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Note: Edexcel Unit 4 and 5 encompasses material found in both Unit 1 and Unit 2 (synoptic).

This pack does not cover the


material found in the latter two units and so should be used in conjunction with the packs that were designed for those
units. Do not forget that a scientific article is published every year which you will be required to read and answer questions
on in the exam.


Difference in muscle fibres 3.7.2

Slow-twitch Fast-twitch
Colour Dark red/ brown Pale white
Myoglobin More Less
Mitochondria More Less
Capillaries More Less
Kerb cycle enzyme
content
High Low
Glycogen content Low High
Resistance to fatigue High Low
Type of respiration
involved in
Aerobic Anaerobic
Creatine phosphate Low High
Sarcoplasmic
reticulum
Little Extensive

Muscle is made up of myofibrils lying parallel to each other.
Each myofibril is made up of sarcomeres.
Actin and myosin are proteins that make up a large part of the sarcomeres.
The cytoplasm of myofibrils is called the sarcoplasm.
There are a lot of mitochondria to provide energy.
The sarcoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes that stores and releases calcium
ions.
Slow muscle fibres in athletes
Endurance athletes exercise for long periods of time;
Respire / release energy aerobically;
Or too much lactate would accumulate;
Slow twitch fibres adapted to aerobic metabolism;
As have many mitochondria;
Site of Krebs cycle;
And electron transport chain;
Much ATP formed;
Also are resistant to fatigue;

Short-distance athletes (fast muscle)
ref to fast twitch muscle fibres;
ref creatine phosphate / eq in these fibres;
ref to storage of ATP;
idea that energy obtained from ATP (from creatine phosphate);
idea that athlete would need to respire anaerobically;
ref to glycolysis producing atp rapidly;
idea that glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm;
idea of some aerobic respiration because of oxygen present;
description of lactate fermentation:
(-Pyruvate obtained from glycolysis is reduced to lactate)
(-This regenerates NAD by oxidising the reduced NAD formed in glycolysis)
(-The NAD can then be re-used so glycolysis can continue and form ATP)


The contraction of muscle with its components 3.7.3

Function of Calcium ions
reference to {calcium ions / eq} released by sarcoplasmic reticulum ;
activate myosin / cause myosin to hydrolyse ATP ;
bind to / cause change in shape of troponin ;
cause tropomyosin to detach from actin filament / expose binding site (in actin) ;

Function of actin
reference to shape producing myosin binding sites ;
myosin globular heads fit / eq ;

Function of myosin
reference to globular heads (on the polypeptide chains) ;
reference to ATP on these heads ;
reference to phosphates ;
idea that head may be able to act as ATPase enzyme ;

Troponin
attached to tropomyosin ;
ref to 3 sub units ;
ref to binding properties;
(one binds to actin, one to tropomyosin, one to calcium ions)

Tropomyosin
Long chain / eq ;
covers the myosin binding sites ;
on actin ;

Muscle contraction*
Calcium ions bind to troponin;
Remove blocking action of tropomyosin / exposes actin binding sites;
ATP allows myosin to join / bind to actin / form cross-bridge;
allows sliding of the actin & myosin filaments;
Re-cocks myosin cross bridge / allows detachment from actin (due to binding of ATP);
Enables calcium ions to be pumped back in;
hydrolysis of ATP releases energy / eq;
which changes configuration of myosin head / eq;
Phosphocreatine allows regeneration of ATP without respiration;
Phosphocreatine releases Pi to join ADP;

Sliding filament hypothesis
tropomyosin covers binding site on actin;
calcium ions remove tropomyosin;
myosin binding sites exposed on actin;
binding / calcium ions increase ATPase activity;
breaks down ATP yielding energy;
used to re-cock myosin head;
ATP attachment cause actomyosin head to break /ATP required for separation of actin and
myosin/cross bridges;

#2
Myosin & actin filaments slide over one another;
idea that sarcomere contracts;
ref to simultaneous contraction;
idea that myofibrils / muscle fibres contract;
idea that sarcomere returns to original length at relaxation;
A-bands stay the same length, I-band gets shorter, H-zones get shorter, sarcomere overall
gets shorter (at contraction)




Structure of a sarcomere
A / dark band is mainly due to myosin (thick) filaments;
H zone only myosin filaments;
darker band has both types of filament;
light band has only actin (thin) filaments;


Visual representation of muscle sarcomere




Muscle movement 3.7.4
Antagonistic muscle action
motor area of brain involved;
impulses from brain;
idea of antagonistic muscles;
One muscle contracts; (accept correct reference to extensor muscles)
reference to sliding filaments in correct context;
Other muscle relaxes; (accept correct reference to flexor muscles)
action of lever explained in terms of muscle, joint and bone

Tendons
Attach muscles to bones

Ligaments
(connective tissue that) attaches bones to bones

Joints
ref to contraction/relaxation of muscles to move bones

Skeleton It is made up of bone. It is strong and hard. Made up of bone cells embedded in a matrix
of collagen and calcium salts. It is strong under compression but not dense. This is to reduce the
weight moved about

Tendon vs ligaments
tendons join muscle to {bone / another muscle} whereas ligaments join bone to bone ;
at the joint, tendons move bone whereas ligaments restrict movement of bones / eq ;
tendons are less elastic than ligaments / eq ;

Inelasticity of tendons
(tendons) attach muscle to bone / eq ;
do not stretch when muscle contracts / all force transferred to bone / eq ;
so { bone / skeleton } is moved / eq

Why muscles need to be antagonistic
idea that muscles cannot extend themselves ;
need opposing muscle to extend / eq ;
antagonistic muscle allows control (of movement) / eq

Respiration reaction 3.7.5
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 +6H2O + ATP
Glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy

Phosphorylation of ATP 3.7.6
ref to energy from glucose;
ref to ADP + the inorganic phosphate / eq ;
energy (from glucose) stored phosphate bonds ;
ref to ATP synthase ;
idea that ATP diffuses to cells needing energy;
ref to hydrolysis breaking down ATP;
energy released from bonds;
ref to ATPase;

