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Bolted Joints and Threaded Fasteners

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7. Selection of Thread Systems


There is a large number of thread systems in existence and it is beyond the scope of this Guide to
discuss them in detail. Table 7.1 gives a brief comparison of ISO Metric Coarse with British
Association (BA) British Standard Fine (BSF), British Standard Whitworth (BSW), Unified Coarse
(UNC) and Unified Fine (UNF).
The student designer is advised to consider ISO Metric Coarse series to be the current first choice
for all new designs and to regard the other systems listed above as obsolete or obsolescent.
The user is advised to avoid threaded fasteners specified to inch dimensions except for British Standard
Pipe thread which is widely used in the hydraulic industry and which can be used for hydraulic
connections and plugs.
If the threaded fastener cannot be selected from the ISO Metric Coarse series then the ISO Metric
Fine and Constant Pitch series may provide a solution but these series must be regarded as very
expensive alternatives in most cases. It should be noted that standard ranges of fasteners are
normally not produced to these alternative series.

7.1 Screw thread forms


7.1.1 Basic form. The basic ISO form of thread is shown by the heavy outline in Figure 7.1.

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7.2 Selection of metric screw threads (B.S. 3643)


The form of the I.S.O. metric screw thread is shown in Figure 7.1. The basic form is exactly the same as
the Unified (American Inch) thread form. (The pitch to diameter ratio of the I.S.O. coarse screw thread
is equivalent to the B.S.F. series and NOT to the Whitworth inch series.)
In practice all standard fasteners (bolts, screws, set screws etc.) will be of the metric COARSE series
with graded pitches. ONLY THE NOMINAL SIZES SHOWN IN TABLE 7.2 SHOULD BE USED.
For a table showing all sizes and pitches see BS 18 section 4 table 2.
The I.S.O. FINE series provides a very fine pitched screw and is used only for aircraft and instrument
making. It is impractical to tap I.S.O. FINE threads in soft metals. For large diameter threads (72150mm) the 2mm. constant pitch series should be used. For even larger diameters (150-250mm.) the
3mm. constant pitch series should be used. Standard tooling is universally available to manufacture the
above thread series only.
7.2.1 Classes of Fit
British Standard. BS.3643 provides for three classes of fit - Fine, Medium and Coarse, for precision,
general and hot/dirty/corrosive conditions respectively. For medium fits the tolerance grades for the
effective dia for both external and internal threads are 5, 6 or 7, while tolerance positions are H for
internal threads and 'g for external threads. (See SEED Design Procedural Guide GEN 1 for
explanation of 'Limits and Fits').
7.2.2 Designation of metric threads
To dimension a thread on a drawing use the following designation (See also BS308, Pt 2, Section 6.9).

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Table 7.2 Metric Threads: BS 3643.


Dimensions in mm DRG

NOMINAL PITCH
CORE
SIZE
DIAMETER

MAJOR
DIAMETER

STRES TAPPING
S AREA
DRILL
MM2
'B"

CLEARANCE
E DRILL
'A'

TAPPING DRILL
DEPTH DEPTH
'C'
'D'

M3
M4
M5
M6
M8
M10

0.50
0.70
0.80
1.00
1.25
1.50

2.40
3.40
4.00
4.80
6.50
8.16

3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
10.0

5.0
8.8
14.2
20.1
36.6
58.0

2.5
3.3
4.2
5.0
6.8
8.5

3.4
4.5
5.5
6.6
9.0
11.0

4
5
6
8
10
12

6
9
10
12
16
19

M12
M14
M16
M18
M20
M22

1.75
2.00
2.00
2.50
2.50
2.50

9.85
11.55
14.55
15.63
16.93
18.93

12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
22.0

84.3
115.0
157.0
192.0
245.0
203.0

10.2
12.2
14.0
15.8
17.5
19.8

14.0
16.0
18.0
22.0
26.0
24.0

15
17
20
22
24
27

23
26
28
33
35
37

M24
M27
M30
M33
M36

3.00
3.00
3.50
3.50
4.00

20.32
23.32
25.70
28.71
31.09

24.0
27.0
30.0
33.0
36.0

353.0
259.0
561.0
694.0
817.0

21.0
24.3
26.5
30.0
32.0

26.0
29.0
33.0
35.0
39.0

29
33
36
40
44

42
45
51
54
60

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M39
M42

4.00
4.00

34.09
36.48

Page 5 of 11

39.0
42.0

769.0
1120.0

35.5
37.5

41.0
45.0

47
51

63
69

Table 7.3 Hexagon and Cap Head Screws: (Dimensions in mm)


