control input that

tells the converter how to process the

input power

to produce the output.

Dc to Dc conversion is a common function

performed by converters.

In which the voltage of the DC is changed

and possibly regulated.

So we may change a, say a high-input

voltage into a low DC output voltage.

Rectification is the converstion of AC to

DC.

And in the process we may

want to control the output voltage, the DC

output voltage.

And, and maybe also the AC input current

waveform.

The inverse of rectification is called

inversion, in which we have a DC

input, and we produce an AC output of a

controllable frequency and magnitude.

AC to AC cycloconversion.

Involves changing the frequency and

the amplitude of, of the AC voltage.

In each of these, the switching converter

is the key electronic power processing

element, and it is composed of electronic

devices as well as reactive

elements and we attempt to, to build this

with very high efficiency.

Control is invariably required.

[COUGH]

we usually want to regulate the output

voltage.

We may, although, we may want to control

currents or other

quantities, so we're generally also

building some kind of control system.

That adjusts the control input to the

converter, for example, to regulate the

output.

We can do this with either traditional

analog

feedback or nowadays it's economically

feasible to use

quite sophisticated control using digital

micro-controllers.

High efficiency is essential in any

application that involves very much power.

We want high efficiency nowadays, of

course, because we want to conserve

energy.

But in addition to that it's simply not

possible and not economically feasible.

To process large amounts of power with low

efficiency because our convertor

will, will not be able to handle the heat

from the power lost.

So here's the equation for efficiency.

It's the ratio of output power to input

power.

And the loss is the difference between the

input and output power, which we

can express in terms of the output power

and the efficiency in this way.

Now, our switching converters are loss

limited.

They're limited by the amount of heat

sinking

that we have and the size of the

enclosure.

And so for a loss limited converter with a

given an efficiency, this

limits the amount of output power that,

that the converter can produce.

So, if we can build a converter

with higher efficiency, then we can either

reduce

the the loss and build a smaller

converter, with smaller heat sinks, or

for the same amount of heat sinking, we

can get more output power.

And build a converter that produces more

power.

So a measure of how good the converter

technology is

really is the ratio of the output power to

the efficiency.

And here it's expressed in terms of

efficiency.

We can solve for

this quantity and it turns out to be

efficienty divided by 1 minus efficiency.

And it's plotted here, and so you can see

that even increasing the

efficiency by a few percent can increase

the amount of output power or

reduce or increase the ratio of output

power to loss substantially, and so our

goal is to produce efficiencies that

approach one which, which makes the ratio

of output power to loss approach infinity.

So, the higher we can get on this curve,

the smaller our

converter can be, and the more input and

output power it can produce.

So this drawing here is meant to, to

represent a

very small size converter with very large

input and output converters.

So we have a very small converter with

very high efficiency.

The processes is a very large amount of

electric power.

How do we build a, a circuit that changes

the voltage with high efficiency?

Here's a, diagram of general, the

different

categories of electrical circuit elements

that we have.

Resistors, capacitors, magnetics, inc,

including

transformers and inductors, and

semiconductor

devices that here are generally grouped

into two, two categories.

The first is linear-mode transistors, such

as class A amplifiers or off-amp

circuits, and the second is switched-mode,

which is transistors that are operated.

As on-off devices, such as in a digital

circuit, where

they're either all the way on or all the

way off.

In signal processing, such as you probably

learned in undergraduate electronics and

circuits courses,

we usually avoid magnetics well, we don't

have to, but magnetics generally are more

expensive.

Their hard to integrate on integrated

circuits, and most engineers

don't know how to design them and so for a

variety of reasons, we usually ignore or,

avoid magnetics.

But resistors and capacitors are fine,

linear

and switch mode semiconductors are also

common.

In power processing by contrast what we

want

to do is avoid using elements that consume

power.

So for that reason we don't want to use

resistors.

However, capacitors and magnetics are

fine, and

in fact.

It may be easier in a high power

application to build

a good inductor than it is to build a good

capacitor.

But, we commonly use inductors,

capacitors, transformers and other

elements because

although they store energy, they don't,

ideally they don't consume power.

And we can get that stored energy back at

some later time.

We avoid linear mode

transistors for the same reason that we

avoid resistors

with a class A amplifier for example

operates with

a transistor having voltage across it and

current through

it at the same time and so it consumes

power.

On the other hand, switched mode.

Transistors or transistors that are

operated as on-off switches are, are good.

they don't consume power.

The reason for that is if we can get them

to operate close to the behavior of

an ideal switch, then what happens is when

the

switch is closed, there's no voltage

across the switch.

And when the switch is open, there's no

current through the switch and in either

state the power consumed by the switch

which

is the product of origin current is zero.

So to the extent that we can make a

semi-conductor

device operate as an ideal switch, like

this

we, the, the semi-conductor device will be

lossless.

So let's do a simple example of how to

build a

DC-DC converter with high efficiency and

using just inductors, capacitors, and

switches.

Okay, so I'm going to take simple

examples, some round numbers here.

We have

an input voltage I've labeled V g.

That is a power source.

And it has, it's a 100 volts.

