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Divided into
5.1 MITOSIS
Cell division
Process by which a cell, called the parent cell, divides into two cells, called daughter
cells.









Mitosis
A process of nuclear division which produces two genetically identical daughter
nuclei.

The significance of mitosis
1. Replaces dead cells. E.g skin cells
2. Repaired and replaced damaged cells.
3. Basis of asexual reproduction in unicellular organism. binary fission
4. Increases the number of cells in all living organisms, thus, allowing growth and
development in multicellular organism.
5. Results in the formation of two daughter nuclei which are genetically identical to
each other and to parent nucleus. The nuclei contain the same number of
chromosomes, same genetic material as parent nucleus. This is to ensure that
the daughter cells perform the same function as the parent cell.


Nuclear division cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis)
Cell division (2 stages)
Mitosis
Meiosis
Chromosome:
A thread-like structure which composed of a long and linear DNA molecule that carries
genes in a linear sequence which determines the individual characteristics of an organism.
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Chromosomes and chromosomal number
1. Two type of cells in sexually reproducing organism
a. Somatic cell
- Comprise all the cells in an organism, except for the reproductive cell
- Formed through mitosis
b. Reproductive cells formed through meiosis
2. Chromosomes are found in nucleus.
3. The number of chromosomes present in the cells of each species of an individual
organism is constant.
a. All individuals of the same species have the same chromosomal number but
the cells of individuals of a different species have a different chromosomal
number.
b. For example,
- Onions have 16 chromosomes.
- Fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has 8 chromosomes.
- Human has 46 chromosomes.


4. The gametes contain only half the number of chromosomes (single set). The
chromosomal number is said to be haploid and is designated as n.
5. In human, one set of chromosomes consists of 23 chromosomes.
6. All somatic cell have two sets of chromosomes. Our somatic cells have 46
chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs while each gamete only has 23 chromosomes.
7. The presence of two sets of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell is known as
the diploid number of chromosomes (2n).
Male chromosome set Female chromosome set
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8. Each pair of the chromosomes is referred as homologous chromosomes. They
have same structural features.

Mitosis
Definition:
Process of nuclear division
Formation of two daughter cells
Two daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent cell
Maintains the chromosomal number of species
Ensures genetic material is passed on to the offspring

Cell cycle:
The period that extends from the time a new cell is produced until the time the cell
completes a cell division.

2 major phases:
a. Interphase
G1 (Growth phase 1)
S phase (DNA synthesis)
G2 (Growth phase 2)

b. Mitotic cell division (M Phase)
Mitosis
i. Prophase
ii. Metaphase
iii. Anaphase
iv. Telophase
Cytokinesis

Interphase:
- Interphase accounts for about 90% of the cell cycle.
- Interphase is also the stage at which the cell grow larger and prepare for cell
division

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Interphase Description
G
1
(gap or growth phase) Begins to acquire and synthesis the materials
required for cell division.
Synthesis new organelles and proteins, cells
grow larger
Metabolic rate of the cell is high.
Crucial phase: the cell will decide whether o not
to divide and complete the cycle to form new
cells
Chromosomes at this stage are known as
chromatin.
S phase DNA undergoes replication.
A duplicated chromosome consists of two
identical sister chromatids = 2 identical DNA
double helices
G
2
Cell continues grow and remains metabolically
active.
Enzymes and proteins are synthesized for cell
division
Cell accumulates energy and completes its final
preparations for division.


















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Mitotic Cell Division (M Phase):
Prophase
















Chromosomes condense, become shorter,
thicker and visible under light microscope
Each chromosome consists of two sister
chromatids joined together at the
centromere
In the cytoplasm, spindle fibres begin to
form between the centrioles
Each pair of centrioles migrates to the
opposite poles of cell
The spindle fibres are attached to the
centromeres of each sister chromatid
In plant cells, spindle forms without the
presence of centrioles
Nucleolus disappears and nuclear
membrane disintegrates at the end of
prophase.