PRECISION HEX HEAD BOLTS (BS EN24016)
and SCREWS (BS EN 24017)

SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS


(BS 4168 part 1)

NOMINAL
SIZE

HEAD
DEPTH
nominal

WIDTH ACROSS
FLATS
max

WIDTH ACROSS
CORNERS
min

HEAD
DEPTH
max

HEAD DIAMETER
max without
knurling

ALLEN KEY
SIZE A/F
nominal

M3
M4
M5
M6
M8
M10

2.0
2.8
3.5
4.0
5.3
6.4

5.5
7.0
8.0
10.0
13.0
16.0

6.08
7.74
8.87
11.05
14.38
18.90

3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
10.0

5.5
7.0
8.5
10.0
13.0
16.0

2.5
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0

M12
*M14
M16
*M18
M20
*M22
M24
M27
M30
M33

7.5
8.8
10.0
11.5
12.5
14.0
15.0
17.0
18.7
21.0

18.0
21.0
24.0
27.0
30.0
34.0
36.0
41.0
46.0
50.0

21.10
24.48
26.75
30.14
33.53
35.72
39.98
45.63
51.28
55.80

12.0
14.0
16.0
18.0
20.0
22.0
24.0

18.0
21.0
24.0
27.0
30.0
33.0
36.0

10.0
12.0
14.0
14.0
17.0
17.0
19.0

*:- NON-PREFERRED SIZE


Table 7.4 Socket set screws metric series to BS 4168 (Parts 2-5)
Dimensions in mm

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HEX
SOCKET
SIZE 'J'

HEX
KEY
DEPTH
'K'

CUP POINT
DIA.
'H'

Page 6 of 11

CONE POINT
90 deg. FOR
THESE
LENGTHS AND
OVER: 120
FOR SHORTER
LENGTHS
'Y'

NOM
SIZE
D

min
nom
M3
M4
M5
M6
M8
M10
M12
M16
M20
M24

1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00

max min
1.20
1.50
2.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
4.80
6.40
8.00
10.00

1.40 1.15
2.00 1.75
2.50 2.25
3.00 2.75
5.00 4.70
6.00 5.70
8.00 7.64
10.00 9.64
14.00 13.57
16.00 15.57

4
5
6
8
10
16
16
20
25
30

FLAT
POINT
DIAMETER
'V'

DIAMETER
'P'

max min

max min

2.00
2.50
3.50
4.00
5.50
7.00
8.50
12.00
15.00
18.00

1.75
2.25
3.20
3.70
5.20
6.64
8.14
11.57
14.57
17.57

DOG POINT LENGTH


'Q'
short series long seris

2.00
2.50
3.50
4.00
5.50
7.00
8.50
12.00
15.00
18.00

1.75
2.25
3.20
3.70
5.20
6.64
8.14
11.57
14.57
17.57

max
1.00
1.25
1.50
1.75
2.25
2.75
3.25
4.30
5.30
6.30

min
0.75
1.00
1.25
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00

max

min

1.75
2.25
2.75
3.25
4.30
5.30
6.30
8.36
10.36
12.43

1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00

Table 7.5 Dimensions of slotted and recess countersunk head screws


Dimensions in mm

GENERAL

SLOTTED HAD To BS
EN ISO 2009

RECESSED HEAD To BS
EN ISO 7046-1

THREAD

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NOMINAL
SIZE &
THREAD
DIA.