Glycolysis 3.7.7
Phosphorylation of {substrate / glucose} / eq ;
To activate the glucose / make the glucose reactive ;
ATP then phosphorylates glucose;
Formation of fructose {biphosphate / diphosphate / 6C sugar} ;
(phosphorylated sugar) split into two {three-carbon sugar phosphates / triose phosphates /
GALP} ;
(then) converted to pyruvate by {oxidation / dehydrogenase / dehydrogenation / removal of
hydrogen} ;
Produces reduced NAD ;
(net) 2 ATP (formed for each sugar phosphate) ;
Occurs in the cytoplasm;
Reduced NAD goes to oxidative phosphorylation;*
Pyruvate goes to link reaction then the krebs cycle in oxygen;
Pyruvate undergoes lactate fermentation without oxygen;
*
1. Transfers electrons / H+ / hydrogen (ions), to electron transfer
chain / FAD ;
2. Reference to inner membrane of mitochondrion / cristae ;
3. Oxidative phosphorylation ;
4. Generation of ATP (from ADP) ;

Krebs cycle 3.7.9 (simple mark scheme)
reference to involvement of 6C, (5C) and 4C compounds ;
CO2 formed / reference to decarboxylation / eq ;
ATP formed / eq ;
reference to dehydrogenation ;
reduced {NAD / FAD / coenzyme} produced ;
reference to substrate level phosphorylation ;
idea of 4C compound used to regenerate 6C compound (which allows cycle to continue) ;

CGP mark scheme
Acetyl coA (from link reaction) combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate
Coenzyme returns to link reaction for re-use
6C citrate converted to 5C
Decarboxylation and dehydrogenation occurs
Hydro used to produce NAD from FAD
5C molecule converted to 4C
Decarboxylation and dehydrogenation occur to produce 1 FAD and 2 NADH
ATP made when phosphate directly transferred to the constituent ADP (substrate-level
phosphorylation)
The citrate is then converted to oxaloacetate (regeneration of 6C from 4C)

Link reaction
pyruvate {decarboxylated / eq} ;
hydrogen joins (from pyruvate) to NAD to reduce it ;
pyruvate acetate ;
acetate {combines / joins with / eq} coenzyme A;
ref to formation of acetyl coenzyme A;
ref to products (two acetyl coenzyme A, two CO2 molecules, two reduced NAD);
no ATP made ;




Oxidative phosphorylation 3.7.10
(H+ ions) from reduced NAD / eq ;
H+ ions pumped into inter membrane space / eq ;
reference to energy needed (for pump) (from electron carrierss) / eq ;
reference to movement of electrons along ETC /eq;
(ETC on) inner membrane / cristae;
H+ ions follow diffusion gradient / eq ;
ref to ATP synthase;
idea that this causes an energy change or makes energy available ;
ATP is formed when inorganic phosphate joins ADP/ eq ;
idea that this occurs on stalked particles ;
ref to chemiosmosis (movement of H+ ions across a membrane to generate ATP) ;


Electron transport chain
electrons/hydrogen combine with NADH or FADH // hydrogen atoms/electrons released by
NADH/FADH as theyre oxidised to form NAD/FAD
electrons passed through series of carriers;
idea of oxygen being final acceptor;
H+ / protons passed into intermembrane space;
H+ / protons flow back through stalked particles/enzyme;
energy released in transfer;
energyused to make ATP;
from ADP and inorganic phosphate/ using ATPase

Chemiosmosis
NADH and FADH2 contain stored chemical energy
Energy is used to pump H+ ions into the mitochondrial membrane, against a concentration
gradient
The inner membrane is impermeable to protons creating a concentration, electrochemical
and pH gradient
H+ leaves the envelope through ATPase proteins. The energy generated is used to
phosphorylate ATP






Why oxygen is needed in ETC/Oxidative phosphorylation
ATP formed as electrons pass along transport chain;
oxygen is terminal electron acceptor / accepts electrons from electron transport chain;
electrons cannot be passed along electron transport chain if no O2 to accept them;
forms H2O / accepts H+ from reduced NAD/FAD / oxidises reduced NAD/FAD;

How mitochondria supply energy for muscles

the final product of glycolysis enters mitochondrion
ATP is the energy source (for muscle contraction) / eq ;
correct ref to role of {mitochondrial membranes / eq} ;
ref to ATP produced in {(mitochondrial) matrix / Krebs cycle} ;
{NADH / reduced NAD/ FADH/reduced FAD} transfers {H+ / electrons} to the ETC
hydrogen splits into H+ and electrons ;
correct ref to {proton gradient / chemiosmosis} ;
electrons are passed from one carrier to the next from higher to lower energy levels / eq ;
ATP produced from ADP and Pi / ref oxidative phosphorylation ;
mitochondria only work in aerobic conditions

Fate of lactate 3.7.11
reference to lactate in the blood / eq ;
{transported to / broken down in / eq} liver ;
lactate is {converted to pyruvate / eq} ;
this involves {oxidation / production of reduced NAD / eq} ;
pyruvate is then {oxidised / eq} ;
reference to Krebs cycle ;
{this requires extra oxygen / reference oxygen debt} / eq ;
idea that carbon dioxide and water are produced ;

Heart 3.7.11

Muscle contraction
reference to {Sinoatrial node / SAN} ;
initiates heart beat & depolarisation / eq ;
passes through (wall of) atria / eq ;
causes atrial {systole / eq} ;
impulse sent to AVN & conducts to ventricles / eq ;
AVN allows atria to fully allow blood to be emptied;
Impulse sent through {Purkyne fibres / bundle of His} ;
ventricular {systole / eq} follows (from apex) / eq ;
atrioventricular valves closed (and prevent flow to atria) ;
semilunar valves opened by pressure / eq ;
blood forced into arteries / eq ;
changed pressure in {diastole / eq} closes semilunar valves ;
Myogenic
idea that stimulation generated from within (muscle) e.g. no external stimulation ;
idea of brings about depolarisation ;


ECG

The peak at p represents an atrial systole. A wave of depolarisation has been sent from the
SAN causing the atria to contract.
The time between P and the QRS complex is known as the PR interval. During this time, the
impulse is at the atrioventricular node. This delay allows for atria to completely empty blood
into the ventricles
The electrical impulse travels from the bundle of his to the Purkyne tissue. The Purkyne
tissue passes the impulse to ventricles, and the ventricles contract base up. This is known as
the ventricular systole. The QRS complex represents the ventricular systole.
The T wave represents the rapid repolarisation of the Purkyne tissue in the ventricles. This is
also known as diastole.