And what we would like to do is change

this

100 volts into 50 volts to supply a

resistive load.

And just for some round numbers, let's

suppose the resistance is five ohms.

So that we have ten amps flowing through

our load.

Okay?

So how can this converter be realized?

First of all, let's ask how you, you know

beginning circuits class,

what ciricuits do you know that could

change 100 volts into 50 volts.

Okay, well the resisted voltage divider is

one of

the first circuits taught usually in a

beginning circuits class.

And we learned that the, the output

voltage of the divider is

equal to this voltage divider ratio of the

load resistance over the

sum of the two resistances times the input

voltage, so if we

adjust this added resistor, to be the same

value as our load resistor,

we get a divider ratio of a half And the

output voltage will be half of the input.

Okay?

The problem with this is that the same

current flowing to the load also flows

through this

resistor and the same power in the load

then is equal to the power in this

resistor.

And so we will have our ten amps flowing

through the resistor.

That has 50 volts across it, so they'll be

500 watts of loss in this resistor.

There's 500 watts going to the

load and we draw 1000 watts out of each E,

so the efficiency is only 50%.

At low power levels, it's common to

build a series pass regulator circuit,

that operates

almost in the same way as the resist

voltage divider, except, instead of

resistor we put

a transistor that operates in the active

region, And it has the same voltage across

it that the resistor on the previous slide

had, so it dissipates the same 500 Watts.

When the series pass regulator with the

transistor

allows us to do is to build a feedback

loop that adjusts

the control or the drive of the transistor

to regulate the output voltage.

but in this example, the series pass

regular is approximately 50% efficient.

So, we need, a very large transistor that

can take 500

watts, and that has enough heat sinking to

dissipate that 500 watts,

which is not an easy thing to do.

Let's consider instead how to do this

function e, with switches.

So, instead of an active region transistor

we will

use a semi-conductors that are operated

like on-off switches.

And here I'm going to draw an ideal

switch, but we will realize

this switch in practice with transistors

and diodes that turn on and off.

So, let's suppose we have such a switch.

We switch it quickly between

positions one and two, so that the voltage

coming out of

the switch network from here to here, Vs

sub-t, has this waveform.

So when the switch is in position one, the

voltage,

Vs, is equal to the input voltage, Vg, of

100 volts.

When the switch is in position two the

output voltage is zero, and we will

operate

the switch so half of the time it's in

position one, and the other half it's

in position two.

Okay, what do we accomplish with this?

While a switch changes the DC voltage

level,

[COUGH].

So here's the, this actual waveform coming

out of the switch.

We can use Fourier analysis to find its DC

component.

And you may recall from Fourier analysis

that the DC component of a waveform.

Is found by integrating the wave form over

one period, and then dividing by the

period.

So if you integrate this wave form, the

integral is the area under this curve,

which is,

what, this width?

Dts times the height, Vg, so we get an

area.

Of DTsVg and if you divide by the ts then

what we find for the dc component is that

it, it

is d times Vg or d is the duty cycle or

the fraction of time that the switch is in

position one.

Okay, so if the switch is in position one

for half of the time, the duty

cycle is a half and the out, the output

voltage of the switch has a dc

component that is half of the input.

So the switch succeeds, then, in changing

the DC component

of the voltage from 100 volts down to 50

volts.

Generally, we don't like to have that

switched voltage appear

across our load, so we will put a low-pass

filter,

and here's an L C low-pass filter that can

be

put in that If we design this filter

correctly, so the

cutoff frequency is much lower than the

switching frequency, this filter will

pass the DC component, but it will reject

the switching frequency in

its harmonics and not let them pass

through to the load, so

that the output voltage is smooth and

essentially is just the DC component.

Of 50 volts, so this a circuit that, can

change

the DC voltage and it does it with

components that are

ideally lossless, only switches, inductors

and capacitors, so it can

have effeciences that approach 100%.

this is known as the Butt converter.

Here is one way to realize the switch

using transistors and diodes.

We have an, a power mosfet and a power

diode that's switched together.

and I've also shown here a feedback

circuit, say

a simple analog feedback circuit, that

adjusts the duty cycle.

It, it actually turns the transistor on

and off and adjusts it's duty cycle.

To regulate the output voltage.

So this is a buck regulator.

It's possible to build converters that

will

change any voltage into any other voltage.

Here's an example of a boost converter.

that can increase the voltage.

So we can build circuits that

contain inductors, capacitors and switches

connected in

different ways that can actually change

any

voltage into any other voltage, as

desired.

Here's another example of a single

phase inverter.

Here we have two single pole double throw

switches.

With the load and filter connected

differentially between their outputs, so

that

the voltage, differentially, between the

two switch outputs, looks like this, can

switch between plus Vg when the switches

are in position one, or

minus V, Vg when the switches are in

position two, and by changing

the duty cycle, we can change the average

value.

And we can actually modulate the duty

cycle

sinusoidally and make a sine wave of

output voltage.

If we like, if we want to produce say a dc

to ac inverter.

Okay.

So, in this course you are going to learn

how to

build these converter circuits, how to

analyze them and model them.

To, for example, predict their

efficiencies and also how to design and

model their control systems.

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