HEAD
DIA.
Max.
'D'

HEAD
HGT
Max.
'k'

LENGTH

WIDTH OF
SLOT
Nom.
'n'

DEPTH OF
SLOT
Max.
't'

RECESS
AND DRIVER POINT
NUMBER

M1.6

3.00

1.00

M2

3.80

1.20

15.0

0.40

0.50

16.0

0.50

0.60

M2.5

4.70

M3

5.50

1.50

18.0

0.60

0.75

1.65

19.0

0.80

0.85

M4

8.40

2.70

22.0

1.20

1.30

M5

9.30

2.70

25.0

1.20

1.40

M6

11.3

3.30

28.0

1.60

1.60

M8

15.8

4.65

34.0

2.00

2.30

M10

18.3

5.00

40.0

2.50

2.60

'B'

* Threaded up to head only

Table 7.6 Lengths of metric bolts LENGTH (mm)


LENGTH
mm)

DIAMETER
M3

M4

M5

M6

M8

M10

M12

M16

M20

CV

CV

CV

CV

10

CV

CV

CV

CV

CV

12

CV

CV

CV

CV

CV

CV

16

CV

CV

CV

CVH

CVH

20

CV

CV

CV

CVH

CVH

CVH

CVH

25

CV

CV

CVH

CVH

CVH

CVH

30

CV

CV

CVH

CVH

CVH

CVH

CH

35

CVH

CVH

CVH

CVH

CVH

40

CVH

CVH

CVH

CVH

CVH

CV

45

CV

CH

CVH

CVH

CH

CV

50

M24

CV

CH

CVH

CVH

CVH

CVH

CH

55

CV

CH

CH

CH

CH

CH

60

CH

CH

CH

CH

CVH

CH

65

CV

CH

CH

CH

CH

CH

70

CV

CH

CH

CH

CH

CVH

CH

75

CV

CH

CH

CH

CH

CH

80

CH

CH

CH

CVH

CH

90

CH

CH

CH

CVH

CH

100

CH

CH

CH

CVH

CH

110

CH

CH

120

CH

CH

CH

CH

130

CH

140

CH

150

CH

CH

KEY

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C = CAP HEAD SCREWS


H = HEX. HEAD SCREWS
V = C/SUNK HEAD
SCREWS
Table 7.7 Typical Dimensions of Spanners and Sockets
Dimensions in mm

SPANNER
NOMINAL
SIZE

WIDTH
ACROSS
FLATS

SOCKET

DIMENSION
'A'

THICKNESS

DIMENSION
'B'

DIMENSION
'C'

DIMENSION
'D'

M6
M8
M10
M12

10.0
13.0
16.0
18.0

5.0
5.5
6.0
6.0

7.5
10.0
12.5
16.0

14.0
20.0
22.0
27.0

20.0
28.0
32.0
28.0

15.0
19.0
25.0
26.0

M14
M16
M18
M20

21.0
24.0
27.0
30.0

6.5
6.5
7.0
7.0

17.0
17.0

30.0
32.0

41.0
46.0

30.0
32.0

20.0

37.0

55.0

43.0

M22

34.0

26.0

4.50

66.0

50.0

NOTE: Ring spanners will generally be 1 - 2 mm larger in diameter than corresponding sockets.

Table 7.8 Metric Washers


SPRING WASHERS To BS 44664
NOMINAL
SIZE

INSIDE
DIAMETER
'A' Max.

OUTSIDE
DIAMETER
'B' Max.

THICKNESS
'C' Nom.

BRIGHT PLAIN WASHERS To BS 4320


INSIDE
DIAMETER 'A'
Min.

OUTSIDE
DIAMETER'B'
max.

THICKNESS
Normal range
'C' Nom.

M3
M4
M5
M6
M8

3.3
4.35
5.35
6.4
8.55

5.5
7.0
8.6
9.6
12.8

1.0
1.2
1.5
1.5
2.0

3.2
4.3
5.3
6.4
8.4

7
9
10
12-25
17

0.5
0.8
1.0
1.6
1.6

M10

10.6

15.9

2.5

10.5

21

2.0

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M12
M14
M16
M18

12.6
14.7
16.9
19.0

17.9
21.1
24.3
26.4

2.5
3.0
3.5
3.5

13.0
15.0
17.0
19.0

24
28
30
34

2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0

M20
M22
M24
M27
M30
M33
M36
M39
M42

21.1
23.3
25.3
28.5
31.5
34.6
37.6
40.8
43.8

30.5
32.7
35.7
38.9
43.9
47.0
52.1
55.3
60.3

4.5
4.5
5.0
5.0
6.0
6.0
7.0
7.0
8.0

21.0
23.0
25.0
28.0
31.0
34.0
37.0
40.0
43.0

37
39
44
50
56
60
66
72
78

3.0
3.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
5.0
5.0
6.0
7.0

WIDTH
ACROSS
CORNER
'B' max.