How ECGs can aid the diagnosis of CVDs and other heart conditions
An ECG is used to investigate the rhythms of the heart by producing a record of the electrical
activity of the heart. The depolarisation in the heart causes tiny little electrical changes on
the surface of the skin. Electrodes attached to the skin measure these changes.
Usually, when an ECG is taken, the patient is lying down. However, some heart conditions
are only shown when the patient is exercising. Therefore, during a stress test, the patient is
exercising.

Tachycardia
Heart rates beats too fast
Heart cant pump blood efficiently

AVN problems
The ventricles will not contract (although the atria will)
Impulses do not travel from atria to ventricles
Fibrillation
Irregular heart beat
Contraction of atria and ventricles not correct

Ventilation etc. 3.7.12

Tidal Volume The volume of air that enters and leaves the lings at each natural resting breath

Ventilation Rate Tidal volume X frequency of inspiration It is a measure of the volume of air
breathed in per minute

Calculating mean tidal volume and mean breathing rate from graph




For tidal volume, take the peak of a wave and subtract the bottom from it (so for points marked
above, 4.7-2.5 = 2.2). For the breathing rate, take a specified amount. For example, in questions they
may ask to find out the mean breathing rate during 30 seconds count the number of breaths (so 10
or 10.5). Divide that by 30 and multiply by 60 to get the breathing rate (20 or 21). Else, count the
entire breaths given in the diagram for 60 secs.


Physiological effects of exercise
faster and deeper breathing, which increases the rate at which oxygen enters the blood in
the lungs and carbon dioxide leaves it
faster and stronger heart beat, which increases the rate at which blood moves through the
blood vessels, delivering oxygen to muscle tissues and removing carbon dioxide and lactate
from them

The control of heart rate
Adrenaline causes SAN to increase its rate of contraction
Action potential sent across motor neurone (part of sympathetic nervous system) from the
cardiovascular centre to the brain (medulla) to the SAN
The neurone releases neurotransmitter (norandrenaline) which further raises SAN
contraction rate
Reasoning: CO2 concentration in blood rises; this decreases pH; the low pH stimulates
cardiac centre to generate higher frequency of action potentials along sympathetic nerve

Further information

The cardiovascular centre in the medulla controls the heart rate.
Chemical and stretch receptors in the lining of blood vessels and chambers of the heart send
impulses to the cardiovascular centre
Nervous control of the heart is autonomic and is divided into the sympathetic and
parasympathetic nervous systems. Sympathetic is excitatory and parasympathetic is
inhibitory.
Impulses travelling down the sympathetic nerve increase the frequency of impulses from the
SAN. The parasympathetic does the opposite.


Heart response to low oxygen content in muscles
Blood vessels in muscles secret nitric oxide
Arteriole walls relax and dilated so will carry more blood
Blood returns to right atrium faster
Muscle in atrial walls stretch
So heart contracts with more force and SAN contracts faster

The control of ventilation rate
Nerve impulses sent from ventilation centre to medulla oblongata in brain to muscles in
diaphragm and intercostal muscles
They contract rhythmically
Stretch receptors in lungs (stimulated in inhalation) send impulses to ventilation centre
This information is used to regulate breathing rate
Chemoreceptors in ventilation centre and aortic body sense pH fall, which is caused by more
CO2 in the blood
Another set of chemoreceptors in the walls of the carotid arteries, called carotid bodies,
sense oxygen concentration, as well as carbon dioxide concentration, in the blood
Nerve impulses are sent from the aortic body and carotid bodies to the ventilation centre,
and this then sends impulses to the breathing muscles, causing them to contract harder and
faster.
This increases the rate and depth of breathing.

Breathing rate rising (mark scheme)
concentration of carbon dioxide in the {alveoli / lungs / eq} is higher / eq ;
concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood is higher / eq ;
idea of pH of blood falls (due to increased CO2)) ;
(CO2 / pH levels in blood) detected by chemoreceptors ;
in {carotid body / carotid artery / aortic body / aorta} ;
reference to {ventilation / respiratory} centre ;
idea of control is in medulla ;
sends {more / eq} impulses along {neurones / nerves} ;
to intercostals muscles / diaphragm ;


Negative feedback -3.7.15
A negative feedback system is a system enabling the body to maintain a condition within a narrow
range. For example if one factor goes up, system instigates change to bring it back down again.
Change in normal level of a factor
Receptor detects change
Receptor sends a communication hormonally or via the nervous syste,
The effector carries out a response to bring about corrective change
Return to normal level of factor

Negative Feedback system in the heart -1
Baroreceptors are sensitive to pressure. They detect changes in pressure in the carotid
arteries.
An increase in blood pressure in the arteries stretches the baroreceptors
Baroreceptors send impulse to the cardiovascular centre
Cardiovascular centre sends impulses through the parasympathetic nerves to slow down the
heart rate and widens the blood vessels, thereby lowering the blood pressure

Negative feedback system in the heart -2
During exercise, adrenaline dilates the blood vessels causing the blood pressure to fall
The baroreceptors stop sending impulses
The cardiovascular centre detects this and sends impulses down the sympathetic nerve to
stimulate the heart and increase blood pressure.