Metaphase










All the chromosomes line up at the
metaphase plate with the centromeres
attached to the spindle fibres.
The spindle fibres are now fully formed
The two sister chromatids of each
chromosome are still attached to each other
at the metaphase plate
Metaphase ends when the centromeres
divide





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Anaphase










The two sister chromatids of each
chromosome separate at the centromere
The daughter chromosomes are pulled
apart to the opposite poles by shortening of
the spindle fibre.
Once separate, the chromatids are referred
to as daughter chromosomes
Anaphase ends when the chromosomes
reach the poles of the cell
Telophase












two sets of chromosomes reach opposite
poles.
Chromosomes start to uncoiled and revert
to their thin and extended state (chromatin).
Spindle fibres disappear.
New nuclear membrane forms around each
set of chromosoms.
Nucleolus re-forms in each nucleus.


Cytokinesis
- Cytokinesis is the process of cytoplasmic division
- It usually begins before nuclear division is complete
Cytokinesis in animal cell Cytokinesis in plant cell
Actin filaments in cytoplasm
contract to pull a ring of the plasma
membrane inwards, forming a
groove called the cleavage furrow
The cleavage furrow pinches at the
equator of the cell
The cleavage furrow deepens
progressively until the cell
Vesicles collect at the equator
between the two nuclei
The vesicles join to form a cell
plate
The cell plate grows outwards
until its edges fuse with the
plasma membrane
New cell walls and plasma
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separates into two daughter cells







membranes are formed from the
contents of the cell plate
Cell plate divides the cell into two
daughter cells
Cellulose fibres are produced by
the cells to strengthen the new
cell walls


Controlled mitosis
1. The cell cycle is controlled by genes of the chromosomes. Each type of cell
has its own timing and rate of cell division. The ability of the cell to divide at
its own rate and timing is called controlled mitosis.
2. Mitosis ensures that the genetic content and the number of chromosomes in
the parent cells are maintained in the daughter cells from one generation to
the next
3. The rate and timing of cell division are important for normal growth,
development and maintenance of the organism.
4. For example:
- Regenerate a lizards lost tail
- Heals skin in a wound.
5. Cell with different division frequencies:
- Skin = throughout lifespan
- Liver = replace damaged & injured tissues
- nerve & muscle = do not divide once mature



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Uncontrolled mitosis
1. Uncontrolled mitosis is the situation where cells undergo uncontrolled
division when the gene that regulate the cell cycle are mutated or damaged.
2. When a cell divides by mitosis repeatedly, without control and regulation, it
can produce cancer cell.
3. Cancer (disease) caused by uncontrolled mitosis
4. Cancer cells compete with other normal cells to obtain sufficient nutrients
and energy for their own growth.
5. A cancer cell will divide uncontrollably to form a tumour (abnormal mass of
cells)
6. a) Benign tumour- remain at the original site, do not cause serious problem,
can be removed.
b) Malignant tumour invasive, spread to other to neighbouring tissue,
impairing the functions of one or more organs.
7. Cancer can caused by many factors such as:
- damage of DNA
- Change in genes (mutation) that control cell division.
- radioactive rays (X-rays, ultraviolet rays and gamma rays)
- Carcinogenic compound, e.g. formaldehyde

Normal cells Cancerous cells
Controlled growth Uncontrolled growth
A single-organised layer Multi-layered and disorganised
Nuclei and number of
chromosomes are normal
Nuclei and number of chromosomes
are abnormal
Cells are differentiated and carry
out specialized functions
Cells are undifferentiated and do not
carry out specialised functions.

The application of knowledge of mitosis in cloning
The knowledge of mitosis is applied in cloning and the tissues culture technique.



Cloning
The process of producing clones or genetically identical organisms through
asexual reproduction.

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1. Many unicellular organisms and plants can reproduce asexually through mitosis
to produce clones.
2. The clones share the same genetic content and chromosomal number with one
another as well as with the parent organism.

Cloning of animal
1. Somatic cells (from the mammary gland) are removed from a donor and grown in
a low culture medium.
2. The starved cells stop diving and enter a non-dividing phase.
3. An unfertilized egg cell is obtained. The nucleus is sucked out, leaving the
cytoplasm and organelles without the chromosomes.
4. An electric pulse stimulates the fusion between the somatic cell and the egg cell
without nucleus.
5. The cell divides to form embryo.
6. The embryo is then implanted into a surrogate mother. (the same breed of sheep
as the ovum donor sheep)
7. The sheep that is born is identical to somatic cell donor sheep.