THICKNESS
OF BLACK
NUT 'D'
max. to BS
EN 24032
Style 1
Grade
A&B

Table 7.9 Metric Nuts


Dimensions in mm

NOM PITCH
SIZE
'C'

WIDTH
ACROSS
'FLATS
'A' max.

THICKNESS OF
HEX.
THICKNESS OF
NUT 'D' max. to
THIN
SLOTTED NUT
BS EN24033
NUT
'F'
Grades A
'E' To BS
To BS 7764
&B
EN
24035

DEPTH OF
LOWER
FACE TO
SLOT
BOTTOM
'G'

SLOT
WIDTH
'H'

M3
M4
M5
M6
M8

0.50
0.70
0.80
1.00
1.25

5.5
7.0
8.0
10.0
13.0

6.3
8.1
9.2
11.5
15.0

2.4
3.2
4.7
5.2
6.8

5.1
5.7
7.5

1.8
2.2
2.7
3.2
4.0

5
6
7.5
9.5

3.2
4.0
5.0
6.5

1.2
1.4
2.0
2.5

M10
M12
M14
M16
M18

1.50
1.75
2.00
2.00
2.50

17.0
19.0
22.0
24.0
27.0

18.5
20.8
24.2
27.7
31.2

8.4
10.8
1.8
14.8
15.8

9.3
12.0
14.1
16.4
-

5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0

12
15
16
19
21

8
10
11
13
15

2.8
3.5
3.5
4.5
4.5

M20
M22
M24
M27
M30
M33
M36
M39
M42

2.50
2.50
3.00
3.00
3.50
3.50
4.00
4.00
4.50

30.0
32.0
36.0
41.0
46.0
50.0
55.0
60.0
65.0

34.6
39.2
41.6
47.3
53.1
57.7
63.5
69.3
75.1

18.0
19.4
21.5
23.8
25.6
28.7
31.0
33.4
34.0

20.3
23.9
28.6
34.7
-

10.0
11.0
12.0
13.5
15.0
16.5
18.0
19.5
21.0

22
26
27
30
33
35
38
40
-

16
18
19
22
24
26
29
31
-

4.5
5.5
5.5
5.8
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
-

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Table 7.10 Installation Information for ISO Metric Fasteners

Clearance Hole Diameter


(Medium Fit Series BS EN 20273)

F Counter-bore Diameter for Hex Head bolt


to enable socket wrench access

Clearance Hole Diameter


(Free Fit Series BS EN 20273)

G Counter-Bore Depth to avoid Head


Protrusion to allow for standard steel
washer

Counter Bore Diameter for Screws to


Socket Head Cap Screw

H Counter-Bore Diameter for Counter-Sunk


Head avoid Head Protrusion

Counter-Bore Depth for SHCS to avoid


Head Protrusion

Spot-Face Diameter for Hex. Head Bolt

J Counter-Bore Depth
K Minimum Plate thickness
(SHCS socket head cap screws)

THREAD A
B
SIZE
Medium Coarse

M3

3.4

3.6

6.0

3.5

12

3.5

7.4

2.0

2.5

M4

4.5

4.8

7.5

4.5

10

15

4.5

9.7

2.6

3.2

M5

5.5

5.8

9.0

5.5

11

16

5.5

11.7

3.1

4.0

M6

6.6

7.0

10.6

6.5

13.5

18

6.5

13.8

3.6

5.0

M8

9.0

10.0

14.0

.5

18

23

8.0

18.6

4.8

6.3

M10

11.0

12.0

17.0

11.0

22

26

10.0

23.0

6.0

8.0

M12

13.5

14.5

20.0

13.0

25

29

11.5

28.0

7.0

9.0

M14

15.5

16.5

23.0

15.0

29

33

12.5

31.0

7.5

9.5

M16

17.5

18.5

26.0

17.0

31

36

14.0

34.0

8.0

10.0

M20

22.0

24.0

32.0

21.0

38

46

17.0

40.0

9.0

12.5

M24

26.0

28.0

38.0

25.0

45

53

20.0

M27

30.0

32.0

43.0

28.0

51

60

23.0

M30

33.0

35.0

48.0

31.0

57

66

26.0

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M36

39.0

42.0

57.0

Page 11 of 11

37.0

69

80

32.0

All dimensions in mm

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