Negative feedback system in the lungs
Chemoreceptors detect fall in pH of the blood
Impulse sent to respiratory centre
Respiratory centre sends impulse sent to diaphragm and intercostal muscles to contract
harder and more rapidly to increase breathing rate


Homeostasis etc. 3.7.16

Homeostasis
The maintaining of a constant internal environment

Importance of homeostasis
temperature / pH; optimum for enzymes / effect of pH /
temperature on enzyme activity;
OR
water potential / blood glucose;
effect of osmotic / blood glucose imbalance on cells;


How body returns to normal temperature if too high
thermoreceptors in hypothalamus / eq ;
detect the increase in (core) blood temperature /eq ;
reference to heat loss centre activated ;
reference to autonomic nervous system ;
reference to impulses down motor neurones ;
to {effectors / named effector} / eq ;
detail of method of heat loss / eq ;*

*vasodilation of blood vessels, sweat released, heat loss from blood
through radiation

If too low
hypothalamus (contains the thermoregulatory centre);
has receptors which detect temperature changes of blood;
receives impulses from receptors in skin;
nerve impulses transmitted (from hypothalamus / brain);
ref to heat gain centre activated ;
results in vasoconstriction / constriction of arterioles / dilation of shunt vessels;
diversion of blood to core / specified organ / less blood to skin;
muscular contraction /shivering generates heat via respiration;
release of thyroxine / adrenaline;
increase in metabolic rate / respiration;
correct reference to negative feedback mechanisms







The transcription factors

Thyroxine affects protein synthesis in a cell by binding to transcription factors in the nucleus
of a cell. The activated transcription factors bind to specific regions of DNA (genes), and
either increase or decrease the ability of RNA polymerase to attach to the DNA and catalyse
the production of a complementary strand of mRNA from that gene.
This may increase the transcription of a particular gene, called up-regulating, or it may
decrease transcription, called down-regulating. Most steroid hormones, such as oestrogen
and testosterone, act in this way.
Transcription factors may bind with a large number of different areas of DNA, so they can
switch many different genes on or off. Thyroxine, for example, is known to affect the
expression of at least 20 genes.

Anabolic steroids
Steroid hormone enters the cell and binds to receptor
Hormone receptor complex enters nucleus and acts as a transcription factor, switching a
gene linked to enzyme synthesis on or off
Synthetic forms of testosterone stimulate more protein synthesis, this leads to more muscle
being made


Erythropoietin
Peptide hormone binds to receptor in the cell surface membrane
Membrane bound complex triggers protein kinase cascade
Transcription factor moves into the nucleus of the cell and switches on a specific gene
resulting in the production of new proteins

Keyhole surgery etc. 3.7.19

Advantages
idea of smaller incision reduces chance of infection / eq ;
idea of smaller incision reduces recovery time ;
idea of smaller incision reduces likelihood of osteoarthritis / knee joint replacement later /
eq ;
idea of smaller incision so less scar tissue / eq ;
idea of smaller incision so less blood loss / eq ;
idea of smaller incision so less pain / eq ;
use of local anaesthetic means less (associated) risk / eq ;
idea of cheaper related to fewer staff needed ;

Surgery
A fibre optic tube with a small camera and light attached is used to look inside the joint
Small incisions are made around the joint to fit in small surgical instruments

Prosthetics
Damaged joints can be completely replaced
This frees patients from pain and restores mobility
Replacement joints wear out more quickly if you exercise a lot
For athletes, prosthetics are designed so they are able to give good performance. For
example, the dynamic prosthetic foot changes shape as the body weight presses down on it,
returning back to shape as it lifts off the ground.

Steroids 3.7.20

Disadvantages
{unfair / competitive} advantage ;
may damage athlete / thrombosis / heart attack / stroke / death ;
idea of unacceptable role model ;

Advantages of using erythropoietin
Can be used to treat anaemia
Improves performance of athletes as they are able to carry more oxygen



Disadvantages of using erythropoietin
Leads to serious health problems and death
Excess red blood cells thicken the blood and can lead to stroke and heart attacks.


Ethical issues
Agree:
can no longer compare weight-lifters/competition is no longer fair;
illegal;
uninformed decision taking;
possibility of death;
health risks;
Disagree:
individual has right to make own decision re health risks;
drug free sport is not fair anyway;
due to differences in training resources;
pressures from coach / sponsors / public;
financial rewards;































Plants and photoreceptors 4.4.2

Phytochromes are proteins that are sensitive to light with wavelengths between 600 nm and 800 nm
that is, red light. They exist in two forms, which are changed from one form to the other when
they absorb light. Phytochrome red, Pr, absorbs red light (wavelength about 660 nm) and is changed
to phytochrome far-red, Pfr, which absorbs far-red light (wavelength about 730 nm). This changes it
back to Pr.

Location
Leaves / seeds/ roots/ stems/ petioles/ flowers/ fruits/ shoots/ coleoptiles / buds ;

Conversion
(in dark) slow conversion in darkness (PFR) to PR ;
(Infar red light) fast conversion (PFR) to PR;
(in red light)fast conversion PFR to PR

Season/Weather
Daylight: More red light than far-red so more PR PFR than PFR PR
Many plants require PFR to germinate
Season doesnt matter

Short-day / long-day plants
Short-day plants need a lot of Pr in their tissues in order to flower
only happens when they have long, uninterrupted nights.
If white or red light is shone on them even very briefly during the night, they will not flower,
because this converts the Pr to Pfr.
Long-day plants need a lot of Pfr in their tissues in order to flower, which only happens when
they have short nights not long enough for all the Pfr to be converted to Pr.