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1. The main purpose of tissues culture is to produce plant and animal cells
through asexual reproduction
2. Each cell has the full genetic potential to form all parts of a mature organism.
3. Different parts of plant that can be cultured include young shoots,
meristematic tissues, leaves, roots, seeds, embryo, cells and protoplasm.

Technique of tissue culture:
1. Small piece of tissues called explants are taken from the parent plant (leaf, shoot,
bud, stem or root)
2. The explants are sterilised to prevent the growth of pathogens,
3. Each sterile explants is placed onto a growth medium/culture medium
( containing nutrients and hormones)
4. The explants are incubated in a suitable temperature and at optimum pH level for
several weeks.
5. The explants divide by mitosis to produce callus ( an undifferentiated mass of
tissue)
6. The callus develop into an embryo
7. The embryo develops into a plantlet which can later be transferred to the soil for
growth into an adult plant.

Cloning
Advantages Disadvantages
Multiply copies of useful genes & clones The resistance of clones towards
diseases and pests is the same. If a
clone is affected with a disease /
attacked by pests, then all the clones
will also be affected ad die.
Tissues culture
The growth of tissues of living organisms in a suitable and sterile culture
medium, containing nutrients and growth hormones.

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Clones can be produced in a shorter
time and in larger numbers
If the external environment changes, the
clones will be destroyed as cloning is
carried out under controlled
environment.
Cloned plants can produce flowers and
fruits within a shorter period.
Clones may disrupt the natural
equilibrium of an ecosystem.
Cloning prevent endangered species
from extinction
The clones do not show genetic
variation
Cloning involves vegetative
reproduction which does not need
pollinating agents
For reasons still unknown, cloned
animals have a shorter lifespan











5.2 MEIOSIS
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The Significance of meiosis
1. Meiosis (meio=reduce) is the process of nuclear division that reduces the number
of chromosomes in daughter cells to half that of the parent cell.
2. Meiosis produces haploid gametes. The gametes contain half the number of
chromosomes of the parent cell.
Each gamete receives only one chromosome from every pair of homologous
chromosome
3. Meiosis I begins with a single diploid (2n) parent cell and the end of meiosis II, four
haploid (n) daughter cells are produced, each genetically distinct from the other and
from the parent cell.












4. During sexual reproduction, the fusion of two gametes restores the complete
numbers of chromosomes and genetic material, forming a diploid zygote. The
offspring inherit trait from both parents to ensure continuation of life.
Sexual reproduction

sperm (n) ovum (n)


diploid zygote (2n)





THE STAGES OF MEIOSIS
2n
n
n
n
n
n
n
Parent cell 2 haploid cells Gamete cells
M
E
I
O
S
I
S

I
M
E
I
O
S
I
S

II
Organism Chromosomal
number
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
(yeast)
32
Zea mays (corn) 20
Felis domesticus (cat)
38
Gallus gallus (chicken) 78
Orvis aries (sheep) 54
Musca domestica(housefly) 12

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Meiosis consists of two separate nuclear divisions: meiosis I and meiosis II
a) Meiosis I
Meiosis I is preceded by interphase.
PROPHASE I
1. The chromosomes begin to condense. They
become shorter, thicker and clearly visible.
2. Homologous chromosomes come together to form
pairs of bivalents through a process called
synapsis.
Each bivalent consists of a four-part structure
called a tetrad. A tetrad consists of two
homologous chromosomes
3. Crossing over
Non-sister chromatids exchange segment of
DNA
crossing over result in new combinations of
genes on a chromosome.
Chiasma the point at which segments of
chromatids cross over.
4. Spindle fibres radiate from the centrioles.
5. The two pairs of centrioles move to the opposite
poles of the cell.
6. The nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear.