Importance of plants adapting to changes in day length
idea of {flowering / development /eq} happens at the right time ;
therefore flowers when insects available / leaf fall in autumn / same species flower at the
same time / seeds germinate at the right time / eq ;
idea that day length changes to a set pattern e.g. always {short days in winter / long days in
summer} ;
comparison with other less regular stimuli e.g. temperature ;



Neurones etc. 4.4.3

Sensory vs relay vs motor neurone
sensory neurone {stimulated / eq} by {receptor / sense organ / eq} ;
sensory neurones carries {impulses / eq} to {relay / motor / CNS / eq} neurone / {relay /
motor / eq} neurones receive impulse from sensory neurone ;
relay neurone {synapses / connects / eq} with sensory and {motor neurones / lots of
neurones} /
idea of allowing coordination of reflex ;
motor neurone {carries impulse / stimulates / eq} {effector / muscle / gland / eq}

Longer, more detailed mark scheme of the above
Sensory
1. transmits {impulses / action potentials} from sense organ to CNS / eq ;
2. pseudo-unipolar cells / cell body in centre of {cell / axon} / single dendrite ;
3. myelinated ;

Relay
4. correct reference to (relay neurone transmitting impulses) {between sensory and motor neurone /
to other neurones} ;
5. short axons ;
6. no myelination / eq ;

Effector (motor)
7. transmits {impulses / action potentials} from CNS to {effector / named effector} / eq ;
8. multipolar cells / short dendrites / many dendrites from cell body / cell body at end of cell ;
9. long axon ;
10. myelinated ;

General
11. reference to {Schwann cells / nodes of Ranvier} ;
12. reference to myelin causing faster impulse / eq ;
13. reference to synapses (between neurones) ;
14. reference to secretion of {neurotransmitter / named
neurotransmitter} ;
15. credit structural detail of synapse e.g. mitochondria in presynaptic knob / receptor molecules on
postsynaptic membrane / sodium channels in postsynaptic membrane ;








Structure of myelin sheath
Schwann cells ;
Wrap / fold / roll, around axon ;
Fatty / lipid / phospholipid, nature ;
Reference to nodes as, gaps in the sheath, / naked /exposed / uncovered, axon ;




Myelination
1.{neurone (cell) surface membrane exposed / no myelination / eq} at nodes of Ranvier ;
2. Nodes are the site of clusters of {sodium-gated channel proteins / potassium channels} ;
3. Which {open / close} when impulse arrives / eq ;
4. Allowing depolarisation at nodes / eq ;
5. idea that myelin/eq acts as an (electrical) insulator (on neurone surface between nodes) ;
6. reference to Schwann cell ;
7. idea that impulse/depolarisation jumps to next node ;
8. Reference to this being saltatory conduction ;
9. idea that this happens between the myelin layers of the Schwann cell ;


Action potentials etc. 4.4.4

Events:
Before action potential

Stimulus
Sodium channels open making membrane more permeable
Sodium ions diffuse into neurone down electrochemical gradient
Inside of neurone less negative
Potential difference is -70mV

Depolarisation
Potential difference reaches threshold (around -55Mv)
More sodium channels open
More sodium ions diffuse

Repolarisation
Potential difference reaches +30Mv
The sodium channels close
Potassium ions channels open
Mebrane becomes more permeable to potassium
More potassium ions diffuse out of neurone down the electrochemical gradient
Membrane approaches resting potential

Hyperpolarisation
Potassium channels slow to close
Overshoot / to many potassium ions diffuse out of neurone
Potential difference becomes more negative than resting potential

Resting potential
active transport/pumping of sodium (ions across membrane);
out of neurone/higher concentration outside;
differential permeability to K+ and Na+;

Refractory period
no (new) action potential/nerve impulse be produced in this time;
impulse/action potential can only move in one direction
channels are recovering / Na+ closed at repolarisation & K+ closed during hyperpolarisation;

Role of nodes of ranvier
Gap in the myelin sheath /eq ;
Enables {depolarisation/action potential/eq} (of axon) ;
Causes impulse to jump from node to node / saltatory conduction ;
Speeds up (transmission of )impulse ;

Synapses 4.4.5



Synapses and synaptic transmission
(impulse causes) calcium ions/Ca++ to enter axon;
vesicles move to/fuse with (presynaptic) membrane;
acetylcholine (released);
(acetylcholine) diffuses across synaptic cleft/synapse;
binds with receptors on (postsynaptic) membrane; (reject active site disqualify point)
sodium ions/Na+ enter (postsynaptic) neurone;
depolarisation of (postsynaptic) membrane;
if above threshold nerve impulse/action potential produced;

A more advanced mark scheme
diffuses across {gap /eq} ;
binds to (receptors on) post-synaptic membrane / eq ;
idea of gated-channels opening or Na+ travels through post-synaptic membrane ;
causing a depolarisation / eq ;
(if sufficient present) an action potential is set up in {post-synaptic membrane/adjacent cell /
eq} ;
details such as temporal or spatial summation ;
idea that allows coordination / one way flow of information ;
idea that it allows integration in post-synaptic cell ;
neurotransmitter broken down (by enzyme) / eq ;
so that do not get {prolonged /eq} action potential in post-
synaptic membrane / make receptors available again ;
credit reference to fate of products e.g. reabsorbed through pre-synaptic membrane OR to
be re-synthesised into neurotransmitter substance

Role in nervous system
When one neurone connect to many neurones, information can be dispersed to different areas in
the body (synaptic divergence)
When many connect to one neurone the information can be amplify (synaptic convergence)

Summation
When a stimulus is weak, only a small bit of neurotransmitter is released. This may not be enough to
stimulate an action potential.

Spatial summation occurs when excitatory potentials from many different presynaptic neurons cause
the postsynaptic neuron to reach its threshold and fire.

Temporal summation occurs when a single presynaptic neuron fires many times in succession,
causing the postsynaptic neuron to reach its threshold and fire.

Rods, cones, etc. 4.4.6

Rod cells
In the dark Na+ flows into the outer segment through specific cation channels
Na+ move into inner segment and the pumps continue to transport them back out of the cell
Influx of Na+ produces a slight depolarisation of cell (to-40mV) which triggers the release of
an NT from the rod cells
The NT binds to the bipolar cell and stops it depolarizing


In the light rhodopsin absorbs light, changes shape & breaks down into retinal and opsin
Opsin causes a series of membrane bound reactions and ends in the hydrolysis of the
molecule attached to the cation channel in the outer segment.
This closes the cation(+ve) channel
The Na+ into the rod decreases and the inner segment continues to pump Na+ out
The inside of the cell becomes hyper polarised (more -ve)
the release of the glutamate NT stops
The bipolar cell depolarises
The neurones of the optic nerve are depolarised and this sets up the AP

The cone cells give information in colour. They are found in the fovea, whereas cones are found in
the peripheral parts of the retina.

Rods and cones in nocturnal mammal vs human
more rods and no / fewer cones present;
rods at the fovea / rods not mainly at periphery;
rods have high sensitivity / show retinal convergence /converse for cones;
rhodopsin bleached at low light intensities / iodopsin bleached;
at high light intensities


The contraction/dilation of pupils 4.4.7

Antagonistic muscles the pupil reflex
circular muscles contract (and radial muscles relax) to {constrict / eq} pupil ;
radial muscles contract (and circular muscles relax) to {dilate / eq} pupil ;
need for fine control of aperture to allow pupil to be reset to a different size / allow
changing
to take account of varying light intensity ;
(these) muscles can only shorten / eq ;
antagonistic muscles have opposite effects / eq ;
idea that contraction of one muscle set stretches the other ;

Pupil size / light
details of impulse e.g. depolarisation;
ref to light hitting photoreceptors / eq;
send impulses via bipolar cells;
to optic nerve;
ref to sensory neurone;
reference to {motor / eq} neurone connected to (radial) muscles ;
reference to contraction of radial muscle





#2
(light hits) photoreceptors (on the retina);
impulses pass to the brain ;
ref. to sensory neurone ;
ref. to innate / inborn / autonomic response ;
impulses along parasympathetic nerve ;
ref to motor neurone ;
circular muscles contract / radial muscles relax ;
pupil {contracts /constricts / becomes smaller} ;


Dim Light
Light falling on cones causes impulses to travel along neurones
Dim light means the frequency of action potentials decrease
This is detected by a control centre in the midbrain
Nerve impulses synapse with the sympathetic cranial nerve
The muscles in the iris are stimulated
The circular muscles relax and the radial muscles contract
Pupils are wider, increasing the amount of light entering the eye
This allows as much light as possible to fall on the rods and cones to maximise what you can see

Phototropism etc. 4.4.8

Hormonal vs nervous response
hormonal coordination is {chemical / via blood} whereas nervous coordination is electrical /
along axons ;
hormonal slow whereas nervous fast / eq ;
hormonal longer term action whereas nervous short term / eq ;
idea that hormone action is widespread whereas nervous action is localised ;

Phototropism
IAA is made in the growing point at the tip of the shoot and then moves down the shoot.
When blue-light receptors pick up unidirectional light, they make the IAA accumulate on the shady
side.
The IAA switches on genes for expansins, which make cell walls stretchy so the cells can get longer.
This makes the cells on the shady side get longer than the cells on the light side, so the shoot bends
towards the light.









Brain 4.4.9














The account of the location and functions of each of the following areas of the mammalian brain:
cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and medulla.


1. Receives information from sensory organs / reference to sensory input ;

2. Idea of {interpretation / coordination} of information ;

3. {Initiates / transmits} impulses (to effector) ;


Cerebral hemispheres / cerebrum

4. At the front of the brain / frontal lobes / fore brain ;

5. Reference to voluntary action ;

6. Reference to a named sense ;

7. Reference to {thought / learning / intelligence / memory / personality / emotion
/ speech / language} ;


Cerebellum

8. At the back of the brain / hind brain ;

9. Idea of (controls) {skeletal / muscular} movement ;

10. Reference to {modification of movement / named example e.g. talking} ;

11. Balance / posture / muscle tone ;


Medulla

12. At top of spinal cord / hind brain / below pons ;

13. Reference to involuntary action ;

14. Involved in homeostatic control / correct named example ;

16. Reference to {simple reflex centre / named example} ;

Brain scans 4.4.10

fMRI
idea that fMRI can allow brain activity to be seen in real time ;
idea that fMRI uses {radio waves / magnetic field} ;
increase supply of oxygenated blood in active areas / eq ;
that {reflects/does not absorb} fMRI signals / eq ;
idea of seen as a white area

CT scan
Thousands of tiny X-ray beams are passed through the area to be observed
The strength of the beam is reduced as it passes through tissue. Denser tissue reduces the strength
of the beam more.
The X-rays that make it through are detected and measured
The data is put into a computer to produce a cross-sectional image of a thin slice of the body
Occasionally, special dyes are injected into the blood to make areas X-ray opaque so they show up
more clearly
Positives: able to identify major structures in the brain; can identify bleeding in the brain
Downside: cant pick up fine structural details; images are frozen in time so cant detect changes in
brain with changing or other activities
Example: blood has lighter density from brain tissue; revelation of extent and location of bleeding;
work out damaged blood vessels and which affected

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Uses magnetic fields and radio waves
Hydrogen atoms are imaged as they have a strong MRI signal
The signals produced are used to produce an image by a computer.
Different tissues respond differently to the magnetic field due to the amount of water in the
structure.
Thin slices are imaged to produce 2D images. However, these can be put together to form 3D
images
Positives: Reduces risk of damage from X-rays; produces detailed images; can be used to diagnoses
brain injuries, strokes, tumours and infections of the brain or spine; enables doctors and scientists to
make links between structures in the brains and patterns of behaviour seen in their patients
Downside: Doesnt show how the brain works; noisy so can be distressing for the patient














4.4.11 to 4.4.13

Theres far too much information to put here and it essentially will be from the textbook. However,
here are a few mark schemes/basic notes.