METAPHASE I
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1. The homologous chromosomes are lined up side
by side as tetrad on the metaphase plate.
2. One chromosome of each homologous pair is
attached to the spindle fibres from one pole while
its homologue is attached to the spindle fibres
from opposite pole

ANAPHASE I
1. The spindle fibres pull the homologous
chromosomes away from one another and move
them to the opposite poles.
2. Each chromosome still consists of two sister
chromatids
3. Although the cell started with four chromosomes,
only two chromosomes move towards each pole.
(based on diagram / question)
TELOPHASE I
1. The chromosomes arrive at the poles.
2. Each pole has a haploid daughter nucleus (contain
only one set of chromosomes)
3. The spindle fibres disappear.
4. The nuclear membrane reappears to surround
each set of chromosomes. The nucleolus then
reappears in each nucleus.









b) Meiosis II
Cytokinesis
Occurs simultaneously with telophase I, resulting in two haploid daughter cells.
For most organisms, there is no interphase between meiosis I and meiosis II
Another cell division is required because the chromosomes are still duplicated
Chromosomes remain in a condensed state.

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The stages of meiosis II are identical to mitosis which results in the
separation of sister chromatids.
PROPHASE II


1. The nuclear membrane disintegrates
2. The spindle fibres reform in each daughter cell
.





METAPHASE II
1. The chromosomes (still made up of two sister
chromatids) line up randomly at the metaphase
plate.
2. Each sister chromatid is attached to the spindle
fibres at the centromere.



ANAPHASE II
1. The centromeres of the sister chromatids separate
2. The sister chromatids of each chromosome are
now individual chromosomes.
3. Each individual chromosomes moves to the
opposite poles of the cell






TELOPHASE II
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1. The spindle fibres disappear
2. The nucleoli and nuclear membrane re-form.
3. Cytokinesis follows and four haploid daughter cells
are formed. (contain half the no. of chromosomes)
4. Each haploid cell is genetically different from
parent diploid cell. These haploid cells become
gametes.









THE IMPORTANCE OF MEIOSIS
1. Meiosis ensures that the diploid number of chromosomes is maintained
from one generation to the next.
2. Meiosis provides for genetic variation which occurs from one generation to
the next.
Meiosis leads to genetic recombination
crossing over (prophase I)
Independent assortment (metaphase I) The homologous
chromosomes is arranged independently and randomly at the
metaphase plate of the cell. The paternal or maternal
chromosomes may be oriented to face either one of the poles.






COMPARISON BETWEEN MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS
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Mitosis Similarities Meiosis
1. Nuclear division happen
2. DNA replicates only once.
Mitosis
Differences
Aspects/events
Meiosis
All somatic cells Type of cell Cells in the reproductive
organs
Produces new cells for growth
and repair
Role Produces gametes for
sexual reproduction
Synapsis does not occur Synapsis Homologous chromosomes
pair up to form bivalents.
Crossing over between non-
sister chromatids does not
occur during prophase
Crossing over Crossing over between non-
sister chromatids occur
during prophase I
The individual chromosomes
are arranged randomly at the
metaphase plate
Metaphase of
mitosis/ Metaphase
I of meiosis
Homologous chromosomes
line up side by side at the
metaphase plate
Sister chromatids separate to
move to the opposite poles

Anaphase of
mitosis/ Anaphase I
of meiosis
- Homologous
chromosomes separate
to move to the opposite
poles.
- The sister chromatids still
remain attached to each
other
One Number of cell
divisions
Two
Two daughter cells





Number of
daughter cells
produced at the
end of the division
Four daughter cells
(gametes)
Diploid (2n)/ the same number Chromosomal Haploid (n)/ half the number
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of chromosomes as the parent
cell

number of the
daughter cells
of chromosomes of the
parent cell

Genetically identical to the
parent cell and to one another
Genetic content Different from the parent cell
and form one another
No genetic variation in any
generation
Genetic variation There is genetic variation
from one generation to the
next.


5.3 APPRECIATING THE MOVEMENT OF CHROMOSOMES DURING MITOSIS
AND MEIOSIS
1. The ability of organisms to reproduce ensures the continuity of life.
2. The organisms reproduce through mitotic or meiotic cell division is to ensure
the survival of each species from one generation to the next.
3. Asexual reproduction through mitotic division produces offspring that are
identical to the single parent; sexual reproduction through meiotic division
produces genetic variation in offspring.
4. If meiosis does not occur properly, the gametes formed will have an abnormal
number of chromosomes. As a result, the zygote that is formed later would
become abnormal.
Exp: down syndrome (2n = 47 chromosomes)