How the study of animals has helped humans
all animals have common evolutionary origin / share genes / eq / OR human and mammal
brains are similar ;
{nervous system / neurones / synapses / neurotransmitters / eq} work in a similar way in all
animals ;
ref. to studies of {Aplysia / sea slug / chimpanzees (Kohler)} ;
details of {Aplysia / sea slug / chimpanzees (Kohler)} studies;
ref to limitations of animals in explaining learning in humans

Visual cortex
Axons grow from the retina to the thalamus and synapse with the neurons in the thalamus
in a particular arrangement.
The axons from the thalamus then grow towards the visual cortex in the occipital lobe. They
synapse onto the column cells of the visual cortex.
The adjacent columns of cells receive stimulation from the same area of the retina in the left
and right eye and the pattern repeats across the visual cortex.
Crowley and Katz injected labelled tracers into ferrets. They found the visual cortex forms
before the critical period for visual development. The column cells are also seen in new born
monkeys. Therefore the formation of the visual cortex must be genetically determined not
due to the environmental stimuli. There are postnatal periods when the NS needs specific
experiences to develop properly. These are critical windows or sensitive periods.

What happens during the critical window?
Visual stimulation is needed for the refinement of columns and the full development of the
visual cortex.
Each time a neurone fires into a target cell in the visual cortex, the synapses of the other
neurones sharing the target cell are weakened and release less NT If this competition
continues then only the synapses on axons receiving light stimulation will fire until
stimulations from the light deprived eye will be lost.
More neurones are produced than are required in the nervous system. In the retina 80% of
the original neurones are pruned and die.

There is a critical window for the development of the mature visual cortex
The eyes of new-born kittens and monkeys were sutured. The age at which the animals were
deprived of vision and the length of time the eye remained closed was varied
One eye of a kitten was sutured before its eyes opened. The open eye developed normally,
however, the kittens were blind in the closed eye; very few cells in the closed eye were firing
One eye of a four month old kitten that could see normally was sutured. There was no effect
on the vision of the sutured eye
Closing the eye of a kitten for a short period during the critical period for visual
development has as much effect as closing the eye from birth.
Similar results were achieved when monkeys were used.

Human Genome Project

What is it?
To map (human) chromosomes / to find where each gene is located on (human)
chromosomes ;
To determine base sequence ;
International project (about human genes) ;

Benefits of identifying people in tests to determine diseases
To warn people at risk to take precautions / make life-style changes ;
To plan medical provision (for the individual) ;
To determine NHS priorities / eq ;
To warn people when there is a risk that if they have children they may have genetic
disorders ;
Will make it easier to develop {ways of treating genetic deficiencies / gene therapy}

Ethical issues
May mean people put under (undue) pressure to {have abortions / not have children} ;
May lead to discrimination over {jobs / insurance premiums} ;
May lead to (other ethically questionable) developments such as designer babies / eugenics
/ immigration ;
{Stress / anxiety} knowing something might happen may cause psychological stress even if
it never happens in your life-time / people may not believe test is reliable / people may not
want to know ;
{Civil rights / personal freedom} who should decide who should have genetic tests? / who
decides who deserves very expensive treatment on the NHS? ;
Data protection issues who will have access to genetic information about individuals ; [this
marking point could be a development of marking point 2]


Serotonin etc.

Why L-dopa is used as a treatment
Dopamine cannot enter the brain/L-dopa can be converted to dopamine/L-dopa is
{easier/cheaper} to make/converse

Parkinsons
ref to non-functioning of synapses;
idea that {substantia nigra/basal ganglion/mid brain} cells not active;
idea that these release dopamine;
idea that neruones release dopamine in {cerebellum/motor cortex/parietal lobe}
ref to loss of motor function / muscle movement / eq;


Depression
The NT serotonin is secreted by cells in the brain stem, whose axons extend into the cortex,
cerebellum and spinal cord. This is a huge area of the brain.
A lack of serotonin leads to depression - feelings of sadness, anxiety, hopelessness, a loss of
interest in pleasurable activities, decreased energy levels, insomnia, thoughts of death.
The cause is multifactorial - several genes and environmental factors are involved eg stress.
The 5-HTT gene codes for a transporter protein that controls serotonin reuptake into the
presynaptic neurones. Those with the short version of 5-HTT are susceptible to depression if
an environment trigger occurs.
Other NTs may be involved and the lack of serotonin may be the cause OR the result of
depression. In depressed people there are fewer nerve impulses transmitted around the
brain. The pathways involved in in serotonin synthesis are often present in low
concentrations but the serotonin binding sites are more numerous than normal

Treating Depression
Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) inhibit the uptake of serotonin.This leaves
more serotonin in the synaptic cleft. Therefore, more impulses travel along the post synaptic
axon. This results in the relief of the symptoms
Tricylic antidepressants (TCAs) increase the levels of serotonin and noradrenalin in the brain.
Monoaminooxidase inhibitors inhibit the enzymes that break down serotonin

Developing new treatments for Parkinsons -- Gene Therapy
Results from the Human Genome Project help to develop gene therapies
Scientists are investigating inserting healthy genes into the affected cells
The two main approaches are: adding genes to prevent cells from dying; adding genes to
enhance dopamineproduction
The problems are that safety is of prime concern, so gene therapy like this is still years away







Habituation
Less calcium (ions) enter into neurone /fewer calcium channels open
Fewer neurotransmitter vesicles {move to/fuse with}
(presynaptic/neurone 1) membrane/less neurotransmitter released (into synaptic cleft)
Less neurotransmitter diffuses (across the synaptic cleft)
Less neurotransmitter binds to {receptor/sodium channel} on (postsynaptic/neurone 2)
membrane
Fewer sodium (ion) channels open/less sodium (ions) enter
Less membrane depolarisation/{fewer/no} action potentials initiated (in neurone 2)




Animal testing

For
Clinical trials stage 1 involves animals. Without animals we would be unable to discover new
drugs
Animal testing is better than nothing and does, in some cases avert potential loss of human
life
Animal testing is for the greater good
Machines like MRI were tested using animals
Animal testing has advanced our understanding of human physiology

Against
Computer simulations can be used in clinical trials
Animal physiology is different to human physiology. Therefore animal testing is unhelpful
Animals have rights too
Animals have no informed consent
Testing on animals when potential side effects are unknown is immoral
Animals cant tell you if they are suffering
Animals are often treated poorly in labs
Genetic modification

How to modify bacteria
{Restriction enzyme / endonuclease} to cut out (cellulose) {gene / section of DNA} (from
fungus) ;
Obtain plasmids from bacteria ;
Open plasmid using {same restriction enzyme / endonuclease} ;
Insert (cellulose) gene into plasmid ;
Reference to sticky ends ;
(Ends joined by) ligase ;
Insert plasmid into bacteria ;
Reference to method such as {electroporation / treatment with calcium chloride / electrical
shocking / salt shocking} ;

How to modify plants
1. Idea: transferring {gene / DNA} from another species to the rape plant ;
2. {identify / find / isolate} gene in the donor plant ;
3. Reference to cutting DNA / restriction enzymes ;
4. Splicing DNA / reference to sticky ends ;
5. insert {gene / DNA} into plasmid / ligase enzymes ;
6. Plasmid is a circle of DNA from bacteria ;
7. {The bacteria / Agrobacterium / a vector} is used to transfer the {gene /DNA} into the (rape) cells ;
8. Correct reference to antibiotic resistant marker gene ;
9. Correct reference to use if protoplasts allowing easier entry of vector

Benefits and risks of GM crops
positive:
less crops lost to insect damage/ diseases spread by insects;
can spray herbicide with no loss to crop/reduce competition from weeds;
more saleable product;
less use of insecticide;
possibly cheaper food; max 3
negative:
gene transfer to non-crop species;
consumer resistance to un-natural products;
transfer of genes into food chains/effect of food chains/examples;
creation of plague weeds/uneconomic plants;
excessive use of herbicides;
Reject disadvantages of selective breeding

How to identify the resistant gene
expose cells to the fungus/named example;
non-resistant ones die, resistant ones survive;
OR identify by adding marker gene/gene probe/(qualified) marker probe;
description of positive result e.g. radioactivity/fluorescence / complementary base pairing;
How to modify animal cells
The gene for protein is injected into the nucleus of a fertilised animal egg cell
Egg cell implanted into an adult animal cells it grows into a whole animal
So these contains a copy of the gene in every cells
The protein made from the gene is purified from milk of animal


Ways genes are inserted into host cell
Microinjection DNA injected into cell with a fine micropipette
Microprojectile DNA is shot into the cell at high speed carried on a minute gold, tungsten pellet
Virus Infects the cells with the desired gene
Liposome wrapping gene is wrapped in liposomes which fuse to membranes and

Ethical issues of GM crops
An issue about antibiotic resistance ;
Antibiotic markers could lead to antibiotic resistance in (human) {pathogens /microbes / bacteria} ;

May cause allergy;
Possible example of such an allergy / attempt to describe what is meant by an allergic response ;

Could make crop harmful to consumers ;
Reference to presence of possible toxic substances ;

May {affect / spread to} {other (non-GM) crops wild plants} ;
Pollen may spread to {non-GM / organic farms} / may transfer herbicide resistance to other
{weeds / wild plants} ;

Loss of genetic diversity / increased reliance on fewer and fewer strains ;
(Worlds human food supply) vulnerable to {climate / environmental} change /newly emerged
{disease / pathogen} of the crop plants ;

International biotech companies cannot be trusted ;
Could make developing world / the world in general too dependent on a small number of
suppliers / issues too complex for public to understand therefore easily misled ;

Inadequate testing of GM products ;
Until the recent concern many GM products were released onto the market untested / adequate
international protocols for testing do not exist ;

GM may have unforeseen {environmental I medical} consequences ;
Reference to the precautionary principle / (the risk may be small) but the dangers could be too
catastrophic to take the risk / when we find a problem it could be too late ;

{Ethical / religious} objections to tampering with nature / GM difficult to control / current research
might be harmless but where will it all lead? ;
Economic factors may force people to adopt GM to compete (even if they are opposed to it) / (in the
wrong hands) risks of promoting {biological warfare / eugenetics / designer babies}


























Experiment-based questions

Spirometer
idea of calibration for volume ;
idea of calibration for time ;
description of how to calculate tidal volume (from trace) / eq ;
idea that one peak = one breath ;
reference to breathing rate is number of peaks per minute ;
idea of standardised group of males and females e.g. same age, non-smokers ;
idea that traces taken at rest ;
reference to replicates ;
description of how to calculate the mean from the trace;





Rate of respiration
ref to {soda lime / potassium hydroxide} to absorb {CO2 / carbon dioxide} ;
ref to control and reasoning e.g. results only due to {woodlice / named organism} respiring ;
named example of control e.g. {beads / stones / eq} which have same mass ;
syringe set the fluid in the manometer to known level / eq ;
idea of time e.g. 30 minutes ;
ref to volume of air decreasing / woodlice/named organism consuming oxygen ;
idea that pressure reduced in in tube;
idea that the pressure will be reduced / liquid in manometer moves towards test tube;
distance moved by liquid in a given time is measured to calculate the volume of oxygen in by
the woodlice per minute;
ref to controls e.g. temperature ;


#2

reference to constant temperature ;
use of water bath / eq ;
reference to {suitable / stated / fixed time / eq} ;
Reference to measuring {volume / distance} ;
description of how to obtain volume ;
calculation of rate described / eq ;
reference to replicates ;
description of control e.g. no woodlice ;
idea of welfare of animals important ;
reference to {mass / eq} of woodlice ;







Habituation
1 Collect one giant African land snail, and place it on a clean, firm surface. Allow the snail
to get used to its new surroundings for a few minutes until it has fully emerged from its
shell.
2 Dampen a cotton wool bud with water.
3 Firmly touch the snail between the eye stalks with the dampened cotton wool bud and
immediately start the stopwatch. Measure the length of time between the touch and the
snail being fully emerged from its shell once again, with its eye stalks fully extended.
4 Repeat the procedure in step 3 for a total of 10 touches, timing how long the snail takes
to re-emerge each time.
5 Record your results in a suitable table.
6 Present your results in an appropriate graph